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Viewing 1 to 30 of 14280
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0457
Yixin Chen, Jeffrey Pfeiffer, Ken Simpson
This paper first presents a basic mean value engine plant model implemented in a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system. The plant model includes some basic engine parameters such as engine speed, manifold absolute pressure, etc., which are critical to both control algorithm integrity and default actions that result from improper signal performance (e.g., ECU shuts down due to corrupted signal(s)). The model is then improved to develop the HIL bench-based testing capabilities in the areas where a vehicle has traditionally been required. The on-board diagnostic monitor tests covered by SID $06 of SAE J1979 are selected as a case study. Specifically, for OBD exhaust gas sensor monitor testing purposes, the oxygen sensor model is developed to simulate normal or abnormal binary switching signals which might have asymmetric “lean to rich” and “rich to lean” transitions, or largely off maximum/minimum sensor voltages, etc.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0454
Matt Rings, Paul Phillips
The increase in the number of electronic control units (ECUs) in the modern vehicle, combined with increased software complexity and more distributed controls has led to an extreme testing challenge when it comes to the verification and validation of body-control ECUs. In general test engineers have to deal with more software configurations, more closed-loop interaction between ECUs, and more fault conditions than ever before. By adding Unified Diagnostic Services (UDS) over CAN to a Hardware-In-The-Loop (HIL) test system, Lear was able to increase test automation and provide wider test coverage by automating the ECU flashing process, adding diagnostic identifiers and trouble codes to their test scripts, and providing a quick and easy way to exercise ECU I/O. Lear chose to implement their HIL testers on the open PXI[1] hardware platform, utilizing National Instruments' VeriStand software framework.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0451
Florian Schmidt
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in modern cars contain actively reacting functionality, like autonomous steering or braking assistants. The demand for functional Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) testing of these systems contains the need to create realistic models of the car's surrounding. Generating high-resolution photorealistic 3D-graphics in real-time proved to be critical, but with modern graphics technology, “Visual Loop” test-systems can be built. Integrated into test processes and with automated test case generation, these testing tools can improve the performance and quality of functional verification and validation significantly.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0472
Oliver Scholz, Rolf Behrendt, Thomas Wenzel, Thomas Stocker, Jörg Müller
The inspection of steel welds is a requirement in many safety critical applications, with X-rays offering an excellent visual aid in quality monitoring of such parts. In order to penetrate the steel and the weld, high energy X-rays are usually required though, depending on the material's thickness and the length of material the X-ray beams must traverse. The high beam energies can seriously degrade the X-ray detectors' life expectancy and image quality, so in order to ensure consistent image quality traditional X-ray film has been used, in spite of its drawbacks regarding the ecological impact of the chemical process and the significant efforts involved if archives of the welds must be maintained. This paper presents an alternative solution to the traditional photochemical archival approach using a custom X-ray detector developed specifically for the inspection of welded seams.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1697
Jaroslaw Grochowicz, Karl-Heinz Wollenweber, Carlos Agudelo, Harald Abendroth
Modern project management including brake testing includes the exchange of reliable results from different sources and different locations. The ISO TC22/SWG2-Brake Lining Committee established a task force led by Ford Motor Co. to determine and analyze root causes for variability during dynamometer brake performance testing. The overall goal was to provide guidelines on how to reduce variability and how to improve correlation between dynamometer and vehicle test results. This collaborative accuracy study used the ISO 26867 Friction behavior assessment for automotive brake systems. Future efforts of the ISO task force will address NVH and vehicle-level tests. This paper corresponds to the first two phases of the project regarding performance brake dynamometer testing and presents results, findings and conclusions regarding repeatability (within-lab) and reproducibility (between-labs) from different laboratories and different brake dynamometers.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1701
Donald E. Yuhas, Earl Gesch, Takeshi Yamane, Carol Vorres, Jacek Remiasz
In this study several non-destructive test methods have been applied to as-manufactured automotive brake pads. The primary emphasis of our study is the formulation and development of ultrasonic methods where four independent velocity modes are measured on each pad. For two of the measurements, the ultrasound is propagated in-the-plane of the pad, while in two other measurements the ultrasound is propagated through-the-thickness (out-of-plane). Over 300 pads from five different manufacturers have been tested. In many cases, the ultrasonic data is compared with other testing methods including conventional compressibility tests, modal analysis, and hardness testing. In some cases, measurements have been made of several different batches of materials to test long term consistency of the material properties in the production environment. In other studies the production process has been deliberately altered to help establish specific cause and effect relationships.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1700
Christopher Thomas Griffen
Meeting specific bonded insulator attachment specifications depend on the type of bonding polymer selected as well as application conditions. These conditions include initial apply parameters (time, temperature and pressure), backing plate surface characteristics (surface material, flatness, finish) and strength properties that avoid cohesive, adhesive or mixed mode failures during operating life of the braking pad assembly. “T-pull” and “Lap Sheaf testing provide an overall quantitative method to determine tensile and shear load/deflection properties. They do not assess the three dimensional dynamic stress state of the bond during braking conditions which involve the influence of temperature, apply pressure, rotational inertial forces and cyclic frequency/strain rate effect. The operational factors which change the state of bond have an effect on damping performance and ability to control overall system noise.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1699
Richard W. Bono, Gail Stultz
Resonant Inspection is a non-destructive test technique that measures the structural dynamic signature of an article. By comparing the resulting footprint to expected signatures, anomalous outliers are sorted due to some inherent structural defect, improving quality and consistency of manufactured components. Brake components, such as rotors and drums, are designed with specific structural dynamic properties for desired NVH qualities. Resonant Inspection via the Resonant Acoustic Method (RAM-NDT) provides a proven economical technique with the capacity for accurate, reliable and high-throughput 100% online inspection.
2010-10-10
Technical Paper
2010-01-1698
Andreas Bender, Karl Haesler, Claus Thomas, Jaroslaw Grochowicz
Brake system development and testing is spread over vehicle manufacturers, system and component suppliers. Test equipment from different sources, even resulting from different technology generations, different data analysis and report tools - comprising different and sometimes undocumented algorithms - lead to a difficult exchange and analysis of test results and, at the same time, contributes to unwanted test variability. Other studies regarding the test variability brought up that only a unified and unambiguous data format will allow a meaningful and comparative evaluation of these data and only standardization will reveal the actual reasons of test variability. The text at hand illustrates that a substantial part of test variability is caused by a misinterpretation of data and/or by the application of different algorithms.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0231
YoungJae Jung, Yeongwoo Yoo
In recent years, many automotive companies have been striving to reduce costs and shorten new vehicle development cycle time. To develop a new vehicle costs a tremendous amount especially at the prototype phase. So currently vehicle simulation on the powertrain bench is an attractive alternative at the development phase to reduce the quantity of proto vehicles. This test method moves the test site from the road to the bench without the need for real chassis parts. This paper deals with the method and strategy for moving testing from road to bench, specifically emission and fuel economy test for vehicles equipped with manual transmission. To execute vehicle type tests on the bench requires correlation and simulation of many parameters - for example gear shifting, throttle position, clutch travel and related driver characteristics, temperature and driving road load resistance, etc.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0227
Sebastian Kunkel, Martin Werner, Georg Wachtmeister
This SAE Technical Paper gives a summary of the essential findings in the development and operation of a test engine dedicated to the measuring of the friction between the piston group and the liner. Firstly the fundamental demands on the high-precision and close to real engine operation friction measuring are laid out. Subsequently the basic engine, the measuring system based on the floating liner method including a gas balance device, as well as the implemented measuring technique are specified. Major influencing variables on the friction of the piston assembly and its interference variables are also summarized. Extensive information about the systematic and strategies for the test engine's operation startup are given in acknowledgement of influencing and interference variables. This strategy reduces the developmental and startup process of an engine dedicated to the measuring of piston group friction.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0225
Sam Scime
For decades, the industry standard for laboratory durability simulations has been based on reproducing quantified vehicle responses. That is, build a running vehicle, measure its responses over a variety of durability road surfaces and reproduce those responses in the laboratory for durability evaluation. To bring a vehicle to market quickly, the time between tightening the last bolt on a prototype test vehicle and starting the durability evaluation test must be minimized. A method to derive 4-Post simulator displacements without measuring or predicting vehicle responses is presented.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0180
Varun Ramakrishnan, Deepak Soundararaju, Kenneth Karbon, Pankaj Jha
This paper outlines a process to assess the aerodynamic performance of different vehicle exterior surfaces. The initial section of the paper summarizes the details of white-light scanning process that maps entire vehicle to points in Cartesian co-ordinate system which is followed by the conversion of scanned points to theme surface. The concept of point-cloud modeling is employed to generate a smooth theme surface from scanned points. Theme surfaces thus developed are stitched to under-body/under-hood (UB/UH) parts of the base vehicle and the numerical simulations were carried out to understand the aerodynamic efficiency of the surfaces generated. Specifics of surface/volume mesh generated, boundary conditions imposed and numerical scheme employed are discussed in detail. Flow field over vehicle exterior is thoroughly analyzed. A comparison study highlighting the effect of front grilles in unblocked condition along with air-dam on flow field has been provided.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0198
Masahiro Fujimoto, Atsushi Fujii, Nobuyuki Matsumiya
Since wear resistance and fatigue strength are key requirements for chassis components, induction hardening is widely used to apply compressive stress for controlling crack growth. Therefore, it is crucial that the influence of defects is examined with compressive residual stress applied to parts. In this report, the relationship between crack depth and compressive residual stress is evaluated using a cylindrical specimen and a torsional fatigue test. The test results were found to be consistent with CAE simulations performed in advance. In the future, it will be necessary to make this method applicable to product design to further improve vehicle safety performance.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0144
Kim R. Hansen, Jakob D. Dolriis, Christoffer Hansson, Claus S. Nielsen, Spencer C. Sorenson, Jesper Schramm
The paper describes the optimization of a 50 cc crankcase scavenged two-stroke diesel engine operating on dimethyl ether (DME). The optimization is primarily done with respect to engine efficiency. The underlying idea behind the work is that the low weight, low internal friction and low engine-out NOx of such an engine could make it ideal for future vehicles operating on second-generation biofuels. Data is presented for the performance and emissions at the current state of development of the engine. Brake efficiencies above 30% were obtained despite the small size of the engine. In addition, efficiencies near the maximum were found over a wide operating range of speeds and loads. Maximum bmep is 500 kPa. Results are shown for engine speeds ranging from 2000 to 5000 rpm and loads from idle to full load. At all speeds and loads NOx emissions are below 200 ppm and smokeless operation is achieved. Design improvements relative to an earlier prototype are described.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0158
Stephane Cyr, Kang-Duck Ih, Sang-Hyun Park
Aerodynamic simulation results are most of the time compared to wind tunnel results. It is too often simplistically believed that it suffice to take the CAD geometry of a car, prepare and run a CFD simulation to obtain results that should be comparable. With the industry requesting accuracies of a few drag counts when comparing CFD to wind tunnel results, a careful analysis of the element susceptible of creating a difference in the results is in order. In this project a detailed 1:4 scale model of the Hyundai Genesis was tested in the model wind tunnel of the FKFS. Five different underbody panel configurations of the car were tested going from a fully paneled car to a car without panels. The impact of the moving versus static ground was also tested, providing over all ten different experimental results for this car model.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0157
Daichi Katoh, Yoshimitsu Hashizume, Itsuhei Kohri, Michitosh Takagi
The aerodynamic performance of new vehicles is commonly determined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel tests. The final assessment is carried out by actual running tests. In particular, ideas regarding fuel consumption improvement that relate to components for the reduction of the coefficient of drag (CD) value are evaluated by coast-down tests. However, a difference often exists between the component's efficiency between wind tunnel tests and coast-down tests. Therefore, we focused on the efficiency of an air-dam spoiler in reducing CD values. A comparison was made between the aerodynamic effect of the air-dam spoiler in wind tunnel and coast-down tests in terms of the CD value and the wake structure behind the vehicle. To determine the relationship between the CD value and the wake structure behind the vehicle, we measured vehicle speed, wind velocity and direction, vehicle height, and pressure distribution on the back door.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0161
Tsuneaki Ishima, Yasushi Takahashi, Haruki Okado, Yasukazu Baba, Tomio Obokata
In CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) verification of vehicle aerodynamics, detailed velocity measurements are required. The conventional 2D-PIV (Two Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry) needs at least twice the number of operations to measure the three components of velocity ( u,v,w ), thus it is difficult to set up precise measurement positions. Furthermore, there are some areas where measurements are rendered impossible due to the relative position of the object and the optical system. That is why the acquisition of detailed velocity data around a vehicle has not yet been attained. In this study, a detailed velocity measurement was conducted using a 3D-PIV measurement system. The measurement target was a quarter scale SAE standard vehicle model. The wind tunnel system which was also designed for a quarter scale car model was utilized. It consisted of a moving belt and a boundary suction system.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0109
Flavio Cimolin, Michele Rabito, Andrea Menotti
A complete methodology for the thermo-mechanical analysis of optical devices for the automotive industry is presented. The objective is to predict the thermal field all over the lamp, highlighting the zones with risk of melting, and the deformations and stresses associated with it. The proposed approach is based on a Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulation capable of capturing all the heat transfer phenomena occurring inside and outside the lamp: conduction between different components of the device, natural convection associated with density changes in air (buoyancy effects), and radiation heat transfer. The latter requires a fairly complex modeling strategy in order to provide a satisfactory (and conservative) treatment for the source of power, i.e. the filament, which can be obtained by means of a proper inclusion of transparency.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0525
Byron Mason, M Ebrahimi
Due to the increasing complexity of modern systems, demands for a reduced time to market, lower costs and more rapid product evolution use is made of simulation methods in engineering development. An executable dynamic simulation model may be used to define a complex system from which engineers can observe system behavior and make decisions based on better quality information thus coordinating development efforts more effectively. This work presents two models, both real time capable; a test cell model and a vehicle and driver model with a well defined architecture that helps facilitate Simulation Based Development (SBD) efforts relating to powertrain and drivetrain development. The models are created with a well defined architecture (Flexible Architecture for Simulation Based Development) and run (simulated) through the NEDC and US06 drive cycles.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0484
Andrew Halfpenny, Mark Pompetzki
Proving grounds are an extremely efficient means of qualifying the durability of vehicle components. They accelerate damage accumulation rates so failures are detectable in a very short period of time. It is important that proving ground damage is correlated with target customer usage. It is also important to determine the most efficient use of the proving ground in order to meet project targets and minimize overall development costs. This paper describes the latest techniques for proving ground correlation and optimization. Acceleration, strain, wheel force and other types of data are collected on a vehicle as it traverses different proving ground surfaces. Comparable data are also collected from instrumented ‘customer’ vehicles. The objective of the analysis is to determine which mixture of proving ground surfaces offers the best representation of customer usage while minimizing the total test time.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0490
Sharvin Motamedi, John Dennis, Ted T. Stawiarski, A.K. Khosrovaneh, Li L. Sun, Mohamed El-Sayed
Large hood mounted plastic trim components are subjected to complex and often extreme loading conditions. Typical loading conditions include solar and thermal cycling, as well as road and powertrain induced vibrations, aero lift and buffeting, and mechanical loads such as car wash. For the above components understanding and classifying the typical loading conditions is an essential and important step in achieving long term quality. This paper discusses different approaches to the design, analysis, development, and testing of plastic trim components. Samples of analysis and test results are presented to demonstrate how to identify and prevent the loss of the part function. Some useful guidelines and practices for addressing thermal expansion, dimensional variation, and redundancy in attachments are also discussed.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0580
Joseph Kelly, Peter Broen, Jordan Silberling, Nenad Bozin, John Zellner
As Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies (ACATs) such as Forward Collision Warning (FCW), Crash Imminent Braking Systems and other advanced technologies continue to be developed, the need for full-scale test methodologies which can minimize hazards to test personnel and damage to equipment has rapidly increased. The challenge of evaluating such ACAT systems is twofold. First, the evaluation system must be able to deliver a potential Collision Partner (CP) reliably and precisely along a trajectory which would ultimately result in a crash in a variety of configurations, such as rear-ends, head-ons, crossing paths, and sideswipes. Second, and more importantly, the collision partner must not pose a substantial physical risk to the test driver, other test personnel, equipment, or to test vehicles in the event that the collision is not avoided.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0760
Oliver Fischer, Timo Kuthada, Edzard Mercker, Jochen Wiedemann, Bradley Duncan
Previous work by the authors showed the development of an aerodynamic CFD model using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for simulating vehicles inside the IVK Model-Scale Wind-Tunnel test-section. In both experiment and simulation, alternate configurations of the wind-tunnel geometry were studied to change the pressure distribution in the wind-tunnel test section, inducing a reduction in aerodynamic drag due to interference between the wind-tunnel geometry and the pressure on the surface of the vehicle. The wind-tunnel pressure distribution was modified by adding so-called “stagnation bodies” inside the collector to create blockage and to increase the pressure in the rear portion of the test section. The primary purpose of previous work was to provide a validated CFD approach for modeling wind-tunnel interference effects, so that these effects can be understood and accounted for when designing vehicles.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1963
Richard Kolano
This paper presents the design, construction, and implementation of a novel sound transmission loss (STL) testing fixture that is unique to the automotive industry. This fixture was built within a large 1.68 m high × 2.74 wide (5′6″ × 9′0″) opening in the wall between a 497 m3 (17,591 ft3) reverberation room and an adjacent anechoic chamber. The fixture was designed and built to accommodate interchangeable plugs that allow STL measurements on an automotive ‘buck’ as well as on flat sample materials. It features a removable sample holding frame system that simply and quickly clamps in place and acoustically seals with a pneumatically inflated seal.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1962
Robert Otto Rasmussen
Pavements complying with the ISO 10844 standard are an important component of vehicle and tire noise testing. In 2011, a new version of this standard was published, which includes many important changes compared to the 1994 version. As a result, some tracks that complied with the 1994 standard are now nonconforming with the 2011 version. Many tracks are in the process of being resurfaced, particularly before regulations are adopted that require conformance with the new version of the standard. While repaving is costly, it can also lead to opportunity. Pavement engineering encompasses pavement design, materials selection and proportioning, and the selection of construction techniques. Pavement life is also an important engineering criterion. In the case of test tracks, life is most often defined by functional performance including changes in friction, rolling resistance, ride, and in this instance, noise.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1960
Richard Kolano, Sanjay Abhyankar, Thomas Martin
This paper presents the upgrades and improvements needed to bring an old and seldom used reverberation room test suite up to current standards. The upgrades and improvements included eliminating a below-floor pit that was open to the reverberation room, improving the acoustical diffusion within the room, enlarging the opening between the reverberation room and an adjacent anechoic chamber, renovating the anechoic receiving chamber, constructing an innovative sound transmission loss test fixture, and installing of a high power reverberation room sound system.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1959
Filip Nauwelaerts, David Moens, Kristof Harri
When qualifying prototype samples in terms of vibration response and dynamic characteristics, an accredited laboratory is required to implement monitoring procedures to assure the validity of the test results. According to ISO17025, such monitoring may include inter-laboratory comparison or proficiency testing. This paper presents a mechanical structure which has been designed specifically to be used as a generic reference sample during such a comparative study in which resonant frequencies of a structure need to be quantified. This paper elaborates on the analysis and design issues, which encompass theoretical analysis, both purely mathematical and by FEM (Finite Element Modeling). In addition, to allow statistical analysis of test data resulting from measurements performed by different test laboratories, the uncertainty budget [1] of the reference value of this sample is determined.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1972
Claudio Bertolini, Tommy Falk
The use of small reverberation rooms for the measurement of the Diffuse Field Absorption Coefficient (DFAC) is common practice in the automotive industry. Such practice brings with itself a few issues, related to the limited size of the measurement environment. Some of these issues (e.g. measurements’ repeatability and reproducibility) have already been thoroughly investigated in articles published at past SAE NV Conferences. This paper intends to focus on some other “minor” aspects related to the measurement of DFAC in small reverberation rooms that so far have received little attention but that can, anyhow, have a non-negligible influence on the measurement results, in particular when they have to be compared to target curves.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1971
Giovanni Rinaldi, Gabriella Cerrato
The role of NVH test development has changed from addressing a system-level NV concern late in the design cycle (firefighting) to having well established NV optimized test procedures in place. One way this is achieved is by leveraging the information gained during troubleshooting of current product to improve the future product development process for noise and vibration. Today, most NV groups/laboratories use optimized test procedures for creating accurate, consistent, and efficient test results. This still requires expertise to post-process data, compute targets and interpret results to guide product development. This step is often overlooked and, in recent years, due to the lack of NV expertise of “younger” labs (typically in non-automotive industries) or of more established labs affected by the economic downturn (early retirements, lay-offs, especially in the automotive industry) there has been a growing need for automated post-processing “intelligent” procedures.
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