Viewing 1 to 30 of 255
Journal Article
Gergis W. William, Samir Shoukry, Jacky Prucz, Thomas Evans
This paper presents 3D finite element analysis performed for a composite cylindrical tank made of 6061-aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers subjected to a burst internal pressure of 1610 bars. As the service pressure expected in these tanks is 700 bars, a factor of safety of 2.3 is kept the same for all designs. The optimal design configuration of such high pressure storage tanks includes an inner liner used as a gas permeation barrier, geometrically optimized domes, inlet/outlet valves with minimum stress concentrations, and directionally tailored exterior reinforcement for high strength and stiffness. Filament winding of pressure vessels made of fiber composite materials is the most efficient manufacturing method for such high pressure hydrogen storage tanks. The complexity of the filament winding process in the dome region is characterized by continually changing the fiber orientation angle and the local thickness of the wall.
Journal Article
Kil Won Song, David Roehrich, Rani El-Hajjar
Fillet and plug weld are commonly used in structural applications in commercial heavy vehicles. This paper is primarily concerned with an investigation of the full field deformations fields in fillet and plug welds using three dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC). Two identical vehicle parts are constructed using a fillet weld for one specimen, and a plug weld for the other. The specimens are loaded under quasi-static conditions with simultaneous measurement of load, displacements and strain gage measurements. Strain gage locations are selected based on the results of a finite element analysis model. 3D-DIC measurements are constructed using a two camera setup. Thus, 3D-DIC measurements are compared to strain gage measurements and finite element predictions. The effectiveness of the non-contact full field method is evaluated for application to studying the weld details considered and potential for fatigue damage and durability.
Technical Paper
Michael Temkin, David Santi, Lawrence Black, James Tindall
During the initial vehicle design phase and as the first prototypes are built, extensive on-board instrumentation and data acquisition is required at the proving grounds (PG). The data is used for various types of testing and analysis. During this phase of development very few parts and assembly components are available for physical test. The objective is to develop a component test for the truck box. This test can be run without suspension parts during the early stages of the vehicle development. A further objective is to correlate the test to FEA models and actual Proving Ground full vehicle test results.
Technical Paper
Prasad Mangalaramanan, Dennis Dauber
Traditional methods often lead to truck component designs that are overly conservative. The ever-increasing need to reduce operational costs demands innovative means for producing parts that are light, durable and capable of carrying more loads. This paper discusses the far-reaching advantages of shape-optimization, beyond the fundamental stipulation of weight reduction. A suspension link is considered to demonstrate the benefits of an optimally shaped component.
Technical Paper
Murali M. R. Krishna, Jun Yoshioka, Manish Sharma
A web based software program has been developed to do a Finite Element (FE) analysis of a simplified driveline system. In the past, an expert analyst had to make a Finite Element Model, analyze and then report results. It has been observed that this process is time consuming besides the difficulties of doing quick parametric studies, geographical location of designers, analysts, etc. The web-based software program aims to solve these issues. The designer could get analytical & Finite element results anywhere around the world (where the designer has access to the web) without any expertise in FE modeling. This software is a joint effort of Engineering and Information Technology (IT) software groups. It is based on Active Server Page (ASP) technology and MSC/NASTRAN technologies combined. Input data deck is prepared from user inputs and submitted over the internet to a remote system, solved and results are retrieved and plots shown in minutes, instead of days earlier.
Technical Paper
Caner Demirdogen, Jim Ridge, Paul Pollock, Scott Anderson
Design of suspension systems for Heavy Trucks is always challenging due to the heavy loads the system is exposed to and the long life requirements for the total system. Historical solutions were over designed structures to get the needed life and reliability. This always meant heavier parts. In today's economy, the vehicle weight of commercial heavy trucks is a very important feature for our customers and the end user. Lighter, well-designed suspension components provide better ride quality to the drivers through lower un-sprung weight, lower initial costs and greater payloads. The latest available structural optimization techniques are a business requirement for tomorrow's products. This paper describes the developed methodology used by DANA Engineers to design a weight optimized upper control arm for Commercial Heavy Trucks in step by step fashion. The method starts with determining the loads on the component part.
Technical Paper
Ivan Lima, Geraldo Minoru Kato, Juan Carlos Parrilla
The growing competition of the automotive market makes more and more necessary the reduction of development time and consequently, the increase of the capacity to quickly respond to the launching of the competitors. One of the most costly phases on the vehicle development process is the field durability test, both in function of the number of prototypes employed and the time needed to its execution. More and more diffused, the fatigue life prediction methods have played an important part in the durability analysis via CAE. Nevertheless, in order they can be reliable and really being able to reduce the development time and cost, they need to be provided with load cases that can accurately represent the field durability tests. This work presents a CAE approach used for light trucks in order to get a reasonable understanding of component durability behavior due to payload increase. In general, road load data is not available for a new payload condition.
Technical Paper
Wiliam Tean Su
In the past few years, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has become an almost essential engineering tool in product development. In addition to that, structural optimization, which is almost as old as the finite element method, is a widely used tool in engineering product design definition. One vastly used method is the shape optimization, which has as an objective the minimization of stress concentration on determined regions. In this work, a 6 cylinder diesel engine crankshaft was analyzed and a structural optimization was performed, more specifically at the web region. The interpretation of the shape optimization results led to a slightly modified geometry of the crankshaft, with the mass of the crankshaft throw only 0.5% higher than the original model. Also, the fatigue safety factor evaluation was performed for both reference and optimized crankshafts as a comparison criterion. The same boundary condition used in the shape optimization was employed for the fatigue factor evaluation.
Technical Paper
Gergis William, Mark S. Shoukry, Jacky C. Prucz
Gasoline-powered vehicles compose the vast majority of all light-duty vehicles in the United States. Improving fuel economy is currently a topic of great interest due to the rapid rise in gasoline costs as well as new fuel-economy and greenhouse-gas emissions standards. The Chevrolet Silverado is currently one of the top selling trucks in the U.S. and has been previously modeled using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA by the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC). This state-of the art model was employed to examine alternative weight saving configurations using material alternatives and replacement of traditional steel with composite panels. Detailed mass distribution analysis demonstrated the chassis assembly to be an ideal candidate for weight reduction and was redesigned using Aluminum 7075-T6 Alloy and Magnesium Alloy HM41A-F.
Technical Paper
Khalil Dilawar Nadaf, Milind V. Kulkarni, Vijay M. Mahangade, Dr.(Prof.) S. G. Joshi
The conventional methods of connecting rod design consider the centre of gravity (CG) position at 2/3rd distance from connecting rod small end. The connecting rod CG position decides the reciprocating and rotating mass distribution. The reciprocating force impacts inertia stresses at the connecting rod small end while rotating force impacts the inertial stresses, minimum oil film thickness (MOFT) and peak oil film pressure (POFP) at the connecting rod big end. This paper work has analyzed connecting rod design in view of three probable causes of CG position variation as due to dimensional changes to sustain higher loading, manufacturing process variation and high speed of turbocharged (TC) engine. Total nine load cases have been considered for study of these causes. As well, CG variation impact is analyzed at big end bearings for MOFT and POFP.
Technical Paper
Zhi-yong Chen, Guang-ming Wu, Wen-ku Shi, Qing-guo Wang, Teng Teng
Hyperelastic model constants of rubber material are predicted based on test date. The fluid-structure interaction model of light vehicle cab's hydraulic mount is established. Static characteristics of the hydraulic mount are analyzed by quasi-static method. In dynamic characteristics analysis, the flow model of fluid is set to turbulent K-Epsilon RNG. The dynamic stiffness and loss angle of the hydraulic mount are presented via the finite element model. The simulations of static and dynamic characteristics agree well with corresponding test results. The effects of main structure parameters to the dynamic characteristics of the hydraulic mount are analyzed based on the finite element model.
Technical Paper
L. C. Ferraro, M. A. Fogaça, M. Ururahy, M. A. Argentino, A. Costa Neto, T. Adelmann, O.T. Perseguim
1 ABSTRACT The present work describes the modeling and analysis processes of a medium sized truck manufactured in Brazil with regard to comfort behavior. The vehicle model includes Hotchkiss suspensions front and rear with shackle and with a double stage with bump stops at the rear. It is also included frame flexibility in ADAMS, the frame characteristics were imported from a Finite Element Analysis model. Nonlinear shock absorber curves are also represented for the vehicle and cab suspensions. Viscoelastic bushings for cab and powertrain suspension are also included. Random track profile is generated as input and vehicle comfort is described in terms of the ISO 2631-85 Standard. The effect on vehicle comfort of changing a design parameter can be predicted in the model and verified experimentally.
Technical Paper
Amit Pingle, Venkateswara Reddy, Sameer Jog, Anand Raj, Subrahmanyam Chiramana
Weight reduction in construction equipment is sought to achieve energy conservation and also to comply with the vehicle safety and compliance regulations, managing the weight distribution across the rear and the front end of the equipment to achieve the optimum balancing. Of late the thrust on product weight has increased along with reduced time to market, leading to increased usage of structural optimization methods. This has been further supported by the availability of high performance computing at relatively low cost. VOC and CTQ tools provided the motivation and initial screening of the design variables. The structural optimization software provides an integrated platform for analysis as well as optimization of components. In this work, an optimization tool has been used for size and shape optimization of a construction equipment assembly and a commercial FEA package was used for verification and validation of the results.
Technical Paper
Helio Kitagawa, Thiago B. Negretti, Juliana P. da Silva, Karina C. Malavazi
This paper presents a technique that reconstructs the geometry, using a known surface finite element mesh, starting from a finite element mesh previously modified by the structural optimization process. It is intended, through the geometry generated by the routine, to make it compatible with the CAD system, presenting sufficient results to reduce or even eliminate the reconstruction of the geometry, usually required by means of a CAE preprocessor.
Technical Paper
Thiago Barao Negretti, Helio Kitagawa, Antonio Augusto Couto, Carlos Miletovic, Alex Petruk
The study is carried out through numerical and experimental methods. The finite element method is used to simulate the support mechanical behavior via modal analysis, and for the evaluation of stress concentration regions through pressure and thermoelastic static analyses, and dynamic analysis. The fatigue life is calculated for the presented stresses. Stress, acceleration and temperature data were obtained through dynamic test. For material evaluation, chemical analysis, hardness and metallographic analysis were carried out. For thoroughness, a failed support fractography will be presented. The objective of this study is to correlate the data obtained by numerical method with experimental data, and as a result, the support failure mechanism was identified. A modified support is presented to avoid the failure for the determined loads. The support within the proposed modifications reduces the current maximum stress in 41% and improved the fatigue life in 4.99e5 cycles.
Technical Paper
Sittikorn Lapapong, Narong Pitaksapsin, Sedthawatt Sucharitpwatkul, Tanakorn Tantanawat, Rattanasuda Naewngerndee, Anek Phuchamnong
The strength of the superstructure of a bus is very critical to the safety of passengers, both in normal operation and in the event of accident. During the normal operation, the structure of the bus is subjected to several loads, which may be induced by its inertia during vehicle maneuvering (i.e. braking and cornering) or by external loads from the road (i.e. crossing over a speed bump). Moreover, there is a substantial possibility that these loads may lead to a structural failure. Hence, it is necessary to determine stresses occurred in the bus's superstructure to ensure its integrity under these driving scenarios. This paper presents techniques implemented to analyze stresses on the superstructure of a newly designed 15-meter long bus subjected to loads previously mentioned using Finite Element Method (FEM). The stress analysis technique used in each scenario is selected based upon the frequency intensity of load excitations and the dynamic responses of the structure.
Technical Paper
Shinji Fujii, Takayuki Sunakawa, Akiko Abe, Masanobu Fukushima, Kenji Kawaguchi, Shigeru Ogawa
This paper clarifies aggressivity reduction approach for MPV, Multi-Purpose Vehicles, derived from large passenger vehicles toward small passenger vehicles. The effects of aggressivity-reducing approach were measured through full-frontal rigid barrier crash simulations with TRL aluminum honeycomb by Finite Element Method. The front-end structures of large vehicles studied in this paper based on this aggressivity reduction approach show good front-end homogeneity and low average height of force. The structures were also found to effectively reduce aggressivity toward small vehicles by car-to-car simulation. However, there are some cases where the effect was influenced by overlap ratios. From this result, overlap ratio is considered to be one of the important factors to improve compatibility performance.
Technical Paper
Federico Ballo, Roberto Frizzi, Gianpiero Mastinu, Donato Mastroberti, Giorgio Previati, Claudio Sorlini
Abstract In this paper the lightweight design and construction of road vehicle aluminum wheels is dealt with, referring particularly to safety. Dedicated experimental tests aimed at assessing the fatigue life behavior of aluminum alloy A356 - T6 have been performed. Cylindrical specimens have been extracted from three different locations in the wheel. Fully reversed strain-controlled and load-controlled fatigue tests have been performed and the stress/strain-life curves on the three areas of the wheel have been computed and compared. The constant amplitude rotary bending fatigue test of the wheel has been simulated by means of Finite Element method. The FE model has been validated by measuring the strain at several points of the wheel during the actual test. From the FE model, the stress tensor time history on the whole wheel over a loading cycle has been extracted.
Technical Paper
Jixiu Zhang, Shuming Chen, Dengfeng Wang
Abstract In order to predict the interior noise of a commercial vehicle cab, a finite element model of a heavy commercial vehicle cab was established. An acoustic-structure coupling model of the cab was built based on experimentally validated structure model and acoustic model of a commercial vehicle cab. Moreover, based on the platform of Virtual. Lab, the acoustic field modes of the acoustic model of the commercial vehicle cab and the coupled modes of the acoustic-structure coupling model were analyzed by using the acoustic-structure coupling analysis technique. The excitation of the vehicle cab was tested at an average speed on an asphalt road. Then, the interior noise of the heavy commercial vehicle cab was predicted based on FEM-FEM method and FEM-BEM method with all the parameters and excitation. Furthermore, the predicted interior noise of the commercial vehicle cab was compared with the tested interior noise.
Journal Article
Derek Jones, James Gaewsky, Ashley Weaver, Joel Stitzel
Abstract Computational finite element (FE) modeling of real world motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) is valuable for analyzing crash-induced injury patterns and mechanisms. Due to unavailability of detailed modern FE vehicle models, a simplified vehicle model (SVM) based on laser scans of fourteen modern vehicle interiors was used. A crash reconstruction algorithm was developed to semi-automatically tune the properties of the SVM to a particular vehicle make and model, and subsequently reconstruct a real world MVC using the tuned SVM. The required algorithm inputs are anthropomorphic test device position data, deceleration crash pulses from a specific New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test, and vehicle interior property ranges. A series of automated geometric transformations and five LSDyna positioning simulations were performed to match the FE Hybrid III’s (HIII) position within the SVM to reported data. Once positioned, a baseline simulation using the crash test pulse was created.
Technical Paper
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza
Abstract The characteristics of the intake system affect both engine power output and gas-dynamic noise emissions. The latter is particularly true in downsized VVA engines, where a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves is realized, due to the intake line de-throttling at part-load. For this engine architecture, a refined air-box design is hence requested. In this work, the Transmission Loss (TL) of the intake air-box of a commercial VVA engine is numerically computed through a 3D FEM approach. Results are compared with experimental data, showing a very good correlation. The validated model is then coupled to an external optimizer (ModeFRONTIERTM) to increase the TL parameter in a prefixed frequency range. The improvement of the acoustic attenuation is attained through a shape deformation of the inner structure of the base device, taking into account constraints related to the device installation inside the engine bay.
Technical Paper
T Sukumar, Murugan Subramanian, Sathish Kumar Subramaniyan, Nandakumar Subramanian
Abstract Reliable sealing solutions are extremely important in commercial vehicle industry because sealing failures can cause vehicle breakdown, damage of equipment or even accident, incurring expenses that are substantially higher than the costs of just replacing the damaged seals. Consequently, new seal designs must be experimentally verified and validated before they can be implemented. In this study, Mooney - Rivlin hyper elastic material model is used to simulate the sealing behavior during dynamic conditions. The seal under study is a large diameter lip seal made of Neoprene® rubber (NBR) A finite element model to study the response of the seal under dynamic conditions was developed. The analysis took into account the mating parts dimensions and the lip seal parameters. Three designs were proposed and verified. The seal design is optimized using non-linear FEA and validated. Results include contact pressure, deflection and strain experienced by the seal during actuation.
Technical Paper
Yadong Deng, Yulian Chen, Long Xie, Meng Xu
Abstract A key problem of designing a light off-road vehicle with separate frame construction is to improve its torsional characteristic, which has a significant influence on the performance of the vehicle. Inevitably, a certain distortion of the body would be produced by the vibration and impact passing from the road. In present research, an analysis model of light off-road vehicle is established based on the theories and methods of finite element (FEM). The static stiffness of the body is simulated and the deformation of openings on the body, mainly the windows and the doors of the vehicle is studied. On the working conditions of torsion and braking combination, torsion and cornering combination, diagonal dangling, ultimate torsion of unilateral wheels and diagonal wheels, the static strength of separate frame construction is studied as well. The stress concentration regions are obtained according to the results of simulation.
Technical Paper
Sanjay Chaudhuri, Vikram Saini
Abstract Special purpose, high payload carrying capacity, live gooseneck, multi axles, hydraulic suspension semi trailer is abinitio designed for transportation and tilting of heavy cargo from horizontal to vertical by hydraulically actuated mechanism integrated on the trailer. The chassis is levelled on hydraulic jacks followed by tilting of cargo. Hence the chassis experiences variable forces during tilting and estimated from kinematic model of tilting mechanism. These forces are input for finite element based structural design of chassis. Structural deflection of a step is made as initial condition for certain load cases of the analysis. Live gooseneck of this semi-trailer consists of hydraulically actuated mechanism, interconnected with multiple hydraulic suspensions in appropriate ratios. Estimation of Axles and fifth wheel force distributions of such trailer is complex. Mathematical modelling made to estimate these forces and applied as inputs for finite element analysis.
Technical Paper
Carlos Abílio Passos Travaglia, Adan Araujo Rodrigues, Luiz Carlos Rolim Lopes
Abstract In engineering development, simulation methods are frequently used to perform thermal and mechanical stress components analysis. In brake systems, where the components are exposed to mechanical and thermal loads, the numerical analysis is very helpful. Once a numerical model for brake assembly is available, it will be possible to understand the effects of successive brake applications on the temperature distribution in drum brake's friction materials. This is a fundamental aspect to determine, for instance, the thermal stress distribution which is related to the warming and cooling of the brakes. In this work, an analytical solution to calculate stabilized temperature was used to establish a heat flux through a pneumatic S cam drum brake's friction material applied to a numerical model in a finite element analysis.
Technical Paper
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep Sharma, Umashanker Gupta, Ravi Joshi, Shailesh Pawar
Abstract Buses are always one of the main and favorite sources of public transit. Thousands of people die or injure every year in bus accidents. Bus seat can also cause severe injury to the occupants in case of frontal impact. Seat structure of the bus should absorb sufficient energy to minimize the passenger injury. Most of the occupants seated in the second row or further back were injured by hitting the seat back in the row in front of them. In India, AIS023 (Automotive Industry Standards) is one of the several mandatory standards from CMVR (Central Motor Vehicles Rules) to ensure the seat strength and occupant safety during accidents. This standard specifies minimum and maximum deformations range for the seat back to minimize the passenger injury with adequate seat strength. Present study includes the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and correlation of bus seat as per AIS023 test setup with LS-Dyna explicit tool. Reasonable correlation was found between test and simulation results.
Technical Paper
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep Sharma, Sanjay Tiwari, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract The safety of the heavy duty commercial vehicle (HCV) occupants in an accident is an imperative task and should be considered during the design and development of cabins. The sufficient cabin survival space must be remained after the accident. The main aim of this study is to develop a Finite Element (FE) model of HCV cabin and validate to the test as per AIS029. The present study also includes the assessment of the energy absorption capabilities of the HCV cab during the pendulum impact test. Initially a detailed 3D FE model of a fully suspended HCV cabin was developed and then pendulum impact test simulation was carried out using LS-Dyna explicit solver. Simulation results were compared with the test results and were found in a great agreement in terms of survival space and overall deformation behavior. The load transfer path was described at the time of pendulum impact. The largest amount of impact energy was absorbed by the frontal region of the cabin.
Journal Article
Geethanjali Gadamchetty, Abhijeet Pandey, Majnoo Gawture
The three parameter Ramberg-Osgood (RO) method finds popular usage for extracting complete stress-strain curve from limited data which is usually available. The currently popular practice of assuming the plasticity to set in only at the Yield point provides computational advantage by separating the complete nonlinear curve, obtained from RO method, into elastic and plastic regions. It is shown, with an example problem, that serious errors are committed by using this method if one compares the obtained results with results of complete stress-strain curve. In the present work we propose a simple Taylor series based approach based on RO method to overcome the above deficiency. This method is found to be computationally efficient. The proposed method is applicable for stress-strain curves of materials for which RO method provides a good approximation.
Technical Paper
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Kamal Rohilla, Gaurav Paliwal, Naveen Sukumar, Naveen Pratap Tripathi
Abstract Three on the tree, four on the floor. The gear change mechanism is a component that is too often taken for granted but it is one of the more important features of the vehicle. It must be quick and smooth in action, efficient and totally reliable. Modern driving conditions demand that the driver makes frequent gear changes and a mechanism that is temperamental or inaccurate can be both frustrating and dangerous as well as physically tiring. The gear changing mechanism starts, quite obviously, with the gear lever. Most stem from the fact that a gear lever must move in two planes, forward and back and then from side to side to move across the gear "gate". A good many drivers think of gear changing as one simple action. This is more a tribute to the design of gear changing mechanisms than a reality. There are multiple gear selector mechanisms that are available for use in commercial vehicle industry.
Technical Paper
Yoshimune Mori, Akifumi Yoshimura, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Akihito Ito, Atsushi Fujimoto, Zenzo Yamaguchi, Koichi Honke
Abstract In a typical mechanical product such as an automobile or construction machinery, it is important to identify deformation modes, for which experiments and analyses can result in significant improvements. It is also important to consider how to improve the structure with high rigidity by using a technique such as the strain energy method in conventional design and development. However, the abovementioned method often generates conflicting results with regard to weight saving and cost reduction of development requirements. Transfer path analysis (TPA) using the finite element method (FEM) is an effective way to reduce noise and vibration in the automobile with respect to these issues. TPA can reveal the transfer path from the input to the response of the output point and the contribution of the path, and to efficiently consider improved responses.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 255


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