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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3071
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2104
Ulf Aronsson, Clément Chartier, Öivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson, Johan Sjöholm, Rikard Wellander, Mattias Richter, Marcus Alden, Paul C. Miles
The soot distribution as function of ambient O₂ mole fraction in a heavy-duty diesel engine was investigated at low load (6 bar IMEP) with laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural luminosity. A Multi-YAG laser system was utilized to create time-resolved LII using 8 laser pulses with a spacing of one CAD with detection on an 8-chip framing camera. It is well known that the engine-out smoke level increases with decreasing oxygen fraction up to a certain level where it starts to decrease again. For the studied case the peak occurred at an O₂ fraction of 11.4%. When the oxygen fraction was decreased successively from 21% to 9%, the initial soot formation moved downstream in the jet. At the lower oxygen fractions, below 12%, no soot was formed until after the wall interaction. At oxygen fractions below 11% the first evidence of soot is in the recirculation zone between two adjacent jets.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2011
Carsten John
Geometric product representations are of gaining importance in product manufacturing industries. Several case studies yield that the utilization of three-dimensional digital product data in the product development chain has given many manufacturing companies a big advantage in business competition. The field of application for 3D technology is versatile and its further implementation still proceeds along product delivery processes. Leveraging 3D graphics in service information creation processes like the creation of manual illustrations or service instruction imagery is currently a big topic at many companies. E. g. the utilization of animated 3D product representations for explanation of service tasks becomes possible due to the recent advances in computer hardware more and more popular.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0269
Adam Bryant, Joseph Beno, Damon Weeks
Battlefield reconnaissance is an integral part of today's integrated battlefield management system. Current reconnaissance technology typically requires land based vehicle systems to observe while stationary or, at best, significantly limits travel speeds while collecting data. By combining current Canadian Light Armored Vehicle based reconnaissance systems with the Center for Electromechanics (CEM) electronically controlled active Electromechanical Suspension System (EMS), opportunities exist to substantially increase cross-country speeds at which useful reconnaissance data may be collected. This report documents a study performed by The University of Texas Center for Electromechanics with funding from L3-ES to use existing modeling and simulation tools to explore potential benefits provided by EMS for reconnaissance on the move.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0090
Wei Liu, Wenku Shi Sr
In this paper, a Magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid semi-active suspension system was tested on a commercial vehicle, a domestic light bus, to determine the performance improvements compared to passive suspensions. MR fluid is a material that responds to an applied magnetic field with a significant change in its rheological behavior. When the magnetic field is applied, the properties of such a fluid can change from a free-flowing, low viscosity fluid to a near solid, and this change in properties takes place in a few milliseconds and is fully reversible. A quarter suspension test rig was built out to test the nonlinear performance of MR damper. Based on a large number of experimental data, a phenomenological model of MR damper based on the Bouc-Wen hysteresis model was adopted to predict both the force-displacement behavior and the complex nonlinear force-velocity response.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0117
Sidharth Gupta
This paper will present the method for activation of exterior and interior lighting system during the vehicle level fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults, ignition switch failure etc. with intelligent light sensor. In vehicle the user safety is very important and exterior lighting system is playing a very important role during night driving condition. By considering the customer safety during any fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults or any other faults condition the vehicle exterior and interior lighting system should not be switched off.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0627
Jim Steppan, Brett Henderson, Kent Johnson, M. Yusuf Khan, Timothy Diller, Matthew Hall, Anthoniraj Lourdhusamy, Klaus Allmendinger, Ronald D. Matthews
EmiSense Technologies, LLC (www.emisense.com) is commercializing its electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that is based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). To demonstrate the capability of this sensor for real-time PM measurements and on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to characterize the hydrodynamics of the sensor's housing and to develop an improved PM sensor housing with reproducible hydrodynamics and an internal baffle to minimize orientation effects. PM sensors with the improved housing were evaluated in the truck exhaust of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine tested on-road and on a chassis dynamometer at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) using their Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL).
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0591
Haruhiko Nishiguchi, Kei Oshida
This paper presents a verification of the effectiveness of an image processing method, used to reduce the inconsistent speed perception caused by using the camera images in conjunction with side-view mirrors. Vision assistance technology using cameras is widely used in practical applications today. However, speed and distance perceived with camera images may differ from those viewed directly or viewed with conventional side-view mirrors. That is particularly evident in wide-angle camera images, and can easily cause a sense of discomfort experienced by the driver. A Side View Camera (SVC) shows images rearward and to the side that include the blind spots of side-view mirrors on an onboard display. It is a system to compensate side-view mirrors, broadening the driver's field of view to eliminate bind spots. SVC is used in conjunction with the side-view mirrors.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0595
Robert E. Llaneras, M. Lucas Neurauter, Charles Quinn, Charles Green
Research was conducted to assess driver acceptance and performance associated with a spotter mirror feature intended to reduce the incidence of lane-change conflicts by enhancing drivers' ability to detect vehicles in their side blind zone. The spotter mirror consisted of an integrated spherical convex blind zone mirror inset within a larger planar mirror. The spotter mirror's field-of-view was designed to target the vehicle's side blind zone area and to help drivers quickly detect the presence or absence of a vehicle in the blind zone. The study captured normative lane-change behavior during an extended drive on public roadways, with and without access to the spotter mirror system, for a sample of familiar and unfamiliar supplemental mirror users. In order to capture more naturalistic lane-change behavior, drivers were informed that the purpose of the study was to evaluate the adequacy of existing road signs for navigating to a destination.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2477
Gergis W. William, Samir Shoukry, Jacky Prucz, Thomas Evans
This paper presents 3D finite element analysis performed for a composite cylindrical tank made of 6061-aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers subjected to a burst internal pressure of 1610 bars. As the service pressure expected in these tanks is 700 bars, a factor of safety of 2.3 is kept the same for all designs. The optimal design configuration of such high pressure storage tanks includes an inner liner used as a gas permeation barrier, geometrically optimized domes, inlet/outlet valves with minimum stress concentrations, and directionally tailored exterior reinforcement for high strength and stiffness. Filament winding of pressure vessels made of fiber composite materials is the most efficient manufacturing method for such high pressure hydrogen storage tanks. The complexity of the filament winding process in the dome region is characterized by continually changing the fiber orientation angle and the local thickness of the wall.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2453
Essam Oun Al-Zaini, Dean M. Chesterfield
This paper reports the optimisation study of a batch scaled ethanolysis conversion of waste frying oil carried out over aluminium phosphate-potassium bi-functional catalysts. All synthesised catalysts were analysed for their structural and surface chemical properties thereby following N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and CO2 and NH3-temperature programmed desorption techniques respectively. X-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also adopted for phase identification and atomic quantification studies respectively. Ethanolysis experiments were carried out eliminating reaction rate limitations caused by solid-liquid interfacial mass transport and intraparticle diffusion. Other operating parameters were also examined in the study. These included; reaction temperature, catalyst percentage loading on support, catalyst weight and reactants molar ratio (β).
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2423
Rishikesh Venugopal, Neerav Abani, Ryan MacKenzie
This paper presents analytical and measured results on the effects of injection pattern design on piston thermal management in an Opposed-Piston, Two-Stroke (OP2S) diesel engine. The OP2S architecture investigated in this work comprises two opposing pistons forming an asymmetric combustion chamber with two opposing injectors mounted on the cylinder wall. This unique configuration offers opportunities to tailor the injection pattern to control the combustion heat flux and resulting temperatures on the piston surfaces while optimizing combustion simultaneously. This study utilizes three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with state-of-the-art spray, turbulence and combustion models that include detailed chemistry to simulate the in-cylinder combustion and the associated flame/wall interactions. In addition, the measurements comprise a real-time thermocouple system, which allows for up to 14 locations to be monitored and recorded on the intake and exhaust pistons.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2755
Saurabh gupta, Robesh Maity Sr, Shrirang Kulkarni cEng
Paddy farming in India needs extensive water usage. Due to the rapidly declining ground water and ever increasing monsoon uncertainty, there is significant drive on water conservation for paddy farming through sustainable agriculture practices. The wide variability of irrigation water in Indian rice field, as high as 160 mm, necessitates an extra 100 mm of water in the field to provide complete water coverage. This is primarily due to inaccurate manual land leveling, often practiced in Indian paddy farming. In the present work, architecture of laser land leveler has been created by integrating low cost electronics, hydraulics and GPS technology. This paper will provide an overview of the current practices and suitable operating mode to meet the future demand on land leveling. The presentation would compare the laser land leveler with GPS land leveler solution architectures. The technological differences along with individual merits and limitations would be detailed.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2404
Mahendra Muli, Joe Cassar
It is not news anymore when somebody talks about increasing software content in today's vehicles, transportation systems and machinery. The software content and complexity has grown so tremendously and rapidly that even the most advanced product/software development techniques leave more to desire in view of evolving product life-cycles, feature content and need for development efficiency. Model-Based Design (MBD) techniques and V-Cycle based development processes address the significant need for managing complexity, and to some extent, efficiency in product development. Further efficiency in the development process can be achieved by enabling virtual validation of software components. The virtual validation environment for software not only has the ability to run the software component as a standalone unit for performance validation, but is also extended to the validation of the performance of the entire embedded software of an ECU, multiple ECUs and the entire system.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2391
John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower, Carol A. C. Flannagan, Scott E. Bogard, Paul A. Green, Shan Bao
This paper explores the potential safety performance of “Future Generation” automated speed control crash avoidance systems for Commercial Vehicles. The technologies discussed in this paper include Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), second and third generation Forward Collision Avoidance and Mitigation Systems (F-CAM) comprised of Forward Collision Warning (FCW) with Collision Mitigation Braking (CMB) technology as applied to heavy trucks, including single unit and tractor semitrailers. The research [1[ discussed in this paper is from a study conducted by UMTRI which estimated the safety benefits of current and future F-CAM systems and the comparative efficacy of adaptive cruise control. The future generation systems which are the focus of this paper were evaluated at two separate levels of product refinement, “second generation” and “third generation” systems.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2387
Giorgio Malaguti, Massimo Dian, Massimiliano Ruggeri
Ethernet is by now the most adopted bus for fast digital communications in many environments, from household entertainment, to PLC robotics in industrial assembly lines. Even in avionic applications, new standards are fixing research results. In a similar way in automotive industry, the interest in this technology is increasingly growing, pushed forward by much research and basically by the need of high throughput, that high dynamics distributed control requests. In the world of heavy-duty machines various needs suggest to investigate for a possible Ethernet Network implementation for both real time control and services. On the other hand Bosch proposes the FlexCAN, CAN Flexible rate, but it seems a short term solution for today's congested networks.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2386
Otso Karhu, Kalevi Huhtala
The level of automation, including operator assisting functions, is becoming more sophisticated in heavy machinery. This involves using new types of sensors and embedded computers. However, considering the long life cycles of heavy machinery, the electronic control systems should be modular and flexible. A modular control system of an automated machine is often distributed over CAN and Ethernet. However, many interesting sensor and actuator types do not have these interfaces. In this paper, a generic microcontroller board with analogous and digital communication is presented. With this board, CAN communications can be added to many sensors. The board can also perform sensor-related data processing. The microcontroller board is tested in several applications. In an automated wheel loader, the board is used in control of the work hydraulics circuit that is based on digital hydraulics.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2385
N. Santosh Datta
With evolution of emission norms in diesel engines, NOx emission limits became more stringent and can be met only with specific NOx emission control systems. The NOx control systems in heavy duty diesel engines are monitored for OBD regulations in on-highway applications. Additionally driver warning and inducement requirements for NOx emission control systems are to be complied in both on-highway and off-highway applications. The driver inducement requirements are defined with intent to enforce and ensure correct operation of NOx control system. The NOx control systems and inducement measures are implemented in engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU) software to be compliant to legislation. The paper focuses on driver inducement requirements for NOx emission control systems. The paper summarizes the inducement requirements with a system overview and software design to meet driver inducement requirements for EUVI legislation and CARB/EPA compliance.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2344
Daniel Skelton, Shaoping Xiong, John Lumkes, Farid Breidi
This paper introduces a high performance actuation mechanism to enable new systems and improve the performance and efficiency of existing systems. The concept described is based on coupling energy storage mechanisms with translational movement to increase the speed and controllability of linear actuators. Initial development is a high speed linear actuator for hydraulic proportional valves, and the concept can be extended into other applications. With high speed proportional valves, the performance of existing cam phasing systems can be improved or the actuation mechanisms can be applied directly to IC engine valve actuation. Other applications include active suspension control valves, transmission control valves, industrial and commercial vehicle fluid power systems, and fuel injection systems. The stored actuation energy (such as a rotating mass) is intermittently coupled and decoupled to produce linear or rotary motion in the primary actuator.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1342
Luo Yan, Cheng Zhibin, Su Qingzu, Tian Xin, Cheng Xiaodong
In China, although overload phenomena are serious and effective transportation management is urgently demanded, equipment mainly used to check overloads is platform scales for static weighing. To develop an effective and economical Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system is imperative in China. With this awareness, we presented a new technology, using high-pressure oil pipe as the sensor of the WIM system. By acquiring and analyzing the pressure signals when vehicles run over the pipe, the wheel loads, axel loads and gross weight can be got. In this paper, the static characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the oil pipe have been researched, and the system's hardware and software were developed. Considering complicated characteristic of the oil pipe and other factors effecting WIM precision, we used neural networks to scale the WIM system dynamically. Test results showed that precision can satisfy the requirement of actual application.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1191
Marcus Hiemer, Sebastian Lehr, Uwe Kiencke, Takanori Matsunaga
The reproduction of the vehicle motion is a crucial element of accident reconstruction. Apart from the position of the center of gravity in an inertial coordinate system, the vehicle heading plays an important role. The heading is the sum of the yaw angle and the vehicle body side slip angle. In standard vehicles, the yaw angle can be determined using the yaw rate sensor and the wheel speeds. However, the yaw rate sensor is often subject to temperature drift. The wheel speed signals are forged at low speeds or due to slip. These errors result in significant deviations of reconstructed and real vehicle heading. Therefore, an intelligent combination of these signals is required. This paper describes a fuzzy system which is capable to increase the accuracy of yaw angle calculation by means of fuzzy logic. Before the data is applied to the fuzzy system, it is preprocessed to ensure the accuracy of the fuzzy system inputs.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2679
Richard L. Wurst
This paper describes equipment developed to measure engine output torque. Several vehicle flexplates were modified and strain gauges were applied to measure torque. Special attention was paid to minimize or eliminate any changes in flexplate torsional stiffness. Torque signals are transmitted from the rotating flexplate to a stationary receiver via RF telemetry. The electronics on the rotating flexplate are powered using an induction power technique. This method was developed as a less invasive and less costly alternative to strain gauging a crankshaft.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2680
Steve Rogers
Conventional fixed controllers in combination with adaptive neural networks provide a powerful controller architecture. By utilizing the existing controller designs and augmenting them with adaptive neural networks engineers may exploit the merits of both control approaches. By adding on an adaptive component to the existing controller the range of operating conditions is increased and robustness to system degradation is improved. One of the simplest neural network controllers is the adaptive linear combiner. In this paper the adaptive linear combiner is described and the controller architecture is applied to an engine rpm controller. Results are given.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2669
Steve Rogers, Brian Birge
Optimization for control system design or testing is commonly used. Most of the optimization approaches are based on simplex or gradient descent. If the system is complex these approaches are susceptible to being caught in local minimums. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a subset of evolutionary computation, which includes genetic algorithms. Evolutionary search techniques have been introduced as a means of detecting global minimums within a parameter range. PSO has been presented by a number of researchers, with applications in function optimization and neural network training. In this study PSO theory and equations will be detailed. The procedure will be applied to an engine rpm control system and results will be presented. The optimization procedure is used to minimize cumulative error and select parameters for a lead-lag plus integral control system. The simulation was coded in simulink and is shown in the figures.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2714
Katrin Strandemar, Boris Thorvald
This paper presents the ride diagram, a new way of evaluating and presenting ride comfort Furthermore, a simplified methodology is suggested to test and correlate objective measures of vehicle ride with subjective driver impressions. The ride diagram is calculated from measured cab accelerations resulting from increased levels of excitation. The basic idea is to graphically visualize how ride comfort changes with excitation. Test drivers are then asked to pair the set of tested vehicles with corresponding curves in the ride diagram. This step assures that the selected measure captures how drivers apprehend changes in vehicle ride. The suggested methodology is illustrated on trucks with different cab suspension settings. For a given test track increased vehicle speed is used to increase the excitation level. The trucks are also placed in a road simulator to enable easy variation of both excitation type and level.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2681
Z. Rahman
A complete analytical design and analysis procedure of permanent magnet motors for ‘in-wheel’ traction application system is developed. Method to obtain minimum power requirement and optimal torque-speed profile to meet acceleration performance is explained. Analytical design procedure to optimize electric motor parameters, such as, back emf and torque constants, inductance and magnet thickness is developed that are based on the torque-speed requirement of the system. The optimization technique focuses on minimizing the power and volt-ampere rating of the entire electrical system. The design process is validated through experiment and field-testing. Although the paper is focused on electric bicycle system, the approach is also applicable to electric and hybrid electric vehicles.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2724
Murali M. R. Krishna, Jun Yoshioka, Manish Sharma
A web based software program has been developed to do a Finite Element (FE) analysis of a simplified driveline system. In the past, an expert analyst had to make a Finite Element Model, analyze and then report results. It has been observed that this process is time consuming besides the difficulties of doing quick parametric studies, geographical location of designers, analysts, etc. The web-based software program aims to solve these issues. The designer could get analytical & Finite element results anywhere around the world (where the designer has access to the web) without any expertise in FE modeling. This software is a joint effort of Engineering and Information Technology (IT) software groups. It is based on Active Server Page (ASP) technology and MSC/NASTRAN technologies combined. Input data deck is prepared from user inputs and submitted over the internet to a remote system, solved and results are retrieved and plots shown in minutes, instead of days earlier.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2649
Dave Hansen, John Washeleski
The ClearFast™ heated fluid washer system provides 700% more heated fluid than other systems. The ClearFast’s unique dual heating elements provides instant (<12 seconds) and stored heated fluid. The efficient heating configuration uses the minimum electrical energy from the vehicles charging system. The first heated chamber (instant) quickly clears frost during initial vehicle start-up. The second heated chamber (stored fluid) provides quick windshield cleaning for snow/ice, dirt and bug residue while driving. The dual heating element allows the system to maintain a reservoir of heated fluid, but maximizes heating efficiency when the reservoir is depleted. The system requires only three simple electrical connections to the vehicle and is plumbed in-line between the washer pump and spray nozzles. The adaptive control software monitors not only the operating parameters of the system, but the health of the vehicle charging system to ensure undue strain is not placed upon it.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2694
Stefano J. Cassara, David C. Anderson, J. Magnus Olofsson
The accurate prediction of commercial-vehicle ride and handling performance with computer simulation tools is dependent on the level of correlation between the computer model and experimental data. Correlating vehicle attributes to physical test data is often challenging due to the large number of degrees of freedom - and, correspondingly, the large number of tunable parameters - typically required to accurately model vehicle behavior. A high level of interaction between input parameters and vehicle attributes further complicates the task. As a result, this type of correlation is a multi-objective optimization exercise in which the judicious planning of supporting test activity is critical to achieving the right level of model accuracy with an acceptable amount of resource investment. This paper discusses the methodology implemented in the validation of a tractor-semitrailer ADAMS model for both ride and handling simulations and presents the results obtained.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2705
Jeffrey R. Stokes, Paul W. Claar
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to examine the efficiency of 74 front wheel assist agricultural tractors from three U.S. manufacturers. The outputs of drawbar horsepower and power takeoff horsepower are modeled in a constant returns-to-scale framework using three productive performance inputs (fuel consumption, slip, and center of gravity), and one price input, namely, retail tractor price. The results suggest that by and large, John Deere tractors are more DEA efficient than their competitor's tractors. However, competitor's tractors that are DEA efficient are most often the top benchmarks for DEA inefficient tractors. These results suggest that while John Deere appears to produce many quality tractors, competitor's like CNH and AGCO produce a few tractors that may be of even higher quality.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1648
Xubin Song, Mehdi Ahmadian
This paper presents a parametric study of two semiactive adaptive control algorithms through simulation: the non-model based skyhook control, and the newly developed model-based nonlinear adaptive vibration control. This study includes discussion of suspension model setup, dynamic analysis approach, and controller tuning. The simulation setup is from a heavy-duty truck seat suspension with a magneto-rheological (MR) damper. The dynamic analysis is performed in the time domain using sine sweep excitations without the need to linearize such a nonlinear semiactive system that is studied here. Through simulation, the effectiveness of both control algorithms is demonstrated for vibration isolation. The computation flops of the simulation in the SIMULINK environment are compared, and the adaptability is studied with respect to plant variations and different excitation profiles, both of which come across typically for vehicle suspension systems.
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