Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 737
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2011
Carsten John
Geometric product representations are of gaining importance in product manufacturing industries. Several case studies yield that the utilization of three-dimensional digital product data in the product development chain has given many manufacturing companies a big advantage in business competition. The field of application for 3D technology is versatile and its further implementation still proceeds along product delivery processes. Leveraging 3D graphics in service information creation processes like the creation of manual illustrations or service instruction imagery is currently a big topic at many companies. E. g. the utilization of animated 3D product representations for explanation of service tasks becomes possible due to the recent advances in computer hardware more and more popular.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2015
Saurabh Singh, Narayan Jadhav, Kamaljeet Nandkeolyar, Shirish Pandav, Pankaj Sali
The automotive sector is going through a phase of stiff competition among various Original Equipment Manufacturers for increasing their profitability while ensuring highest levels of customer satisfaction. The biggest challenge for such companies lies in minimizing their overall cost involving investments in Research and Development, manufacturing, after sales service and warranty costs. Higher warranty costs not only affect the net profit but in turn it also affects the brand image of the company to a large extent in the long run. An effort is made here to target such warranty costs due to frequent tail pinion and hub seal leakages on single reduction/hub reduction axles of Heavy Commercial Vehicles in the field. A preliminary study involving the severity analysis of such failures is followed by a step by step investigation of these failures.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2012
Arnold Taube, Matthew Cappel, Vincent Boens
Light-weight, tessellated surface models are increasingly used in marketing websites and electronic documents as well as in electronic training materials and service information documents. While these models are effective in developing consumer interest and communicating information, without implementing adequate Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) they also provide valuable geometry to miscreants wanting to reverse engineer a product and/or its component parts. Geometry Distortion is an excellent component of a layered IPP Plan for implementation when publishing 3-D models. However, how much distortion is needed to provide adequate IPP? Too much distortion detracts from their appearance while too little does not sufficiently complicate reverse engineering analysis. This paper describes a practical process for determining rational geometry distortion values that provide adequate IPP.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0593
Lucian Andrei Gheorghe, Takashi Sunda
In order to build a useful and comfortable in-car human machine interface systems, the information presentation method should be easy to understand (low mental workload) and one should be able to respond with ease to the information presented (low response workload). We are making efforts to establish an evaluation method that would differentiate between mental workload and response workload. Here, we present the results of our trial using brain waves measurements (Eye Fixation Related Potentials). We focus on the relation between P3 latencies and drivers response workload compared to mental workload in a task involving eye movements. Previous experiments showed that P3 latency correlates strongly with the amount of information presented. The current experiment shows that P3 latencies seem to be independent to the type of response the subject is requested to perform.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0591
Haruhiko Nishiguchi, Kei Oshida
This paper presents a verification of the effectiveness of an image processing method, used to reduce the inconsistent speed perception caused by using the camera images in conjunction with side-view mirrors. Vision assistance technology using cameras is widely used in practical applications today. However, speed and distance perceived with camera images may differ from those viewed directly or viewed with conventional side-view mirrors. That is particularly evident in wide-angle camera images, and can easily cause a sense of discomfort experienced by the driver. A Side View Camera (SVC) shows images rearward and to the side that include the blind spots of side-view mirrors on an onboard display. It is a system to compensate side-view mirrors, broadening the driver's field of view to eliminate bind spots. SVC is used in conjunction with the side-view mirrors.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0598
Nonnwats Anantapal, Songkran Kantawong, Tanasak Phanprasit
Advances in image processing and display technology have been increased interesting in using camera-based systems for all around view vision system especially for all rear-vision functions. The camera-based system is raised the possibility gain of providing driver with wide fields of view than conventional rear view mirrors such as eliminate blind spot area and reduce this sense of incongruity associated with perceiving vehicle movement. This paper presents a development of adaptive camera adopted to improve the image quality of the all-around view system. The all-around view or wide view images are analyzed and synthesized to create a single image seen from a virtual perspective overhead vehicle camera by image processing methods and display in a real view image as closed as possible.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0597
Shannon O'Day, Louis Tijerina
The objective for this study was to revisit some of the known factors that affect legibility including font characteristics, as well as, contrast polarity, luminance contrast, and color contrast under high ambient conditions as specified in SAE J1757. The study focused on older drivers due to their increased visual needs and limitations. The study was conducted in 2 phases: 1) a study of font characteristics; character height, character width, and stroke width using a central composite design. Subjects read a group of letters and numerals displayed on a laptop display using occlusion goggles. The reading time (Total Shutter Open Time or TSOT), reading errors, and a subjective Readability Rating (using a 4 point scale "Very Easy," "Easy," "Difficult," "Very Difficult") were recorded. Licensed drivers in three age groups, 25 to 44 yrs, 45 to 59 yrs, and 61 to 91 yrs participated. The response surfaces were generated and compared to the character sizes recommended in ISO 15008.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0596
Matthew P. Reed
This paper describes the development of the fixed seat eyellipse in the October 2008 revision of SAE Recommended Practice J941. The eye locations of 23 men and women with a wide range of stature were recorded as they sat in each of three second-row bench seats in a laboratory mockup. Testing was conducted at 19-, 23-, and 27-degree seat back angles. Regression analysis demonstrated that passenger eye location was significantly affected by stature and by seat back angle. The regression results were used to develop an elliptical approximation of the distribution of adult passenger eye locations, applying a methodology previously used to develop the driver eyellipse in SAE J941-2002.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0595
Robert E. Llaneras, M. Lucas Neurauter, Charles Quinn, Charles Green
Research was conducted to assess driver acceptance and performance associated with a spotter mirror feature intended to reduce the incidence of lane-change conflicts by enhancing drivers' ability to detect vehicles in their side blind zone. The spotter mirror consisted of an integrated spherical convex blind zone mirror inset within a larger planar mirror. The spotter mirror's field-of-view was designed to target the vehicle's side blind zone area and to help drivers quickly detect the presence or absence of a vehicle in the blind zone. The study captured normative lane-change behavior during an extended drive on public roadways, with and without access to the spotter mirror system, for a sample of familiar and unfamiliar supplemental mirror users. In order to capture more naturalistic lane-change behavior, drivers were informed that the purpose of the study was to evaluate the adequacy of existing road signs for navigating to a destination.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2392
Daniel Blower, John Woodrooffe
Heavy truck rollover remains a primary factor in truck driver fatalities and injury. Roll stability control (RSC) and electronic stability control (ESC) are technologies that have been introduced to reduce the incidence of rollover in heavy truck crashes. This report provides an analysis of the real-world experience of a large for-hire company that introduced RSC into its fleet starting in 2004. The carrier provided a well-documented set of data on the operations of its truck-tractors, including both those equipped with RSC and those that did not have RSC installed. The purpose of the analysis is to determine the effect of RSC on the probability of rollover, as well as to identify other factors that either contribute to rollover or help reduce its incidence. This study presents results on the incidence of rollover both in terms of rollovers per 100 million miles traveled and the percentage of crashes that resulted in rollover.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0182
Raunak Santosh, Vijayakumar Chekuri
Abstract Rapid growth in the Indian economy has led to new market trends for commercial vehicles. Customers now expect high levels of comfort from all tactile points in a truck cabin; the gear lever knob is frequently used and its reactions greatly influence how a driver perceives Gear Shift Quality (GSQ) and thereby vehicle quality. The subjectivity of human perception is difficult to measure objectively; therefore this paper represents an objective methodology to correlate customer feedback of gearshift reactions. For the attribute evaluation of a set of intermediate commercial vehicles; detailed subjective appraisals were conducted by expert level assessors for GSQ sub-attributes, and a consecutive objective measurement was performed to investigate and substantiate these vehicle assessments.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0216
R.A. Antonelli, L.C.C. Costa, A.M.N. Eustachio, R.C. Queiroz, F. S. Martins, A.P.S. Mello
Safety, Ergonomics and comfort are inseparable concepts and of greater relevance to the full exercise of professional drivers, being the seat, one of the most important components to be considered, when designing their workplace. This work presents initiatives taken by Mercedes-Benz do Brasil Ltda. (MBBras) in partnership with GRAMMER do Brasil Ltda. (Grammer) and Oficio Ergonomia e Design Ltda. concerning the improvement of a SAE Class 8 Heavy-truck Driver Seat. Proposals involved seat design improvement at driver reach and posture, design and constructive characteristics (seat-bottom foam and frame) Upholstery, seat-controls ergonomics and the vibration response, due to the introduction of independent shock-absorbers.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0435
Luciano Lukacs, Mahendra Dassanayake, Iuri Pepe
Abstract Nighttime driving behavior differs from that during the day because of unique scenarios presented in a driver's field of vision. At night drivers have to rely on their vehicle headlamps to illuminate the road to be able to see the environment and road conditions in front of him. In recent decades car illumination systems have undergone considerable technological advances such as the use of a Light Emitting Diode (LED) in Adaptive Front-lighting Systems (AFS), a breakthrough in lighting technology. This is rapidly becoming one of the most important innovative technologies around the world within the lighting community. This paper discusses driver's needs given the environment and road conditions using a survey applied to compare the needs of both truck and car drivers under different road conditions. The results show the potential and suitability of the methodology proposed for controlling truck-related lighting in any emergent market.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0442
James K. Sprague, Peggy Shibata, Jack L. Auflick
Abstract A complete analysis of any vehicular collision needs to consider certain aspects of human factors. However, this is especially true of nighttime collisions, in which a more specialized approach is required. Classical collision investigation (frequently referred to as accident reconstruction) is comprised of kinetic and kinematic considerations including skid analysis, momentum techniques and other methods. While analysis based on these concepts is typically unaffected by low visibility conditions, the opposite is true of the perceptual and cognitive aspects of a “humans-in-the-loop” analysis, which can be enormously impacted by low visibility. Only by applying appropriate human factors techniques can the analyst make a defensible determination of how and why a nighttime collision occurred.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0801
Bong-Ha Hwang
Professional bus drivers are highly exposed to physical fatigue and work-related injuries because driving task includes complicated actions that require a variety of ability and cause extreme concentration or strain. For this reason, there has always been some sense of concern regarding driver fatigue, especially for drivers of commercial vehicles. In this study, we have tried to analyze quantitative fatigue degree of urban bus drivers by measuring their physiological signals. The investigation is made up of the following approaches: a traditional questionnaire survey and video-ethnographic method with 4-way cameras. The close-circuit cameras are installed to observe the upper and lower body of real drivers when they are in driving or even resting. This approach can help to understand urban bus drivers' behaviors and fatigue-related issues. Based on the video-ethnographic investigation results above, we have got certain patterns of drivers.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2295
Keith Friedman, John Hutchinson, Dennis Mihora, Sri Kumar, Daniel Strickland
More than 900,000 long-haul sleeper cabs are projected to be on the road by 2030. About half of heavy truck occupant fatalities occur in rollovers. This paper discusses the current status of rollover protection systems for occupants in sleeper cabs and describes the outcomes from example crashes with sleeper cab occupants. A virtual testing methodology for evaluation of current designs under rollover conditions and restraint tests utilizing dummies and humans also are described. The paper includes discussion of finite element models used and their validation. Examples of results associated with various restraint system configurations are presented. The results show that incorporating effective lateral restraint is important in providing protection to sleeper cab occupants under rollover conditions.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2256
William H. Havins, Ph.D.
The present paper provides a general review of trends in vehicle information display designs, specifically “dashboards,” noting that the purpose of those dashboard displays is to provide information that allows for safe and lawful operation of those vehicles. The author describes how these trends appear to have been driven by a combination of historical precedents including vehicle interior design, available vehicle display technology, and, later, by development of vehicle data busses. The paper describes human factors and cognitive neuroscience issues that affect an operator's ability to read gauges in a dashboard display. The paper reports the results of the author's 2008 research where 71 of 101 survey respondents indicated that they find it hard to read their recreational vehicle gauges. It describes participants' significantly positive responses to the author's dashboard display prototype developed using human factors and cognitive neuroscience principles.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0645
Kohei Kawai, Yoshiyuki Matsuoka
Against discomfort of vehicles for wheelchair users, countermeasures such as a vibration absorber are required. To determine the optimal characteristics of the absorber, we had proposed the Comfort Evaluation Prediction System (CEPS) that can predict subjective evaluation from floor vibration, considering passengers' constitutions and wheelchair types. The purpose of this paper is to construct a model that simulates the vibration transmited to the passenger as part of the CEPS. We modeled a wheelchair-bound passenger and estimated unknown parameters by the result of a modal experiment. Then some simulations were carried out to suggest applicability of the model.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2837
Dennis D Swanson
Regulatory requirements in the European Union (EU) for off-road machines and road vehicles are different. Vehicles which transport passengers and goods, along with attached trailers, as well as road motorcycles must meet EEC type-approval requirements. All other types of self-propelled machines must meet the requirements of the Machinery Directive (Council Directive 98/37/EC), and the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive (Council Directive 89/336/EEC) and possibly other directives. This includes such categories as agriculture and forestry machines, construction machines, industrial trucks and similar products. The various directives outline the different processes for demonstrating compliance with the EU requirements. The intent of this paper is to summarize a few of the requirements that are of interest to off-highway equipment manufacturers and to identify some sources of information about the regulatory requirements.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3752
Alain L. Kornhauser
This paper documents the current realities of in-vehicle navigation systems in terms of their functionality, scope and responsiveness. It discusses the evolution of these systems with the advent of wireless communications. Addressed are the issues associated with delivery and utilization of real-time traffic, incident, and weather information to and by in-vehicle navigation systems. Also discussed are other High-level in-vehicle decisions that can be supported by the marriage of wireless communications with in-vehicle navigation. Applications considered range from the choosing of alternate waypoints and destinations (where to get gas, where to park), to the host of nRouteCommerce transactions that can be more efficiently achieved with the support of in-vehicle navigation (reserving a parking space, resetting household thermostats as you approach home). Implications on driver workload, in-vehicle processing, wireless bandwidth and Internet traffic are discussed.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3737
R. Happee, J. Loczi
Both RAMSIS and MADYMO are widely applied for computer aided vehicle design. Both programs are used to simulate occupant-vehicle interactions where RAMSIS focuses on ergonomics in normal driving conditions and MADYMO focuses on passive safety in impact conditions. This paper describes simulations of human seat interactions using RAMSIS and MADYMO. An interface has been developed to convert RAMSIS human models and postures to MADYMO. Static seat interaction was first simulated using RAMSIS. This provided an estimated posture and a qualitative assessment of comfort. Then the posture as estimated by RAMSIS was analyzed in MADYMO. The seat was modeled in MADYMO as an arbitrary surface, and the combined surface compliance of seat and human tissues was defined in terms of stress versus penetration. The MADYMO analysis of the posture estimated by RAMSIS provided for instance joint loads, seat contact pressures and seat friction.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3736
Ina Rastetter
This paper describes the procedure used to ensure that new trucks of the brand Mercedes-Benz meet the ergonomic requirements of all drivers, using the example of the semitrailer. Mercedes-Benz trucks are sold in different countries. Because of this, varying legal requirements, different sizes of drivers and different lifestyles and habits have to be considered. To solve this problem perfectly, new methods and tools have been acquired, resulting in increasing optimization of the process of truck development.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3735
Dennis Gryp
Many advancements have been made through the use of technology that give seat manufacturers the capability to provide greatly improved truck seats. Until recently the design and development of new seating was accomplished primarily through static surveys. Modern technologies available today will reduce cost, development time, and the overall effort associated with utilizing real people to develop a seating project. In many instances when these seats were placed into vehicles with actual truck drivers riding in them for many hours a day, the drivers inputs resulted in multiple revisions to the original seat to satisfy their comfort issues. With modern technologies such as computer generated seat modeling, pressure mapping, and our state of the art test equipment such as a six–axis ride simulator, it has become part of any new seat development program to acquire field ride data in specific trucks and duplicate these inputs in the test laboratory.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0092
Girish Ravan, Shatrunjoy Baranwal, Shekhar Paranjape, Niteen Sahasrabudhe
This paper gives focus on the ergonomic design of the clutch pedal. The parameters considered includes height of clutch actuation point (CAP) from cabin floor mat, lateral position from steering column and engine tunnel, size and angle of foot pad, texture design of rubber cover, maximum pedal travel packaging considering variants, force, and modulation requirements. Development of clutch pedal assembly is carried out by considering collected anthropometric data for large population range. With a set of questionnaire asked to number of drivers on their habit of keeping foot on the clutch pedal which causes fatigue and phenomena of clutch riding (results in wear of clutch disc).
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0048
Shigeru Ueki, Yutaka Takada
Eco-Driving which is environmentally friendly driving manner is greatly effective way to prevent global warming and to improve air pollution caused by exhaust emissions from vehicles. LEVO has been conducting the EMS promotion program for freight companies etc. since 2005. This program aims at implementing Eco-Driving continuously and well-systematically for drivers. More than 96,000 trucks and buses in 5,140 companies have been joined the program and implementing environmentally friendly driving manner by using Eco-Driving support devices. In this paper, the outcome of Eco-Driving promotion conducted by LEVO is described and the effects on fuel saving and the effect of CO2 reduction attributed to the Eco-Driving management activities are shown.
2011-01-19
Technical Paper
2011-26-0093
Chandrashekhar K. Thorbole, David A. Renfroe, Stephen A. Batzer, Digvijay S. Tanwar
The necessity for avoiding the occupant ejection from their seats during motor coach rollover accidents is of supreme importance. The seat belt as a safety device is the best practical way of achieving this task. As per the motorcoach Enhanced Safety Act of 2009 passed in the United States senate, requires new motorcoaches to be installed with safety belts for each seating position. This bill also suggests the possibility of retrofitting seat belts on the existing motorcoaches. The use of portable seatbelt to restraint occupant is more economical as compared to retrofit the seat belt. This fact motivates the further research on portable restraint device. This paper demonstrates the evaluation of the first version of the Portable Restraint Device (PRD) using full scale bus rollover test. This test identified the shortcoming of this current device in securing to the bus seat and its non user friendly design.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0269
Everton Corte, Maria Lúcia Machado Duarte, Henrique Schaeffer Batista, Gabriel Silva
This paper discusses the importance of vibration transmitted from the ground to the driver from the perspective of human whole-body vibration (WBV). The scope of analysis is to compare the main vehicle frequencies with those important from the human vibration health and comfort point of view. That was performed by mapping the vibration transmissibility present in different sub sections of the vehicle. The first is the transmissibility between the axles and the chassis rail, the following between the chassis rail and the cabin. The last would be between the cabin and the drivers' seat, although that was not possible from the acquisition point of view. The vehicles measured have mechanical suspension and elastomeric cabin coupling. It is known that all suspension systems in vehicle are highly nonlinear, although here linear dynamic analysis methods were used.
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0039
Luciano P. Lukacs, Cristiano Fontes, Marcelo Embirucu, Iuri Muniz Pepe
Nighttime driving behavior differs from that during the day because of differences in the driver's field of view. At night, drivers must rely on their vehicle headlamps to illuminate the roadway. It is essential then that the driver is able to see the environment and road conditions in front of him. This paper presents the needs of the driver's (car and truck) due to the environment and road conditions from the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil). A survey has been done to compare the needs from the truck and car driver under different road conditions. The results show the necessity to tailor the beam pattern according to the driver needs, providing safer nighttime driving according to the driver's and market needs.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1937
Yahya Oz, Berzah Ozan, Eren Uyanik
The basic scope of heavy-commercial vehicle (HCV) development which was just concentrated on fuel-economy, durability and performance feel is not capable of fulfilling the increasing customer expectations anymore. HCV developers concentrate on additional vehicle attributes such as steering, ride comfort, NVH, braking, ergonomics and exterior-interior design in order to provide the passenger-car like perception to HCV drivers during long distance drives. The objective of this paper is to present the model validation methodology and the optimization study on suspension & steering hard points of a HCV. The results of the optimization study on suspension kinematics and steering performance of the vehicle is verified using both full vehicle simulations and vehicle testing. A full vehicle ADAMS/Car model is used for the validation and optimization study which has beam-element leaf springs on solid axle and air springs on drive axle for front and rear, respectively.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1925
Mark William Arndt
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Coast Guard recently adapted increases in the average passenger weight used to calculate load and conduct safety analysis and tests in multiple modes of transportation. The Federal Transit Authority (FTA) has proposed similar measures. The increased passenger weight requirements were created in response to the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) documented rise in weight among the country's citizens and followed crash or failure incidents in which a cause was overweight equipment. The current certification requirements under CFR 49, Part 567 state that Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) of a motor vehicle shall not be less than the sum of the unloaded vehicle weight, rated cargo weight and 150 pounds (68 kg) times the number of designated seating positions. Actual occupant weight distributions versus certified weight per occupant seat causes a potential conflict between a vehicle's in-use weight versus its certified GVWR.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 737

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: