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Technical Paper
Carsten John
Geometric product representations are of gaining importance in product manufacturing industries. Several case studies yield that the utilization of three-dimensional digital product data in the product development chain has given many manufacturing companies a big advantage in business competition. The field of application for 3D technology is versatile and its further implementation still proceeds along product delivery processes. Leveraging 3D graphics in service information creation processes like the creation of manual illustrations or service instruction imagery is currently a big topic at many companies. E. g. the utilization of animated 3D product representations for explanation of service tasks becomes possible due to the recent advances in computer hardware more and more popular.
Technical Paper
Saurabh Singh, Narayan Jadhav, Kamaljeet Nandkeolyar, Shirish Pandav, Pankaj Sali
The automotive sector is going through a phase of stiff competition among various Original Equipment Manufacturers for increasing their profitability while ensuring highest levels of customer satisfaction. The biggest challenge for such companies lies in minimizing their overall cost involving investments in Research and Development, manufacturing, after sales service and warranty costs. Higher warranty costs not only affect the net profit but in turn it also affects the brand image of the company to a large extent in the long run. An effort is made here to target such warranty costs due to frequent tail pinion and hub seal leakages on single reduction/hub reduction axles of Heavy Commercial Vehicles in the field. A preliminary study involving the severity analysis of such failures is followed by a step by step investigation of these failures.
Technical Paper
Arnold Taube, Matthew Cappel, Vincent Boens
Light-weight, tessellated surface models are increasingly used in marketing websites and electronic documents as well as in electronic training materials and service information documents. While these models are effective in developing consumer interest and communicating information, without implementing adequate Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) they also provide valuable geometry to miscreants wanting to reverse engineer a product and/or its component parts. Geometry Distortion is an excellent component of a layered IPP Plan for implementation when publishing 3-D models. However, how much distortion is needed to provide adequate IPP? Too much distortion detracts from their appearance while too little does not sufficiently complicate reverse engineering analysis. This paper describes a practical process for determining rational geometry distortion values that provide adequate IPP.
Technical Paper
Hannes Hick, Klaus Denkmayr, Michael Aschaber
The AVL Load Matrix is a systematic approach to optimize durability and reliability test programs. It is based on component-specific test acceleration factors and uses damage models as well as statistics. Using the Load Matrix approach helps to achieve complete test programs while avoiding unrealistic over-testing. The paper describes the Load Matrix concept and structure as well as the process of setting up the Load Matrix for a system or component. Examples are provided on damage models, and the procedure to estimate the acceleration factors is discussed.
Technical Paper
Fernanda Meneses Kelly, Helaine Maria Braga Sbampato
On cab-over trucks to access the engine and others components it is necessary to tilt the cab. This is a regular procedure done several times during the vehicle life cycle. In order to make it easier and safer for mechanical tilting system, it was developed an articulated safety bar to sustain and maintain the cab on the open position. On the current bars available in the market, to close the cab it is necessary that the operator get under the cab to disengage the safety bar. This procedure puts the operator under risk because an accident can happen while the disengagement and the cab can close over him. Thinking on that and looking for a better ergonomic and safety situation, the objective of this work is to present a new articulated safety bar that the engagement and disengagement is done automatically with the natural tilting movement of the cab. This solution was developed at Iveco Latin America for adoption on the new Vertis HD and is under patent process.
Technical Paper
Reijo Makinen, Nils-Olof Nylund, Kimmo Erkkilä lng, Pirjo Saikkonen, Arno Amberla
Helsinki Region Transport, Neste Oil, Proventia Emission Control and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland carried out a 3.5 year PPP venture “OPTIBIO” to demonstrate the use of paraffinic renewable diesel (hydrotreated vegetable oil HVO) in city buses. The fleet test in Metropolitan Helsinki involving some 300 buses is the largest one in the world to demonstrate this new fuel. The fuels were a 30 % blend of renewable diesel and 100 % renewable diesel. This paper describes the overall set-up of the project, gives an overview of the emission results as well as presents experience from the field.
Technical Paper
Mohammad Rezvani, Mohamed AbuAli PhD, Seungchul Lee, Jay Lee, Jun Ni PhD
Batteries are widely used as storage devices and they have recently gained popularity due to their increasing smaller sizes, lighter weights and greater energy densities. These characteristics also render them suitable for powering electric vehicles. However, a key gap exists in that batteries are solely used as storage devices with a lack of information flow. Next-generation battery technologies will constitute the enabling tools that would lead to information-rich batteries, thus allowing the transparent assessment of a battery's health as well as the prediction of a battery's remaining-useful-life (RUL) and its subsequent impact on vehicle mobility. Various methods and techniques have been employed to predict battery RUL in order to improve the accuracy of the State of Charge (SoC) estimation.
Technical Paper
Suwanee Boonmung, Frank E. Eaton, Kenneth A. Jordan
The existing instrumentation of a soil bin was retrofitted with virtual instrumentation techniques to achieve improved repeatability and more precise measurements. Current-loop sensors were added to the prime mover for improved speed control. Soil preparation operations were instrumented to determine penetrometer forces as a function of soil penetration depth, soil surface smoothness, compaction force, and soil surface elevation. Test hitch-points for agricultural implements were instrumented with wheatstone bridge force transducers. Implement depth was found with ratiometric linear transducers. Distance and speed determinations utilized an optical encoder with a resolution of 3.0 × 10-4 m. Temperature measurements were also recorded with solid state current transducers.
Technical Paper
Paul Erich Robinson, O. Geoffrey Okogbaa
This paper presents a proposed new statistical distribution which models product reliability in those situations where obsolescence is built in. Typically products in this class are designed so that very few failures occur prior to a predetermined point, after which the majority of units fail within a short timespan. From the reliability point of view automobiles are manufactured for a life span of five years, after which purchase of a new vehicle or a costly major overhaul is required. Examples are discussed which show that the Post-Warranty Distribution is the best fit for this situation.
Technical Paper
Lyle Howard
A new method of cleaning cooling systems has been developed that uses a filter with a chelating alkaline cleaner that is released into the cooling system. The cleaner filter is installed in place of the inhibitor filter on heavy-duty engines and left in place for one service cycle. After the service cycle, the cleaner filter is removed, the coolant tested, and the inhibitor filter is reinstalled. This represents a major change in the method traditionally used for cooling system cleaning.
Technical Paper
Manuel J. Fabela-Gallegos, David Vazquez-Vega
In this paper, the importance of determining the lateral acceleration to characterize terrestrial vehicle behavior and its performance is addressed. Also, the technical difficulties to measure such acceleration and its dependency with vehicle roll angle are described. In the analysis of the motion of the vehicle's center of gravity (CG) and regarding to transversal acceleration components, the acceleration of gravity is taken into account to determine the roll angle, the lateral acceleration and the behavior of vertical acceleration component. As a result, and based upon the principles of operation of accelerometers, a scheme for a simple instrumentation to estimate the roll angle and lateral acceleration in an experimental assessment, is suggested as well.
Technical Paper
Rod Huisinga, Kurt Rottier, John Baertlein, Alex Kaye
The designers of heavy-duty off-road vehicles have been facing increasing pressure to reduce the cost and time required for assembly and maintenance. While the requirement to reduce assembly times is mainly an OEM driven objective, the requirement to reduce maintenance times is frequently driven by the customer. The design team is usually faced with the challenge of balancing functional requirements with what are often viewed as wish lists of easy assembly and maintenance, under the pressure of ever shorter development cycles. As a result, vehicle maintainability and ease of assembly are often overlooked early in the design cycle which can lead to less than desired results. This paper explores the design objectives and resultant solutions which were developed in the creation of the power-pack of a heavy-duty off-road vehicle.
Technical Paper
Mahesh J Pardeshi, Ravindra Rajhans, M Srinivas, Shailesh Patil, Gautam Pingle
Designing a cabin tilting system for Light Commercial Vehicles using a single torsion bar becomes challenging considering the operator safety and stringent design weight targets. Performance of a good tilting system entirely depends on cabin mass and location of centre of gravity with respect to (w.r.t) to tilting pivot point. Cabin Mass and COG location are very difficult to estimate while designing a new cabin as it is dependent on the maturation of all other cabin aggregates and also the accessories added by the customer. Incorporation design parameter changes like increasing cab tilting angle and increasing torsion bar length, in the later stages of product development, becomes expensive. The objective of this paper is to come up with an optimum design of a single torsion bar tilting employing “Taguchi optimization” for deciding the optimum levels of control factors, which ensures desired performance (i.e tilting effort vs.
Technical Paper
David A. Schaller, Michael D. Roeth
Abstract This report provides an overview of recent technical solution adoption rates by fleets from detailed fleet surveys. Manufacturers’ contributions in terms of technology development, cost reduction, durability and refinement will also be discussed. OEM vehicle integration and product line offerings (standard, optional, and post-production upfits) are shared. All of this background will set the stage for a review of the proposed Greenhouse Gas Phase 2 regulations, the technologies expected to be utilized to meet the targets, and the hurdles the industry must successfully clear for profitable fleet use in commercial vehicle freight transportation. Fuel efficiency has always been important to fleets and as fuel costs have risen, a plethora of fuel efficient technologies have emerged. The industry also cares about sustainability and emissions reductions and now Greenhouse Gas regulations exist to further encourage development, integration and adoption of such technologies.
Journal Article
Federico Stola, Matteo De Cesare, Luca Lacchini, Nicolò Cavina, Sandeep Sohal
Abstract The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system installed on the exhaust line is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for light and medium duty trucks, large passenger cars and off-highway vehicles, to fulfill future emission legislation. Some vehicles of these last categories, equipped with SCR, have been already put on the market, not only in the US, where the emission legislation on Diesel vehicles is more restrictive, but also in Europe, demonstrating to be already compliant with the upcoming Euro 6. Moreover, new and more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed all over the world, with a consequent rapidly increasing interest for this technology. As a matter of fact, a physical model of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) supply system is very useful, not only during the product development phase, but also for the implementation of the on-board real-time controller.
Technical Paper
Azeez Ahmed, Gopalakrishna Deshpande, Varghese Manu Varghese, Ramakrishnan Rangaswamy, Prakash Prashanth Ravi
Abstract The engine research and development has a significant contribution to meet the stringent emission norms and the changing global market demands. Leveraging the available virtual engineering methods to improve performance, velocity, quality and diminish the lead time is the key for any global brand to stay in the competition. It is the key element to reduce the research and development costs substantially by virtually developing the idea as it is conceived. Engine development test cells consist of expensive test and measurement systems which demand skilled labor and advanced equipment. Effective utilization of the test cells is essential to meet the scheduled project deadlines and cost targets. Engine Design process and tools when used effectively can increase the efficiency and lower the test cell operation costs substantially. This paper discusses the examples for this application in the area of engine installation, sensitive instrumentation/assembly.
Journal Article
Chunshan Li, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong, Wenchao Liu
Abstract This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) algorithm for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is utilized in the fault detection (FD) module so as to estimate the in-wheel motor parameters, which could detect parameter variations caused by in-wheel motor fault. A motion controller based on sliding mode control (SMC) is able to compute the generalized forces/moments to follow the desired vehicle motion. By considering the tire adhesive limits, a reconfigurable control allocator optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators so as to minimize the tire workloads once the actuator fault is detected. An actuator controller calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. If one or more in-wheel motors lose efficacy, the FD module diagnoses the actuator failures first.
Technical Paper
Carla K. Mauerberg Gerulaitis, Cleber Willian Gomes, Paulo Carpenito
Abstract This paper describes the strategy of lubricant oil service interval for commercial truck based on new engine technology (PROCONVE P7), the fleet owner's needs, vehicle typical application route, operational costs related to oil change, design of oil pan to adequate the oil volume and lubricant oil available technology. In result, this analysis shows the best annual operational cost for customer in terms of oil change.
Technical Paper
Paul C. Cain
Abstract OEM benefit: Vehicle manufacturers desire continuous feedback in monitoring key safety related sub-assemblies. In this application, engineers are calculating the remaining brake pad life by continuously monitoring the current thickness of the brake pad friction material. This information is used in scheduling preventative maintenance activities and avoiding safety incidents. Unplanned machine down time and field repair expenses in earthmoving equipment are cost prohibitive. Today, this technology allows OEM's to have high confidence, continuous feedback on this critical vehicle safety feature, avoiding expensive, unplanned repairs and to improve field “up time” performance. Application challenge: to develop a reliable linear position sensor that is suitable for continuous monitoring of brake pad material thickness in a high pressure, high temperature, high vibration and contaminated environment typical of large construction (earthmoving) vehicles.
Journal Article
George Bergeles, Jason Li, Lifeng Wang, Foivos Koukouvinis, Manolis Gavaises
Abstract Despite numerous research efforts, there is no reliable and widely accepted tool for the prediction of erosion prone material surfaces due to collapse of cavitation bubbles. In the present paper an Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) is proposed, based on the pressure loads which develop on the material surface and the material yield stress. EAI depends on parameters of the liquid quality and includes the fourth power of the maximum bubble radius and the bubble size number density distribution. Both the newly proposed EAI and the Cavitation Aggressiveness Index (CAI), which has been previously proposed by the authors based on the total derivative of pressure at locations of bubble collapse (DP/Dt>0, Dα/Dt<0), are computed for a cavitating flow orifice, for which experimental and numerical results on material erosion have been published. The predicted surface area prone to cavitation damage, as shown by the CAI and EAI indexes, is correlated with the experiments.
Technical Paper
Evandro Silva
Abstract In recent years the commercial vehicle industry, specifically the heavy duty truck product line, has seen a rapid increase in the replacement of pure mechanical systems by electronic controlled systems. Engine, transmission, brakes, lighting, clusters, etc. are all monitored and/or controlled electronically. The adoption of electronic systems created a substantial change in the complexity of the heavy duty trucks systems. Currently Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) displayed on instrument clusters, in the majority of the cases, are no longer generated by a single sensor/component failure, instead these DTCs are triggered by a system monitor flag, as the result of a below average performance or a failure of an entire system. This new level of complexity makes it very difficult for the current diagnostic methods and tools, to identify what is causing the equipment to operate below ideal conditions.
Technical Paper
Sanket Pawar
Abstract Reliability engineering methods are used to assess risk and eliminate hazards by estimation, elimination, and management of risks of failures. The ISO 26262 functional safety standard gives detailed guidance on reliability engineering methods like Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) [7], Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) [8] [2], and etc. While, there are many methods available for reliability engineering; no single method is foolproof for securing safety by eliminating hazards completely. Out of these methods, FMEA is widely being used as an integral part of the product development life cycle [10]. In this method, failure modes of individual components are analyzed considering one failure at a time. FMEA is an efficient method for analyzing failures in simple systems. For complex systems, FMEA becomes impractical. It is also difficult to consider variables in FMEA.
Technical Paper
Technical Paper
H. H. Howard
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Technical Paper
Randolph Whitfield
A SURVEY of 30 typical bus operating companies was made by the author to get a representative opinion regarding the accessibility of present-day buses for servicing and maintenance. After pointing out the large number of complaints about inaccessibility that these companies had, he discusses their needs under the following classification: 1. Accessibility for nightly service operations. 2. Accessibility for scheduled inspection, testing, and adjustment work. 3. Accessibility for removal of complete units. 4. Accessibility within major units themselves.
Technical Paper
M. Rapone, L. Della Ragione, G. Meccariello
This study aims to characterize real world bus driving behavior from data obtained in experimental campaigns using instrumented buses. An integrated statistical method to determine bus driving behavior, based on analysis of time series of bus speed and GPS location data, is illustrated in this paper. Kinematic features of bus operating conditions are characterized by multivariate analysis of trip speed time series. Each trip is analyzed within a multi-level hierarchical structure: sequence, sub-cycle, cycle (part of trip between two successive bus stops). Finally, a preliminary application of the proposed method is shown, based on data obtained with buses of different size and homologation class in Naples and Palermo. Reference driving cycles were built, for one line in both cities, taking the most statistically representative cycles of each line with regard to different traffic and road situations.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 813


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