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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1813
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0651
Joshua Pryor, Matt Pierce, Eric Fremond, Yanick Michou
This paper presents the efforts done by Volvo 3P, through a partnership with ThermoAnalytics Inc, to develop transient thermal simulation methodologies of the under hood of a truck. The verification process for the hot spots analysis currently in use at Volvo 3P is described and the key transient situations for the hot spots analysis are identified: hot shutdown, DPF regeneration and long drive cycle, are currently only covered by physical testing late in the project, contrary to steady-state operating conditions that are already managed through simulations in the early stage of the development phase. The goal of this work is to develop simulation methodologies for these transient situations which are likely to increase the efficiency of the verification process. The key issues to be satisfied are to minimize the model development and the simulation times while achieving an acceptable accuracy level.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2451
Lian Soto Izquierdo, Gian Gomes Marques, Vanessa Balieiro
Studies aimed at partial or total use of renewable fuels in diesel engines has increasingly attracted the interest of the automotive industry, in particular due to its characteristics of strength, durability and greater thermal efficiency. The oil esters derived from biological sources, who receive the generic name for biodiesel, is one of the alternatives used internationally. Their physicochemical properties are similar to diesel oil for providing an acceptable dynamic process of preparation and combustion in the engine. This paper presents and evaluates the results of experimental tests carried out in four trucks used exclusively B20 biodiesel (20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel), and one with B100 (pure biodiesel), in real operating conditions.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2439
Eldon Brasche
Since 1992, Caterpillar has invested millions of dollars to purchase CAD software, and spends nearly $2M per year keeping its engineers up-to-date, via instructor lead training (ILT), as new enhancements are introduced. Periodic upgrades to the software also require huge resource (people, costs) commitments for the planning and execution of the training requirements required for a large global workforce. This paper will examine gaps uncovered in the efficiency and effectiveness of the current training process, and the cultural change required as a result of switching from an instructor led environment to a completely web-based solution, which, once deployed, had promised to change the way Caterpillar approached training for the future. The proposed change promised to improve human resource capability by utilizing new technological capabilities, and resulted in improvements in organizational capabilities as well.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2441
Xinyu Ge
The growth of auto sales in emerging markets provides a good opportunity for automakers. Cost is a key factor for any automaker to win in an emerging market. This paper analyzes risks and opportunities in a low cost manufacturing environment. The Chinese auto market is used as an example and three categories of risks are analyzed. A typical risk assessment for cost reduction includes the analysis of environment risks, process risks and strategic risks associated with all phases of a product life. In an emerging market, emission regulations are a rapidly-evolving environment variable, since most countries with less regulated emission codes try to catch up with the newly- developed technologies to meet sustainable growth targets. Emission regulations have a huge impact on product design, manufacturing and maintenance in the automotive industry, and hence the related cost reduction must be thoroughly analyzed during risk assessment.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2438
Yaamini Devi Loganathan, Maksood Shaikh, Praveen Sharma
Foreign investments help in productive capacity building for both the parent organization in the home country, and in the host country. Preferably, investment promotion is encouraged as it creates biggest impact on creating backward and forward linkages besides generating direct and indirect employment. Commercial vehicle is one such industry. In this knowledge world, organizations can excel or sustain their excellence, only if there is a continuous learning at all levels. To a great extent, competitive advantage of a transnational organization lies in its ability to identify and transfer best practices, core competencies. Knowledge sharing happens in a natural way between its geographically dispersed and diverse units. Technology paves way in creating and leveraging knowledge at an exponential rate, besides reducing time, effort and cost while achieving business goals.
2014-01-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9093
Rodrigo Mayer de Ávila, Milton Borsato
Facing a competitive and globalized market and with increasingly demanding customers, companies must constantly seek the development of practices in the development of new products. One of the current practices is the adoption of modularity. In that sense, the objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis of this practice in a Brazilian company, which manufactures agricultural machinery. The applicability of modular design in current products is focused. Therefore, a case study approach has been chosen. First, a review of the scientific literature was conducted, followed by field research, for collecting data based on interviews with product engineers and technical documentation. The case study shows the applicability of the modular design concept in a combine header, by increasing the number of repeated components. The modular header approach facilitates the implementation of engineering changes and allows greater standardization of components.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2398
Mahendra Muli, Jace Allen
The Model-Based Development (MBD) process has been the key enabler of technical advancement. MBD helps manage complexity, while making product development faster by bringing clarity and transparency to the entire product development process, specifically software components. Developing software using MBD has required extensive, sophisticated toolchains, like the ones provided by dSPACE, that allow for efficient rapid controls prototyping, automatic code generation, and advanced validation and verification techniques with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test systems. MBD is an efficient iterative process that allows engineers to improve quality and deliver on demanding needs of product variants in the current competitive environment. However, the MBD process described commonly using the ‘V-Cycle’ diagram leads to the generation of large volumes of data artifacts and work products. The iterative process, variants and versions of these artifacts lead to even larger amounts of data.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2406
Vijay Janardan Warade, Gopal Krishna Dalvi, Rakesh Rameshchandra Sharma
In the pursuit of Manufacturing Excellence, DivgiWarner follows Quality System Basics which includes operator training as one of the key elements. Any manufacturing process consists of 5M's. Out of these 5M's, Machine, Material, Method, Measurement can be engineered to get the desired output. Required control is possible with the fifth ‘M’ i.e. Man by providing Standardized Training, resulting in Repeatability & Reproducibility from each process. DivgiWarner has designed, developed and been practicing the unique process of Operator Training and Licensing. This paper describes the Operator Licensing process. The process is divided into seven subsections inclusive of: 1 Induction Training2 Classroom Training3 On-Job Training4 Written Test and Evaluation5 Issue Operator License i.e.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2386
Otso Karhu, Kalevi Huhtala
The level of automation, including operator assisting functions, is becoming more sophisticated in heavy machinery. This involves using new types of sensors and embedded computers. However, considering the long life cycles of heavy machinery, the electronic control systems should be modular and flexible. A modular control system of an automated machine is often distributed over CAN and Ethernet. However, many interesting sensor and actuator types do not have these interfaces. In this paper, a generic microcontroller board with analogous and digital communication is presented. With this board, CAN communications can be added to many sensors. The board can also perform sensor-related data processing. The microcontroller board is tested in several applications. In an automated wheel loader, the board is used in control of the work hydraulics circuit that is based on digital hydraulics.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2360
G. Balaji, Ashwini Agarwal, Mahesh Mungi, Ranjit Babar, Vidyadhar Katkar PE
In automotive design and development, there are different stages for product design. In this fast changing scenario product design, digital verification of design (CAE), physical validation of the product and launching of the same in short time is important in product development life cycle of any new generation vehicle. This paper proposes a new approach towards development of a green-field platform for commercial vehicles by improving reliability of CAE and thereby reducing the need for prototype testing and hence shortening development cycle and costs - we call it “Hybrid Mule”. This Hybrid Mule has complete design intent under-body and engine-house while upper-body is made of simple representative tubular space frame. FRP skin panels are attached to this space frame to create a safe environment for test-driver. FRP skin also provides early feel of styling in running condition and evaluates basic ergonomics and visibility.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2709
Caner Demirdogen, Jim Ridge, Paul Pollock, Scott Anderson
Design of suspension systems for Heavy Trucks is always challenging due to the heavy loads the system is exposed to and the long life requirements for the total system. Historical solutions were over designed structures to get the needed life and reliability. This always meant heavier parts. In today's economy, the vehicle weight of commercial heavy trucks is a very important feature for our customers and the end user. Lighter, well-designed suspension components provide better ride quality to the drivers through lower un-sprung weight, lower initial costs and greater payloads. The latest available structural optimization techniques are a business requirement for tomorrow's products. This paper describes the developed methodology used by DANA Engineers to design a weight optimized upper control arm for Commercial Heavy Trucks in step by step fashion. The method starts with determining the loads on the component part.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2668
Hannes Hick, Klaus Denkmayr, Michael Aschaber
The AVL Load Matrix is a systematic approach to optimize durability and reliability test programs. It is based on component-specific test acceleration factors and uses damage models as well as statistics. Using the Load Matrix approach helps to achieve complete test programs while avoiding unrealistic over-testing. The paper describes the Load Matrix concept and structure as well as the process of setting up the Load Matrix for a system or component. Examples are provided on damage models, and the procedure to estimate the acceleration factors is discussed.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2667
Timothy J. Milburn
Product development and manufacturing organizations are moving from the traditional, multiple and serial design-build-test cycle approach to an integrated, concurrent task and systems engineering paradigm, led by upfront planning, analysis and simulation, supported by credible product test data. This “paradigm shift” includes a move from a predominance of physical testing for product prototype validation to simulation-led problem solving and performance validation, using Computer Aided Engineering, and Design (CAE and CAD) tools. Supported by use of Computer Aided Testing (CAT), physical testing capabilities have comparably grown in accuracy and application range. The role of testing is moving from mostly pre-production validation to include support of product design decisions throughout the development process, including upfront planning.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2656
Luciano Caletti, Jonny Carlos da Silva
This paper describes the development of an expert system project to design hydraulic power supply units, known as PHIDR, which is considered a natural expansion of KEOHPS Hydraulic Module. The expert system aims to support the designer in the process of selecting, in an efficient manner, the most adequate power supply unit based on design requirements and best practice rules. The text presents a description of the prototype system as well as its development process, including knowledge acquisition, representation, implementation and validation. Future issues on system expansion are also discussed.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0015
S. S. Thipse, K. P. Kavathekar, S. D. Rairikar, A. A. Tyagi, N. V. Marathe
A duel fuel diesel engine is a diesel engine fitted with a dual fuel conversion kit to enable use of clean burning alternative fuel like compressed natural gas. Dual fuel engines have number of potential advantages like fuel flexibility, lower emissions, higher compression ratio, better efficiency and easy conversion of existing diesel engines without major hardware modifications. In view of energy depletion and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compresed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecological friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Traditionally dual fuel technology has been popular for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationery engines. However its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of limited supply of alternative fuels.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0153
Prashant R. Pawar, Yogesh V. Dhage, M. R. Saraf, Vratislav Ondrak
The demands for safe, reliable, lighter, energy efficient and competitively priced products put a new emphasis on predictability of rolling bearing performance. This has prompted designers and engineers to estimate bearing life and optimize the design by taking into account different market requirement. Estimation of actual dynamic bearing load and life for specified class of vehicle depends upon various factors such as usage pattern, vehicle Gross Vehicel Weight (GVW), type of roads, speed, driving pattern, geographical area, ambient temperature, acceleration etc. For estimation and prediction of life of the particular wheel bearing type it is required to identify and measure customer usage loads for different targeted markets. The measurement maps all the affecting parameters to arrive at a generalized duty cycle for bearings.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0184
Leonardo de Oliveira Costa, James Edward Godden, Rafael Batista Amadio, Rodrigo Silva Santos
Emission standards are becoming more stringent and at the same time the standards for the On-Board Diagnostic System (OBD) are also continuously enhancing to ensure a more efficient and robust engine emissions monitoring system during the whole vehicle useful life and to improve the quality of the information delivered to the user. In the case of heavy duty diesel vehicles, the Brazilian standards are developed according to the existing European standards (Euro), for example the current standard in Brazil (so called Proconve P7) follows the same requirements of the Euro V with some minor differences. As a consequence, the applied technologies for exhaust gas after-treatment and sensing systems to meet the requirements are already used in European applications such as Selective Catalytic Reduction System (SCR), Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), as well as temperature, NOx and differential pressure sensors.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0418
Rogério Ribeiro, Fernando M. Sauer, Domingos da Silva, Luís Carlos C. Costa
New demands for the European Market claimed a new medium duty truck. Aim was not only to comply with new legislations, but also achieve better driving comfort and dynamic characteristics. The development of a new cab suspension was the answer given by means of an international project executed by the Technology Development Center of Mercedes-Benz do Brasil (CDT) with support of other technical divisions of our Development Center in Germany. High-level Teamwork Brazil/Germany at all levels from project coordination down to the plant assembly line was the key to reach an outstanding result with an extra achievement of weight reduction. Complete integration of all involved collaborators in Brazil and in Germany proved to be the main reason to get at the high efficiency shown during the development tasks. This article presents a brief overview of the undertaken development steps together with the challenges and the solutions given to assure the success of the international teamwork.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0324
Roberto F. Britto, Eugênio P.D. Coelho, Sammi Frederico, Marcelo Machado, Daniel Martinek, Celso Rabello, Thaisa Tomita
Brazil has been a leader for the past 30 years in the development and commercialization of vehicles powered by ethanol, which contributes significantly to maintain the basic Brazilian energy less dependent on fossil fuels, but its usage was restricted to small vehicles with focus on gasoline replacement. Whereas the use of diesel fuel has significant impact on emission of greenhouse gases when it is compared to the whole production cycle of the alternative fuels (“well to wheel” analysis), these fuels have been the focus of studies, applications, federal government programs, and also the private sector, such as bio-diesel, sugar cane diesel, ethanol with additive for diesel cycle and diesel-gas Dual-Fuel. This paper will detail the development a high efficient engine fueled with 100% hydrated ethanol capable to achieve up to 42% of break efficiency, similar to a diesel efficiency running on Otto cycle.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0491
Fabio Nicora, Tiago Bahia Santos, Henrique Augusto Pires Rezende
Natural gas is considered today a real alternative to diesel for the use in commercial vehicles in Europe, China, India and United States. While in Brazil natural gas is often the energy source for industrial processes and passenger's cars, opportunities to extend its utilization in light, medium commercial vehicles and buses could become realty in Brazil and Latin America. At the date, most of 12.000 IVECO CNG vehicles are running in different European countries and different customers' applications mainly refuse collection, urban logistics and urban people transport. Trucks running with Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) represent today an opportunity to improve quality of life for communities, reducing the pollutant and noise emissions and allow, for the fleets operators, a cost saving directly related to fuel. In the 2011 IVECO Latin America started a CNG program to introduce CNG technology into Brazilian market.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2302
Jude Liu, Benjamin Kemmerer
Methods of estimating tractor performance including power efficiency and fuel consumption under field operational conditions were discussed based on a tractor and a large square baler. Methods recommended by ASAE standards were used and results indicated that ASAE standards predicted 15% higher fuel consumption compared to that tested by Nebraska tractor test center. Field trials were conducted in switchgrass fields to verify and demonstrate these methods. Fuel consumption and the material capacity of the tractor-baler system were measured and also estimated using ASAE standards and Nebraska tractor test results. Field test results indicated that the fuel consumption of baling switchgrass was approximately 60% of the fuel consumption estimated with ASAE standards and tested by Nebraska tractor test center. Measured material capacity of the large square baler was approximately 40% of its theoretical capacity.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2292
Tianlei Zheng, Yuefu Jin, Zhao Wang, Michael Wang, Freda Fung, Fatumata Kamakate, Huiming Gong
To restrain the environmental and energy problems caused by oil consumption and improve fuel economy of heavy-duty commercial vehicles, China started developing relevant standards from 2008. This paper introduces the background and development of China's national standard “Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial vehicles”, and mainly describes the test method schemes, driving cycle and weighting factors for calculating average fuel consumption of various vehicle categories. The standard applies to heavy-duty vehicles with the maximum design gross mass greater than 3500 kg, including semi-trailer tractors, common trucks, dump trucks, city buses and common buses. The standard adopts the C-WTVC driving cycle which is adjusted on the basis of the World Transient Vehicle Cycle[1, 2] and specifies weighting factors of urban, rural and motorway segments for different vehicle categories.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2270
Andres Font
The continuously integration of electrics and electronics (EE) in the last decades is one of the main key drivers for innovation and business success of the Automotive OEMs. This is also applicable for truck manufacturers. On the other side factors like the rising vehicle complexity, number of variants and the warranty costs for EE issues are increasing the pressure on the engineering teams responsible for the mechatronic systems. To address these issues one of the key activities in the European market (focus on Germany) during the last decade was to introduce industry-wide standards for the data transfer of wiring harness data between OEM and harness supplier. In this paper the benefits and technical background of using the standards KBL and KOMP formats within the MB-Trucks brand will be presented. Moreover the role of the Information Technology (IT) will be explained in detail.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2268
Nagesh Belludi, Joshua Receveur, Jeremy Raymond
This paper presents an extension of our earlier work on Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) software. Previously, we presented VMS as a Windows based analysis tool to simulate vehicle missions quickly and to gauge, communicate, and improve the value proposition of Cummins engines to customers. We have subsequently extended this VMS architecture to build a grid-computing platform to support high volume of simulation needs. The building block of the grid-computing version of VMS is an executable file that consists of vehicle and engine simulation models compiled using Real Time Workshop. This executable file integrates MATLAB and Simulink with Java, XML, and JDBC technologies and interacts with the MySQL database. Our grid consists of a cluster of twenty Linux servers with quad-core processors. The Sun Grid Engine software suite that administers this cluster can batch-queue and execute 80 simulations concurrently.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2181
Qianfan (Harry) Xin
The two most important issues for diesel engine system engineers to handle engine applications are how to coordinate technical relationships in an organization/team and how to acquire working knowledge of different applications for system integration. This paper is the first part of a series of three inter-related papers (parts) addressing diesel engine applications (i.e., Part 1 - the relationship among applications, engine system design, systems engineering, and organization structure; Part 2 - general performance characteristics of diesel engine applications; and Part 3 - specific or special emissions, operating, and design characteristics of different applications). Specialization, departmentalization, and integration are the three most critical aspects in organization design for engine product development.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2827
M. T. Afify, R. L. Kushwaha, W. G. Milne, Z. A. El-Haddad, M. Y. El-Ansary
A new prototype of a single unit till-planting system suitable for Egyptian soil was designed, constructed, and tested under soil bin and field conditions. Measurements were taken for draft, soil mean weight diameter, and seedling emergence. Results indicated that there are potential benefits of using this system rather to other tillage systems under dry and hard soil conditions. An optimum seedbed was created for rapid seedling emergence. Combinations of tillage, planting, and fertilizer application were performed in a single operation to reduce power and time requirements for crop production.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2826
V. V. Vantsevich, G. S. Happawana
Mass and geometric parameters of all-wheel drive off road vehicles, such as coordinates of the center of gravity and arrangement of the wheels, have been obtained to satisfy cross-country mobility profiles that reduce the dynamic normal loads on the running gear system. However, the influence of these parameters on tractive properties for basic cross-country mobility of vehicles receives less attention. The authors have developed a new method for determining mass and geometric parameters that provides optimal tractive properties for basic cross-country mobility of off-road vehicles. The methodology is realized using a mathematical model of a 6WD tractor on a deformable road surface. The mass and geometric parameters are achieved by optimizing the tractive efficiency function to provide the best transport efficiency on all running gears.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2829
A. Uspenskiy, V. Boikov
Speed measurement accuracy of computers installed on wheeled tractors, not equipped with radar velocity transducers depends on the following: the rolling radius of the wheel to which the speed sensor is connected; the number of sensor's pulses per revolution; and algorithms used for processing the data that arrives from the speed sensor. The work deals with the effect of static tire characteristics and other factors influencing the speed measurement accuracy of wheeled tractors by means of on-board computers. Recommendations are given aimed at accuracy improvement when measuring tractor speed.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2844
M. Scott Buck
In the past, all machines were designed and developed by mechanical engineers. To the ‘gear head’, ‘metal bending’ engineers the onset of the electronics to their machines was sacrilegious. The electrical engineers knew how to contain the sleeping giant of electricity and put its power to work for the betterment of the machines. Now there is a mystical beast that has seen its way into almost everything that controls our everyday life. It even threatens to basically kill our current lifestyle in less than a year. The only one that knows how to corral the beast is the software engineer. In less than 20 years, software has become the glue that binds everyday life together into a seamless process. If we do not contain and develop software through strict processes that are followed and enforced, the year 2000 bug will seem like a minor hiccup in the world of tomorrow.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3752
Alain L. Kornhauser
This paper documents the current realities of in-vehicle navigation systems in terms of their functionality, scope and responsiveness. It discusses the evolution of these systems with the advent of wireless communications. Addressed are the issues associated with delivery and utilization of real-time traffic, incident, and weather information to and by in-vehicle navigation systems. Also discussed are other High-level in-vehicle decisions that can be supported by the marriage of wireless communications with in-vehicle navigation. Applications considered range from the choosing of alternate waypoints and destinations (where to get gas, where to park), to the host of nRouteCommerce transactions that can be more efficiently achieved with the support of in-vehicle navigation (reserving a parking space, resetting household thermostats as you approach home). Implications on driver workload, in-vehicle processing, wireless bandwidth and Internet traffic are discussed.
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