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Viewing 1 to 30 of 217
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2677
David Milligan, Ulf Engström, Ryu Goto
Powder Metallurgy (P/M) is an increasingly viable alternative for applications requiring high material performance. Continuous advances in alloy systems and processing techniques, combined with powder metallurgy's ability to produce complex net shapes, have made it possible for powder metallurgy to compete with other technologies in engine and transmission applications. This paper will focus on new alloy systems and advanced processing techniques. The properties achievable with currently available materials, such as chromium containing materials, combined with advanced processing techniques, such as warm compaction and surface densification, will be presented. Additionally, a case study where a warm compacted synchronizing latch cone in a heavy duty truck transmission was found to have equal or superior performance to precision forged and powder forged latch cones.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2739
Saveliy M. Gugel
This article describes the experience of Sanova-Polytech, Inc. (SPI) in the creation, testing, and usage of new Liquid Induction Thermochemical Processes (LINTERPROCESS™) and Liquid Induction Heat Treatment (LINHEAT™) technologies, and in the designing, manufacturing, and employment of new automatic computerized production equipment, which can be of significant advantage to manufacturers of commercial vehicles. Heat treatment and thermochemical processing of various metals play an important role in the global effort to produce stronger, lighter, and more durable machine parts at lower costs. They are widely used in the manufacturing of cars and buses, and farm, construction, industrial, and other machinery.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210055
C S MOODY
The author considers first the materials available for construction, in connection with the S.A.E. standard specifications, and presents a comparison of the different metals with comments thereon. In regard to metallurgical problems the designer's first task is to determine what the various stresses in the parts are and their magnitude; hence, a true appreciation of the terms “shock” and “fatigue” is necessary; a somewhat lengthy explanation of their meaning is given. The construction features of the different parts of the tractor are treated in general, no attempt being made to cover details; comments are presented on front axles, wheels, bearings, cylinders, valves, valve-seats, transmissions and gears. Heat-treating is then considered in some detail, three specific reasons for annealing before machining being given and five which are governing factors in regard to heat-treatment in general.
2016-05-11
Technical Paper
2016-36-0064
V. R. M. Gonçalves, L. C. F. Canale, V. Leskovšek, B. Podgornik
Abstract Spring steels are the materials most commonly used in suspensions of vehicles and are subject to heavy efforts in terms of load, impact and also under intense fatigue solicitation. Required mechanical performance depends mainly on the chemical composition and heat treatments. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to compare SAE 5160 steel with one Super Clean steel developed in Slovenia. Searches improving mechanical properties of these steels are constantly present in the automotive industry, reducing vehicle weight and maintaining safety. In this scenario, cryogenic treatment in combination with quenching and tempering has shown interesting results in the scientific literature for tool steels and the best results for cryogenics are achieved when the treatment occurs for long duration as 24 hours.
1952-01-01
Technical Paper
520043
CHARLES W. BRIGGS
1950-01-01
Technical Paper
500038
ROT F. KERN
1952-01-01
Technical Paper
520141
WILLIAM G. GUIDE
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0487
Marc Legault, Jim Collins
The 44-84 transfer case from BorgWarner is a new generation AWD/Part time 2-speed transfer case with a 2.64 low range. This transfer case was developed for the General Motors H2 and contains almost 31 pounds of powder metal components. The powder metal components range from single level gears, to two planetary carriers one of which is a two piece sinter brazed assembly and the other a highly designed 3 piece center differential which in open mode distributes torque in a 40/60-ratio front to rear. The center differential carrier body contains three sections and two different materials. In addition to the carrier body, the differential contains 8 pinion gears, which are P/M, and two sun gears, one of which is P/M.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2684
S. Ghosal, B. R. Galgali, M. M. Ogale, S. P. Joshi
The bake hardening effect depends on three parameters i.e. pre-straining, paint baking temperature and paint baking time. The combined effect of all these parameters results into the increase in yield strength, called the “baking effect”. This paper explains the individual effects of these parameters on the baking value. Tensile test were carried out for the 495 samples baked at baking temperature from 140°C to 250°C with differential baking time of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes and differential pre-straining of 2%, 3% and 5%. The differences of yield strength between the unbaked and baked sample were calculated and the increase in yield strength was noted. After these laboratory trials 800 numbers of door outer panels of a small truck were formed and finish painted. The increment in yield strength after component forming and painting was determined by taking tensile samples from three different locations of 5 painted doors.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921640
Brent Backhaus
The conceptualization, design, analysis, prototyping, and testing of a steel casting are described. The methods used include 2D CAD, 3D solid modeling, finite element analysis, Solid Ground Curing rapid prototyping, and laboratory prototype testing. The part was successfully delivered to field testing on time. The use of the MCAE techniques provided a more optimal part more quickly than the use of standard CAD techniques would have provided. A minor cost penalty was paid for the prototype pattern versus conventional prototyping.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921639
Thomas J. Mueller
Several methods have been developed which use rapid prototyping techniques to assist in the creation of prototype metal castings. Methods exist for a number of casting processes such as sand casting, die casting, investment casting, and evaporative pattern casting. In many cases, these methods can reduce both the time and cost required to create prototype castings.
1994-11-01
Technical Paper
942311
Kyung Sop Kim, Sung Cheol Kim, Sang Yeob Oh
Production cost saving is the main subject of process control of all automobile industries. Recently introduced ADI is a suitable material for those issues, but usefulness is restricted because of its poor fracture toughness. In the study, the effect of casting and austempering conditions on the fracture toughness of ADI were determined in order to develop a suitable material which can replace forged alloy steel. For casting of DCI, sandwitch method was conducted as inoculation process involving spheroldizing treatment with calballoy. Austempering was carried out in a salt bath with a composition of 50% KNO3 and 50% NaNO3 and then cooled in air. Two main parameters, namely austempering temperature and time, were selected as variables and structural changes of ADI with initial casting conditions was monitored with them. According to the casting results, it was confirmed that the mechanical properties of ADI, especially fracture toughness, depends strongly on casting conditions of DCI.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941745
Craig A. Nelson
Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) developed its own vacuum die casting process to produce true T6 heat treatable aluminum die castings. This process was initiated by OMC Research and developed jointly with OMC Waukegan. The project began 1990 and was put into production in 1992 on the outboard motor lower mount bracket shown in figure 1. OMC is producing vacuum die cast aluminum parts made with 356.0 alloy and T6 heat treated which meet or exceed the strength of similarly alloyed and processed permanent mold or lost foam cast parts. The application of this process is being expanded within the realm of structural outboard motor parts to include other mounting brackets, as well as fuel system components. An automotive die caster is using the technology and equipment provided by OMC to produce leak tight air conditioner compressor housings.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891933
Mark Lawerenz, Imants Ekis
The shot peening process has been widely recognized for many years as a proven, cost-effective process to greatly enhance the fatigue characteristics of metal parts and eliminate problems of stress corrosion cracking. Additional benefits of the process in the last few years have also been recognized in the areas of forming and texturizing. Though the process is widely used today, the means of specifying process parameters and controlling documents for process control are not widely understood. Questions as to what shot size and intensity to specify, along with what to put on the blueprint to assure a high quality and repeatable shot peening process, are continually asked by many design and materials engineers.
1996-08-01
Technical Paper
961750
Gus Nickel
Shot peening has been used for half a century to combat metal fatigue and stress corrosion cracking in highly loaded machines and structures. Despite its success as a “fix” for service problems, there has been a reluctance to specify shot peening in new designs. This has been based on a lack of confidence, the uniformity and repeatability of the process. Much of this has been overcome with the introduction of computer-enhanced peening equipment, which monitors and controls key process parameters. Computer enhanced shot peening and its equipment are reviewed with emphasis on what it does and does not do. The successful marriage of conventional and computer enhanced peening is used for critical aircraft, turbine, nuclear power plant, and truck transmissions and its use promises to grow.
2002-03-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-1442
S. M. Gugel
The interest to the new surface heat treatment technologies, which were recently invented in the United States, is constantly increasing in the world industry. Research and developments in the field of Induction Carburizing Technology (LINCARB™), which is the first production technology in large family of new, progressive thermochemical processing (LINTERPROCESS™) are successfully going on. Eleven varieties of this treatment can be used for increasing of machine part resistance against friction and wear, corrosion, fretting, erosion and cavitation by creation of special surface layers. The microstructure and properties of these diffusion coatings can be selected depending on service condition of the part. The protective diffusion coating can be created quickly and economically during seconds or minutes compare to hours and tens of hours which are necessary for traditional methods of treatment.
2002-03-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-1443
Robert C. Goldstein, Valentin S. Nemkov, Robert T. Ruffini
The induction heat treating method is being used to heat treat more and more vehicle components every day. The most critical component in an induction heat treating system is the induction coil. The existing practice of coil design is based mainly on an empirical approach and the use of “rules of thumb”. This old technique for designing induction coils is slowly being replaced by modern design techniques incorporating computer simulation, the most advanced materials and technology for their manufacturing. A general description of the advantages of induction heating and inductor design considerations and procedure is contained in this paper. The present paper also contains a detailed description of computer simulation for induction heating. An example of a computer simulation study for a robot guided induction scanning process and case hardening an axle fillet area are presented.
2002-03-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-1410
Lin Li, Xiaochun Wu, Luoping Xu
{With the self-restricting test method, heat fatigue behavior of 4Cr5MoSiV1 steel and 8407 steel is investigated under the same heat treatment condition. The crack morphology and fracture surface is also analyzed. Heat fatigue cracks of both steels initiate at the time between 100 to 200 cycles. The initiating cracks of 8407S steel are smaller and more equable than that in 4Cr5MoSiV1 steel. When the annealing temperature is below 610°C, the heat fatigue behavior of 4Cr5MoSiV1 steel is better than that of 8407S steel. However, as the annealing temperature exceeds 610°C, the behavior of the latter seems superior. Also analyzed is the mechanism of heat fatigue, which reveals the main factor affecting heat fatigue resistance is the thermal stability and strength or hardness of steels.}
2002-03-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-1406
Daniel H. Herring, Gerald D. Lindell, David J. Breuer, Beth S. Matlock
Vacuum carburizing has proven itself a robust heat treatment process and a viable alternative to atmosphere carburizing. Many companies are currently evaluating which technology to invest in for the future. The work reported here will provide technical reasons why vacuum carburizing should be chosen. Gear manufacturers of heavy duty, off-road transmissions and related equipment such as Twin Disc Corporation have found numerous benefits to substitute vacuum carburizing with high gas pressure quenching technology for either atmosphere or vacuum carburizing with oil quenching technology. This paper will present scientific data in support of this choice. Of paramount importance is lowering unit cost that can only be achieved by improved dimensional control and cost effective manufacturing methods.
2002-03-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-1368
Xinmin Luo, Honghong Shao, Huinan Liu
A kind of gas-nitriding process compounding post-polishing and oxidizing was developed. It was revealed that direct quenching could obtain monomorphic dense ε-compound phase. Post-treatment effectively minimized surface porousness and brittleness, brought about fine surface decoration effect, made part's surface static friction factor μ reduce to 0.21∼0.23. No rust spots were found on surface of specimens when sprayed in 5%(wt) sodium chloride solution for 48 hours. Electrode potential value indicated that parts treated possess of better anti-corrosion property than single nitrided. The new process mitigated punch's loading and consumption of dies as well.
2002-03-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-1365
J. Trojanowski, A. Nakonieczny, T. Wierzchoń, M. Kamiński
Thermo-chemical treatment of austenitic stainless steels has recently been increasingly developed with the aim to improve the frictional wear resistance of the steels without spoiling their high corrosion resistance. Prospective lines of this development are processes conducted under glow discharge conditions, such as nitriding at temperatures below 500°C, nitriding combined with oxidising, and producing composite layers of the nitrided layer+Ti(NCO) with the use of a Ti(OC3H7)4 vapour-containing atmosphere. The paper presents the results of metallographic examinations and the measurements of the phase composition, corrosion resistance and frictional wear of the surface layers produced using these processes, and also describes the kinetics of the glow discharge assisted nitriding process. The results show an increase of the frictional wear resistance of the steels, whereas their good corrosion resistance is preserved.
2002-03-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-1394
L. C. F. Canale, A. F. Farah, O. R. Crnkovic
Wear resistance of high Cr white cast irons can be improved by means of heat treatment. The purpose of this work was to study the influence of parameters such as quenching and tempering temperatures and sub zero treatment in the abrasion wear performance of the high Cr white cast iron Nb alloyed. Pin-on-disc abrasion tests were performed and the worn surface was examined by SEM. The main wear mechanisms were identified. This Fe alloy has shown good performance for applications in mining and alcohol-sugar industries.
2002-03-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-1478
Kathy Hayrynen, Kristin Brandenberg, John R. Keough
The Carbo-Austempering™ process is a high performance steel heat treatment that combines a high carbon bainitic case with either a bainitic or tempered Martensite core to produce a component with an exceptional combination of strength and toughness. This paper will review the Carbo-Austempering™ process and its commercial applications. The properties of Carbo-Austempered™ steel along with the benefits and limitations of the process will also be discussed.
2002-03-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-1475
B. Lynn Ferguson, Andrew M. Freborg
A software tool has been developed to aid designers and process engineers in the development and improvement of heat treat processes. This tool, DANTE™, combines metallurgical phase transformation models with mass diffusion, thermal and mechanical models to simulate the heating, carburization, quenching and tempering of steel parts. The technology behind the DANTE software and some applications are presented in this paper.
2002-11-18
Technical Paper
2002-01-3056
Coryne A. Forest, Benton R. Gady, Todd Richman, Valerie Yoder
The Army's Mobile Parts Hospital (MPH) program has been established to increase vehicle readiness by fabricating repair parts near the point of need. The mobile capability will include a satellite for part data transfer, hardware and software for reverse engineering, and manufacturing equipment from both the traditional manufacturing and the rapid prototyping industries. Additionally, the MPH will set up agile manufacturing cells in the continental United States to do the things that cannot be done in the field system. These agile manufacturing cells will be able to receive the engineering data generated from the mobile system and rapidly produce a qualified part to be shipped to the military unit needing the part. This paper will focus on the manufacturing capabilities that are planned for the mobile field system.
2002-11-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-3482
Reinaldo João Gutierrez, Irineu Ricardo Muneratto, Ricardo Colalillo
2016-08-16
Magazine
Types of aircraft passenger-escape systems An overview of existing and potential new methods for assuring aircraft occupant safety. SAE Skill India Initiative: S2I2 A new SAEINDIA collaboration aims to help young engineers acquire "industry-ready" skills. A technology-driven sustainable-agriculture solution Pumping more air into the cylinder is key to solving the CAFE puzzle, and engineers are hard at work figuring out the best ways to do it with turbocharger and supercharger innovation. Rotorcraft icing computational tool development 3D printing machines can't be built fast enough In the additive-manufacturing world, the costs of components are dropping, the technology is becoming more reliable and parts are fabricated faster, allowing industries beyond aerospace to adopt additive technologies, says Oak Ridge Lab's Ryan Dehoff.
2015-08-18
Magazine
The advent of stop-start technology As environmental concerns grow for R&D teams, OEMs look to bring the strategy further into the mainstream. Recycling opportunities for hybrid/electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries With limited reserves and strict environmental regulations, re-cyclers look to established extraction means to reuse, recycle, and dispose of the used batteries. Cameras look to go the distance Automakers seek vision systems with greater distances, improved reliability, and more functionality, thanks to ruggedized complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies. Getting right with composites With composites now a mainstay in most new aircraft de-signs, the engineering emphasis has switched from understanding if they work to thinking through the most efficient way to manufacture them, such as using design-for-manufacturing software.
2015-12-02
Magazine
Improving heavy-duty engine component efficiencies Cylinder deactivation can improve fuel economy by using a reduced number of cylinders that operate at higher loads and thermal efficiency, while other cylinders are turned off, when the engine operates at partial load conditions. A switching roller finger follower is one of the technologies that help make it work. Pumping up hydraulic capabilities Electrohydraulic advances keep coming as distributed electronics flex their muscle. Tracking the trends in commercial vehicle communications Industry insiders at Molex offer what they think the future may hold for heavy-duty components in 24/7 communications systems. ADAS system validation It is crucial that different advanced driver assistance systems functionalities interact seamlessly with existing electronic control unit (ECU) networks.
2011-07-28
Magazine
Losing weight with lost foam casting Equipment made with lightweight materials can improve fuel consumption and increase available payload capacity.
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