Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 374
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2379
Zhigang Wei, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Fulun Yang, Dmitri Konson, Bala Gurusamy
Durability/reliability design of products, such as auto exhaust systems, is essentially based on the observation of test data and the accurate interpretation of these data. Therefore, test planning and related data analysis are critical to successful engineering designs. To facilitate engineering applications, testing and data analysis methods have been standardized over the last decades by several standard bodies such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). However, over the last few years, several effective testing and data analysis methods have been developed, and the existing standard procedures need to be updated to incorporate the new observations, knowledge, and consensus. In this paper, the common practices and the standard test planning and data analysis procedures are reviewed first. Subsequently, the recent development in accelerated testing, equilibrium based data fitting, design curve construction, and Bayesian statistical data analysis is presented.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2378
Manimaran Krishnamoorthy, Mathew Sam Paul Albert
In this work, durability of the bus structure is evaluated with a Virtual Test Model (VTM).Full vehicle Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) model of the bus is built, with inclusion of flexibility of the bus structure to capture structural modes. Component mode synthesis method is used for creation of flexible model for use in MBD. Load extraction is done by performing MBD analysis with measured wheel inputs. Modal Superposition Method (MSM) is employed in FE along with these extracted loads for calculation of modal transient dynamic stress response of the structure. e-N based fatigue life is estimated. The estimated fatigue life from the modal superposition method show good correlation with the physical test results done in 6-poster test rig.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2380
Anandan Sivakumar, Sachin Wagh, G. Raghavendra, Chaitanya Govind Kulkarni, Hemant Malekar
Success of the vehicle in the market depends on comfort provided while usage, which also includes noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In order to achieve comfort level, the NVH levels have to be as low as possible. Powertrain is the main source of NVH, in which internal combustion engine consists of crank shaft and balancer shaft. Crank shaft gear is connected and driven by crank shaft and balanced by integral eccentric mass coupled with gear. Balancer shaft is used for additional balancing of rotating masses. Pair of crank shaft and balancer shaft gears generates noise and vibration when unbalance in the system and backlash in the gears increase while usage. The practice of interposing a vibration isolator on the surface of gear has been so far resorted for preventing transmission of vibration, therefore reduction in noise. In the work presented, balancer gear was made with sandwich design to reduce noise. Sandwich design comprises of Inner hub and outer ring with lug projections.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2377
Sivashankar S, Sudarsanam S, N. Saravanan
Based on customer application and loading condition, each Commercial Vehicle model has an entirely different usage pattern. To perform accurate durability validation, each vehicle model prototype should run on actual customer usage locations and loading conditions for the durability target kilometers. But it is time consuming and not practical. So a statistical approach is followed to generate the accelerated durability test sequence and target on in-house Proving Ground tracks to match the real customer usage for the durability target kilometers. Again a single durability test sequence and target cannot be followed for all vehicle models due to the variability in customer usage. For that, specific durability test sequence and target need to be established for every class of commercial vehicle. This paper summarizes the methodology to develop Durability test sequence and target for commercial vehicle based on the work carried out on variants of medium and heavy duty trucks.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0130
Antony Smith, Saurabh Rajauria, Sachin Agarwal
In the growing automobile world, every commercial vehicle manufacturer upgrades their product from their existing product to meet world market demand for high power engine with high torque, most fuel efficient, BS-IV and BS-V emission norms and less cost. In an Engine cylinder block and cylinder head are among the critical parts need to be modified to upgrade the existing engine platform. The VE4101 Engine is a massive 3.8 l 4 Cyl 16 valve engine based on the E483 4 cyl 8 valve engine, which is currently being mass produced in VECV, India. This engine cylinder block and cylinder head are designed with key features such as capable for high peak firing pressure, rigid load structure, curvy envelope and ribs to reduce NVH, light weight 2 split top box manufacturing method. Key strategy is used such as less capital investment in purchasing machines, no/less alteration in current machining and assembly line.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0137
Sivashankar S, Hari Krishna SV, Alfred Nixon Mendez, Colin J. Dodds
Every class of commercial vehicle has an entirely different usage pattern based on customer application and needs. To perform accurate durability testing, these prototypes should run on real customer usage locations and loading conditions for the target life. However, this is time consuming and not practical, hence resulting in Proving Ground (PG) testing. It is also known that a standard PG durability cycle cannot be valid for every class of vehicle and every application. So a statistical approach was followed to develop an accelerated durability test cycle based on in-house PG test surfaces in order to match the real customer usage to the durability target life. This paper summarizes the methodology to develop Durability Validation test cycles for commercial vehicle based on the work carried out on a heavy duty tipper and an intermediate commercial vehicle.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0139
Sathish Kumar P, Vikram Suryavanshi, Manikandan M, Bollishetty Sreedhar
Evaluation of vehicle structural durability is one of the key requirements in design and development of today's automobiles. Computer simulations are used to estimate vehicle durability to save the cost and time required for building and testing the prototype vehicles. The objective of this work was to find the service life of automotive structures like passenger commercial vehicle (bus) and truck's cabin by calculating cumulative fatigue life for operation under actual road conditions. Stresses in the bus and cabin are derived by means of performing finite element analysis using inertia relief method. Multi body dynamics simulation software ADAMS was used to obtain the load history at the bus and cabin mount locations - using measured load data as input. Strain based fatigue life analysis was carried out in MSC-Fatigue using static stresses from Nastran and extracted force histories from ADAMS. The estimated fatigue life was compared with the physical test results.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0256
Taboada Gonzalo
This paper is to for determine, using a simulation model (equation) and graphic, each of the faults that may occur in a systems, mechanical / electrical / hydraulic / pneumatic. In this case I have taken the rear axle of a truck as a component to analyze. Was sampled over 34,000 units in warranty, from 2004 to 2012 The next steps for the project are: Search specific data (manufacturers, companies, dealers) on the different types of failures and their respective analysis, in order to model and interpret correctly my analysis and simulation. Take a drive current park representative to mount the rear axle and are within one standard warranty period for a truck plant (1 to 2 years or 100,000 km. 200,000 km. respectively). Analyze data obtained in point 2 (number of faults, fractures) to have a database, with respect to reliability, unreliability and hazard rate.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0720
Lauren L. Thompson, Craig Jensen
Environmental concerns and government regulations are factors that have led to an increased focus on fuel economy in the automotive industry. This paper identifies a method used to improve the efficiency of a front-wheel-drive (FWD) automatic transmission. In order to create improvements in large complex systems, it is key to have a large scope, to include as much of the system as possible. The approach taken in this work was to use Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. This was done to optimize as many of the front-wheel-drive transmission components as possible to increase robustness and efficiency. A focus of robustness, or consistency in torque transformation, is as important as the value of efficiency itself, because of the huge range of usage conditions. Therefore, it was necessary to find a solution of the best transmission component settings that would not depend on specific usage conditions such as temperatures, system pressures, or gear ratio.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1316
Teuvo Maunula, Toni Kinnunen, Markus Iivonen
The emission regulations for mobile off-road applications are following on-road trends by a short delay. The latest Stage 3B and 4 emission limits mean a gradual implementation of oxidation and SCR catalysts as well as particulate filters with off-road machines/vehicles in the 2010s. The driving conditions and test cycles differ from on-road truck applications which have been the first design base for off-road aftertreatment technologies. Aftertreatment systems for Stage 4 were first analyzed and they will include oxidation catalysts, a NOx reduction catalyst (SCR or LNT), a particulate filter and possibly units for urea hydrolysis and ammonia slip removal. The design and durability of V₂O₅/TiO₂-WO₃ catalysts based on metallic substrates were investigated by engine bench and field experiments. NOx emissions were measured with 6.6 and 8.4 liters engines designed for agricultural and industrial machinery.
2011-01-19
Technical Paper
2011-26-0078
Thomas E. Reinhart
This paper reviews the technologies available for Bharat Stage 3 and 4 Heavy Duty on-highway emissions standards. Benchmarking data from several existing engines is used to explore the trade-offs between engine/vehicle cost and fuel consumption. Other implications of the available technologies, such as durability / reliability requirements, are also addressed. The paper provides recommendations for low cost approaches to meeting Bharat Stage 3 and 4 standards with good fuel consumption and reliability/ durability characteristics. A brief look ahead to future Bharat Stage 5 requirements is also provided.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0164
Sandro Oliveira, Cleber Gomes
This article is a new methodology to create a strong and reliable procedure to measure oil level at dealers. Most of time, commercial trucks run full loaded. Engine oil level indication systems are designed to measure oil level at that condition. However commercial trucks are assembled and sold empty and without bodies for trucks. In result of this condition, vehicles with a false indication of low engine oil level are detected at dealers' pre-delivery inspection, resulting in oil addition. This oil addition causes unnecessary costs, since vehicles are produced with maximum oil level. The methodology presented in this study analyzes and treats all variables involved in engine oil level measurements from engine production line until dealers' pre-delivery inspection
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-2058
Zhigang Wei, Fulun Yang, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Dmitri Konson
Fatigue, creep, oxidation, or their combinations have long been recognized as the principal failure mechanisms in many high-temperature applications such as exhaust manifolds and thermal regeneration units used in commercial vehicle aftertreatment systems. Depending on the specific materials, loading, and temperature levels, the role of each damage mechanism may change significantly, ranging from independent development to competing and combined creep-fatigue, fatigue-oxidation, creep-fatigue-oxidation. Several multiple failure mechanisms based material damage models have been developed, and products to resist these failure mechanisms have been designed and produced. However, one of the key challenges posed to design engineers is to find a way to accelerate the durability and reliability tests of auto exhaust in component and system levels and to validate the product design within development cycle to satisfy customer and market's requirements.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0310
Vyankatesh Madane, Sameer Shivalkar, Chandrakant Patil, Sanjeev Annigeri
Abstract In rubber industry, different techniques are used to enhance durability. This paper gives complete design, development and testing methodology of rubber bush in which pre-compression of rubber is used to enhance rubber bush life. In bogie suspension, axle to torque rod join is critical as it has to transfer lateral and longitudinal load with flexibility. This makes challenging to design joint which need to carry more than 6 ton load and having flexibility of more than 10 degree articulation. In this torque rod to axle joint called as End bush, compressed rubber is used to carry high load with flexibility. Other possible material for bush can be brass bush which able to carry high load however not able to give high flexibility Design and finite element calculations are done to design pre-compression and rubber volume to get desired strength and stiffness to carry required load with flexibility.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0235
Vinaykumar Dhangar, Solairaj Perumal, Abhay Kumar, Dinesh Redkar, Arun Mahajan, Abhirup Chakraborty, T Ganesan
Abstract A tractor is vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds for carrying out various agriculture operations like ploughing, rotavation etc. using implement. Hydraulic system is a key feature which connects these implements with the tractor. It controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induces extreme range of load on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Bell crank assembly is one of the main components of hydraulic system which controls the draft (thus, the loads experienced by tractor) through load sensing mechanism. Often bell crank assembly failures are reported from field due to uneven soil hardness and presence of rocks. This paper studies one of such bell crank assembly failures in the field. The failure was reported after half life cycle of usage during agriculture Operation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0101
Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan, Abhishek Kumar Jaishwal, Girish R Warrier, Sriram Tharaneetharan, Kalyan Hatti
Abstract This paper describes a methodology for design and development of On-Board Diagnostic system (OBD) with an objective to improve current reliability process in order to ensure design & quality of the new system as per requirement of commercial vehicle technology. OBD is a system that detects failures which adversely affect emissions and illuminates a MIL (Malfunction Indicator Lamp) to inform the driver of a fault which may lead to increase in emissions. OBD provides standard and unrestricted access for diagnosis and repair. Below given Figure 1 shows the working principle of OBD system. The exhaust emission of a vehicle will be controlled primarily by Engine Control Unit (ECU) and Exhaust Gas After Treatment Control (EGAS CU). These two control units determine the combined operating strategies of the engine and after treatment device. Figure 1 Modern Control Architecture for OBD System in Commercial vehicle [1
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0237
Rajendra More, Darshan Vachhani, Chetan Raval
Abstract Strength and durability of commercial vehicle structure is of prime importance to users while quicker time to market and least material cost are demands of competitive world. This requires assessment not just with simplistic loadcases but robust and accurate predictions closely co-relating real proving ground conditions. This paper demonstrates systematic approach of first road load predictions using MBD model, then stress analysis using FE model and finally life prediction using fatigue solver. MBD model was built using flex body, air suspensions with rigid links and tires with FTire characteristics. Same model ran on various virtual proving grounds and load history at various joints were extracted. Then inertia relief stress analysis with unit loads were carried out in Nastran and output stresses were mapped against load history in fatigue solver.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0038
Fabio Augusto Schuh, Leandro Luís Corso, Leonardo Hoss
Abstract Applying knowledge available at technical literature for cycle counting, damage caused by each load cycle through S-N curve, and fatigue damage accumulation by Palmgren-Miner rule, durability prediction is performed for a leafspring of a commercial vehicle with 6×4 suspension system. Max principal tension is measured by means of strain gages in the most representative points for fatigue life of the leafspring, determined with FEA, while vehicle runs over off-road track in a proving ground. Load and tension are also measured in a laboratory bench test for this component. Correlation between off-road track and bench test is then performed. Finally, representative samples of the component are tested with dynamic loading until fatigue fracture in bench test, and using data from these tests, statistical analysis is performed with application of Weibull distribution, allowing life prediction in statistical terms.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0412
Mathialgan Balaji, B. Jaiganesh, Selvakumar Palani, K. Somasundaram, Srinivasa Rao
Abstract Tractors are the self-propelled vehicle which finds its major application in agriculture, haulage and construction equipment. The product development cycle time of a tractor is more as compared to automobiles since it has to undergo rigorous field testing. Bringing more realistic component and system level validation in the test lab will drastically reduce the product development cycle time. Non-availability of standard usage pattern and customer-correlated proving ground pose a bigger challenge for bringing the field conditions to the lab. As a result, the tractor has to be instrumented with sensors and load-time history needs to be acquired as per real world usage pattern. Raw data from the field cannot be used directly for lab testing since the number of load cycles will be very high. Raw data have to be edited based on damage calculation and fatigue sensitivity analysis technique.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0414
Nehal Sardar Rahim
Abstract The Aisin A465 6-Speed Diesel Hybrid powertrain started production in early 2012 and is available in the North American market in the Hino 195h DC COE truck. The suitability, and added fuel efficiency, of a Hybrid powertrain for Class 5 Box truck is very dependent on fleet usage conditions and duty cycle. Aisin has undertaken real-world, extended mileage, durability testing on public roads to determine the operational modes for which such a powertrain is most suitable, and for which a fleet owner can expect fuel savings that will result in a payback period justifying the higher cost of a hybrid system equipped commercial truck. Data collected on the same Aisin proprietary durability test routes with a Conventional Class 3-5 Cab Chassis truck provides insights into truck usage parameters that differ between Hybrid and Conventional Class 3-5 commercial trucks.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0163
Abhay Kumar, Arun Mahajan, S Prasanth, Sudhir Darekar, Jagadeesan Chellan, K Ashok Kumar, Jeya Kumar Ranjith Kumar
Abstract A cabin on an agricultural tractor is meant to protect the operator from harsh environment, dust and provide an air conditioned space. As it is an enclosed space, cabin structure should be a crashworthiness structure and should not cause serious injury to operator in case of tractor roll over. There are International standard like OECD Code 4, SAE J2194 which regulates the crashworthiness of this protective structure. The roll-over protective structure (ROPS) is characterized by the provision of space for a clearance zone large enough to protect the operator in case of tractor overturn. None of the cabin parts should enter into the clearance zone for operator safety. In addition to meeting ROPS test criteria, the cabin structural strength should be optimized for the required tractor life. In this paper, simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor cabin structure and its mountings to meet the above requirements.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2722
Sundarram Arunachalam, Ramprabhu Kannan, Nagarajan Gopikannan, Jayaramareddy Sekar
Abstract With advancement of technology, better safety and higher vehicle reliability is primary requirement of end customer especially in public transportation. Hence there exist challenges in design and development of steering system for long haulage and tipper application. In the steering system, track rod is used to steer both the front tyre under different operating condition assisted by power steering system. This paper deals with the failures observed on track rod in long haulage and tipper application with loading conditions. Also the methodology adapted to resolve the field failures.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2756
Basaran Ozmen, Mehmet Bakir, Murat Siktas, Serter Atamer, Roman Teutsch
Abstract Securing the desired strength and durability characteristics of suspension components is one of the most important topics in the development of commercial vehicles because these components undergo multiaxial variable amplitude loading. Leaf springs are essential for the suspension systems of trucks and they are considered as security relevant components in the product development phase. In order to guide the engineers in the design and testing department, a simulation method is developed as explained by Bakir et al. in a recently published SAE paper [1]. The main aim of the present study is to illustrate the validation of this simulation method for the durability of leaf springs based on the results from testing and measurements. In order to verify this CAE Method, the calculated stresses on the leaf springs are compared with the results of strain gage measurements and the fatigue failures of leaf springs are correlated with the calculated damage values.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2757
Deepak Anand Subramanian, Nithya Sridhar, N. Obuli Karthikeyan, V. Srinivasa Chandra
Abstract The Indian automotive sector is experiencing a major shift, focusing predominantly towards the levels of quality, reliability and comfort delivered to the customer. Since the entry of global players into the market, there is a rising demand for timely product launches with utmost priority to reliability. In any vehicle, engine isolation systems play a critical role in isolating the engine vibrations from the vehicle chassis. This project details on how testing can aid in reducing the launch time as well as estimating the reliability of the component when used in a different application/vehicle. It proposes a methodology to formulate a life model for the engine mount considering various combinations of predictor parameters affecting its performance over its design life. In order to maintain good correlation with the field (which considers the loading pattern and the environmental factors), warranty data was analyzed and the predictors were chosen appropriately.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2864
Xinyu Ge, Jarrett Corcoran, Paul Gamble
With stringent emission regulations, many subsystems that abate engine tailpipe-out emissions become a necessary part for engines. The increased level of complexity poses technical challenges for the quality and reliability for modern engines. Among the spectrum of quality control methodologies, one conventional methodology focuses on every component's quality to ensure that the accumulative deviation is within predetermined limits. This conventional methodology tightens the component tolerance during the manufacturing process and typically results in increased cost. Another conventional methodology that is on the other side of the spectrum focuses on tailoring an engine calibration solution to offset the manufacturing differences. Although the tailored engine calibration solution reduces manufacturing cost for components, it increases the development and validation cost for engines.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Abstract Cost-reduction and cost competitiveness have emerged as major strategic tools to an enterprise and are being used all over the world to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value-creation by enriching the planet, people and the economy should be the key drivers leading to cost-reduction strategies in any business. The main objectives of this paper are to explain the Processes and Principles of Cost-reduction in technology-transfer to low-cost emerging economies to achieve sustainable cost-reduction and create a culture of cost-consciousness throughout an organization.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0237
Vinod Verma, V Saravanan, Dinesh Redkar, Arun Mahajan, R Raja, Pankaj Pawar, Ashok Kumar
Abstract A hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to lift the heavy implements during field operations and transportation. As it is a crucial member of the tractor for its usage, so the power train assembly needs a properly designed lift arm, rocker arm assembly with better strength and stiffness. There are a standard like IS12224, IS4468 which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of tractor and the layout of hydraulic three point linkage. Computer aided engineering techniques followed by laboratory testing have been deployed in the earlier stages of the product design & development itself to deliver the first time right products to the customer. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor hydraulic lift arm to meet the above requirements. A Design Verification Plan (DVP) has been developed consisting of 3 load cases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0455
Harshad Hatekar, Baskar Anthonysamy, V. Saishanker, Lakshmi Pavuluri, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Abstract Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0306
Haraldo Rehder, Gustavo P. Rehder
Abstract Durability tests of commercial vehicles are performed on road running uphill and downhill as well as on flat roads; these tests take very long time and have high costs. To lower test time and costs, it is proposed to accelerate the durability tests of commercial vehicles power trains by using a Towing Trailer with an electromagnetic (EM) brake, developed in Brazil, simulating uphill. This Trailer was already presented [1], [2] for cooling test simulation at 20 km/h on commercial vehicles up to 250 HP. In the cabin (cab) of the vehicle under test, there are the braking level control and a laptop, which receives wireless and registers the operational parameters of the Towing Trailer. The GPS in the truck cabin (cab) supply information such as time, speed, latitude and longitude allowing the control of the route.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0415
I. Coutinho, L. F. Vales, C. B. S. Vimieiro
Abstract Vehicle durability mission loads are an essential and decisive for a reliable life prediction for the component through any durability evaluation. One option to calculate mission loads are multibody models to represent vehicle’s suspension degrees of freedom (dofs) and its dynamic behavior. Generally, trucks have greater wheelbase and then lower natural frequencies than passengers’ vehicles. Therefore are more suitable to dynamic body excitation and the ordinary consideration of a rigid body shell is not relevant. The proposal of this work is to compare the chassis loads considering rigid and flexible frame mounted over the primary suspension. A pseudo-damage was calculated with chassis loads time history for severity assessment. The chose vehicle for the study is an Iveco 4×2 medium range, 6850mm of wheel base, with gross weight of 17ton and leaf springs primary suspension on both: front and rear axles.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 374

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: