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Viewing 181 to 210 of 190868
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2126
Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg, James E. Parks, Vitaly Prikhodko
Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) particulate matter (PM) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) - based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF particulate matter levels. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with a mass-based total PM emission measurement instrument (TEOM) and DPF gravimetric measurements.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2125
Xin He, John C. Ireland, Bradley T. Zigler, Matthew A. Ratcliff, Keith E. Knoll, Teresa L. Alleman, John T. Tester
In this work, the influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post three-way catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a General Motors (GM) 2.0L turbocharged spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production engine control unit (ECU) with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. U.S. federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at 10 selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2124
Dongkun Lee, John B. Heywood
An experimental study was performed to develop a more fundamental understanding of the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on exhaust gas emissions and catalyst light-off characteristics during cold start of a modern SI engine. The effects of engine operating parameters and various secondary air injection strategies such as spark retardation, fuel enrichment, secondary air injection location and air flow rate were investigated to understand the mixing, heat loss, and thermal and catalytic oxidation processes associated with SAI. Time-resolved HC, CO and CO₂ concentrations were tracked from the cylinder exit to the catalytic converter outlet and converted to time-resolved mass emissions by applying an instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate model. A phenomenological model of exhaust heat transfer combined with the gas composition analysis was also developed to define the thermal and chemical energy state of the exhaust gas with SAI.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2123
Simone Malaguti, Stefano Fontanesi, Elena Severi
The paper investigates the low-temperature cranking operation of a current production automotive Gasoline Direct Injected (GDI) by means of 3D-CFD simulations. Particular care is devoted to the analysis of the hollow cone spray evolution within the combustion chamber and to the formation of fuel film deposits on the combustion chamber walls. Due to the high injected fuel amount and the strongly reduced fuel vaporization, wall wetting is a critical issue and plays a fundamental role on both the early combustion stages and the amount of unburnt hydrocarbons formation. In fact, it is commonly recognized that most of the unburnt hydrocarbon emissions from 4-stroke gasoline engines occur during cold start operations, when fuel film in the cylinder vaporize slowly and fuel can persist until the exhaust stroke.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2122
Stephen Samuel, Ahmed Hassaneen, Denise Morrey
This work aimed to study nano-scale particulate matter originating from gasoline direct injection engine during cold start and warm up operating conditions and to identify the role of the three-way catalytic converter on nano-scale particulate during cold-start and warm-up operating conditions. This work used a 4-stroke, 1.6 litre, wall guided gasoline direct injected, turbocharged and intercooled SI engine equipped with a three-way catalytic converter for this investigation. It used a fast particle spectrometer for the measurement of exhaust nano-scale particles upto 1000 nm diameter.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2121
Senthil Kumar Masimalai
Methyl esters were prepared from the mixture of unrefined palm oil (URPO) and D-Limonene oil (DLO) and evaluated for their properties to be used as fuel in a diesel engine. DLO was blended with URPO in different proportions (such as 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) before transesterification to reduce viscosity of the URPO. 15% of DLO and 85% of URPO by mass was found as the optimum based on the optimum yield. Reaction influential factors, such as amount of alcohol, temperature for reaction, reaction time and amount of catalyst have been investigated for the methyl ester of 15% of DLO and 85% of URPO mixture (PODLO15). In the second phase of work, tests were conducted on a single cylinder, air cooled diesel to analyze the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the methyl ester of PODLO15. Engine tests results indicated reduced brake thermal efficiency with neat URPO as compared to neat diesel. Methyl ester of PODLO15 showed improvement in brake thermal efficiency.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2120
Kapila Wadumesthrige, Nicholas Johnson, Mark Winston-Galant, Haiying Tang, K. Y. Simon Ng, Steven O. Salley
Biodiesel has been widely accepted as an alternative for fossil-derived diesel fuel for use in compression ignition (CI) engines. Poor oxidative stability and cold flow properties restrict the use of biodiesel beyond current B20 blend levels (20% biodiesel in 80% ULSD) for vehicle applications. Maintaining the properties of B20 as specified by ASTM D7476-08 is important because, once out of spec, B20 may cause injector coke formation, fuel filter plugging, increased exhaust emissions, and overall loss of engine performance. While the properties of fresh B20 may be within the specifications, under engine operating and longer storage conditions B20 could deteriorate. In a diesel engine, the fuel that goes to the injector and does not enter the cylinder is recycled back to the fuel tank. The re-circulated fuel returns to the fuel tank at an elevate temperature, which can cause thermal oxidation.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2119
Andreas Janssen, Martin Muether, Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping, Stefan Pischinger
Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel components in Diesel blends. In this paper, thermodynamic single cylinder engine results of today's and future biofuel components are presented with respect to their engine-out emissions and engine efficiency. The investigations were divided into two phases: In the first phase, investigations were performed with rapeseed oil methyl ester (B100) and an Ethanol-Gasoline blend (E85). In order to analyze the impact of different fuel blends, mixtures with 10 vol-% of B100 or E85 and 90 vol-% of standardized EN590 Diesel were investigated. Due to the low cetane number of E85, it cannot be used purely in a Diesel engine.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2034
Kambiz Rezapour, Kambiz M. Ebrahimi, Alastair S. Wood, Abolfath Nikranjbar
The strict regulation of environmental laws, the oil price and restricted resources has made the vehicle manufacturers to use other energy resources instead of fuel oil. Iran is recognized as the second holder of gas reservoirs in the world and can use hydrocarbon gases broadly in particular compressed natural gas (CNG) as the fuel for vehicles specifically in its public transportation fleet and thereby reduce the consumption of diesel fuel and gasoline. This will bring about the reduction of environmental pollutants and reduce the economic costs of transportation sector. With regard to the climatic situation of Iran and concerning the existence of broad network of gas distribution, CNG is a suitable alternative for other fuels. Therefore, developing bi-fuel engine (gasoline and CNG) in the short and middle term strategy for achieving this important subject will be necessary.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2033
Gergis W. William
Currently, the chassis assembly contributes about 73 percent of the overall weight of a 14.63 m long haul trailer. This paper presents alternative design concepts for the structural floor of a van trailer utilizing sandwich panels with various material and geometric characteristics of the core layer in order to reduce its weight significantly below that of the current design configuration. The main objective of the new designs is to achieve optimal tradeoffs between the overall structural weight and the flexural stiffness of the floor. Various preliminary design concepts of the core designs were compared on the basis of a single section of the core structure. Six different designs were analyzed by weight, maximum displacement and maximum stress under bending and torsion loads. Each concept was kept uniform by length, thickness, loading and boundary conditions. Each design concept was examined through testing of scaled model for floor assemblies.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2039
Stargel Doane, Drew Landman, Richard M. Wood
A computer simulation was developed to investigate the effect of wind on test track estimation of heavy truck fuel efficiency. Monte Carlo simulations were run for various wind conditions, both with and without gusts, and for two different vehicle aerodynamic configurations. The vehicle configurations chosen for this study are representative of typical Class 8 tractor trailers and use wind tunnel measured drag polars for performance computations. The baseline (control) case is representative of a modern streamlined tractor and conventional trailer. The comparison (test) case is the baseline case with the addition of a trailer drag reduction device (trailer skirt). The integrated drag coefficient, overall required power, total fuel consumption, and average rate of fuel consumption were calculated for a heavy truck on an oval test track to show the effect of wind on test results.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2040
Mathew Heinecke, Jeremy Beedy, Kevin Horrigan, Raja Sengupta
The importance of fuel economy and emission standards has increased rapidly with high fuel costs and new environmental regulations. This requires analysis techniques capable of designing the next generation long-haul truck to improve both fuel efficiency and cooling. In particular, it is important to have a predictive design tool to assess how exterior design changes impact aerodynamic performance. This study evaluates the use of a Lattice Boltzmann based numerical simulation and the National Research Council (NRC) Canada's wind tunnel to assess aerodynamic drag on a production Volvo VNL tractor-trailer combination. Comparisons are made between the wind tunnel and simulation to understand the influence of wind tunnel conditions on truck aerodynamic performance. The production VNL testing includes a full range of yaw angles to demonstrate the influence of cross wind on aerodynamic drag.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2036
Gergis W. William
Recent advances in Metal Matrix Composites have made them ready for transition to large-volume production and commercialization. Such new materials seem to allow the fabrication of higher quality parts at less than 50 percent of the weight as compared to steel. The increasing requirements of weight savings and extended durability motivated the potential application of MMC technology into the heavy vehicle market. However, significant technical barriers such as joining are likely to hinder the broad applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles. The focus of this paper is to examine the feasibility of manufacturing and the behavior of bolted joint connections made from aluminum matrix reinforced with Silicon Carbide (SiC) particles. Two reinforcement ratios: 20% and 45% were considered in this study. The first part of the paper concentrates on experimental evaluation of bolted MMC joints.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2027
Satya Panigrahi
A new direction in biocomposite manufacturing is to integrate natural fibers and recycled polymers for manufacturing of some innovative products for various industrial uses including automotive under hood parts. The performance of these new materials are comparable to existing ones even with the replacement of synthetic fiber with biodegradable natural fiber from agricultural residue and with the shift from pure polymer to recycled polymer. Thermoplastic are reinforced with flax fiber mostly used to develop biocomppsite. Most of the research reviewed indicated that very limited work had been done on using flax fiber with recycled post consumer thermoplastic to make biocomposite. The goal of this research is to develop recycled biocomposite material by using flax fiber as a reinforcement and recycled post consumer thermoplastic as matrix and streamline the manufacturing process with optimal processing condition and fiber percentage.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2025
Abhijeet Pingale, Deepak Vani
In traditional manufacturing processes a lot of material is wasted in hidden ways. These can be identified through Lean Manufacturing systems. It is proven that the Lean Approach eliminates waste and improves value. This reduces excessive investment in working capital and improves Return on Invested Capital (RoIC). As a result, the shareholder's value is maximized through simultaneously reducing costs and increasing capital efficiency. To demonstrate this we analyzed the production process of the Upper Output Shaft , a key component in a typical drive train assembly like a Four Wheel Drive transfer case, used in a pickup truck or SUV. Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is used to identify and reduce non value-added activities.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2031
Robert Hupfer, Georg Habbel
The heavy-duty truck industry has adopted various methods and technologies to provide comfort in sleeper cabins during rest periods. For heating a sleeper cabin the fuel-operated heating technology has been used already industry wide, due to performance, ecological, and economical reasons. The same criteria apply to the comfort requirements in the summer or in warmer climate. One of the most common methods is still the idling of the main truck engine. While engine idling increases both fuel consumption and emissions, it is also having a negative effect on the engine and exhaust system maintenance, especially with the latest changes of the emission regulation and the application of active and passive Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration strategies.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2028
Satya Panigrahi
This article summarizes an experimental study on the mechanical and thermal properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) compression molding jute biocomposites. Various type of chemical treatment such as NaOH, silane treatment etc are performed to improve the adhesion between the fibers and the HDPE matrix. Variations in fiber percentage, fiber size are maintained as a function of mechanical properties and thermal properties are studied. Mechanical strength of composite shows that composites with silane and NaOH treated exhibit more mechanical strength than untreated composites. Mechanical properties are assessed by tensile, flexural and hardness test and thermal properties are assessed by melting temperature. From the result obtained, thermal characteristics of the composites can be conclude that composites made with NaOH and silane treatment of fiber exhibit more melting temperature compare to untreated one but not significantly.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2019
William Schaudt, Darrell Bowman, Walter Wierwille, Richard Hanowski, Chris Flanigan
Rear-end crashes involving heavy trucks occur with sufficient frequency that they are a cause of concern within regulatory agencies. In 2006, there were approximately 23,500 rear-end crashes involving heavy trucks which resulted in 135 fatalities. As part of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's (FMCSA) goal of reducing the overall number of truck crashes, the Enhanced Rear Signaling (ERS) for Heavy Trucks project was developed to investigate methods to reduce or mitigate those crashes where a heavy truck has been struck from behind by another vehicle. Researchers also utilized what had been learned in the rear-end crash avoidance work with light vehicles that was conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) with Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) serving as the prime research organization. ERS crash countermeasures investigated included passive conspicuity markings, visual signals, and auditory signals.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2018
Zhu Wang, Ales Alajbegovic, Jaehoon Han, Tristan Donley, Kevin Horrigan, David Bloch, Melinda Pell, Andrew Holz
A newly developed simulation methodology for a long term, transient tractor cabin cool-down is presented in this paper. The air flow was simulated using a Lattice-Boltzmann Equation (LBE) based 3-dimensional flow solver. The conduction and radiation effects on the solid parts as well as the average cabin air temperature evolution were solved by the thermal solver, which also includes a human comfort model. The simulation results were compared with the measured experimental test data and good agreement was observed validating the developed simulation approach. The developed methodology can be applied to all other ground vehicles cabin comfort applications.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2017
Abhijit Vishnu Londhe, Suhas Kangde
The ECE R-14, AIS015 safety standard specifies the requirements of the safety belt anchorages namely, minimum numbers, their locations, static strength to reduce the possibility of their failure during accidental crashes for effective occupant restraint and the test procedures. This standard applies to the anchorages of safety belts for adult occupants of forward facing or rearward facing seats in vehicles of categories M and N. ECE R14 ensures the passenger safety during sudden acceleration/retardation and accidents. Early simulations revealed some structural short falls that demanded cabin improvements in order to fulfill regulation requirements for the seal belt anchorage test. This paper describes the innovative design modifications done to meet the seat belt anchorage test. Good correlation with the test is achieved in terms of deformations. These simulation methods helped in reducing the number of intermediate physical tests during the design process.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2016
Mohamed Khalil
In this paper the study is directed to a condition-based predictive maintenance concept as an alternative policy to determine a fleet's health, for increasing the fleet availability and to reduce the operating cost. The concept is based on predicting the system degradation by using an expert system. Therefore, the decision-maker can calculate the remaining lifetime for any mechanical system. These calculations help the decision-maker in making a repair or replacement decision in a suitable time. An application is presented herein on the cylinder kit components (piston, piston rings and liner) to illustrate the effectiveness of this technique. The results indicate that knowing the wear between the cylinder kit components in automotive engines is very important to plan the maintenance for making the repair or replacement decision in a suitable time.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2021
Zhixin Liu, Hong Chen, Yongwan Shi, Xiaolong Zhang
Although the chance that occupant's upper limbs were injured is decreased significantly in frontal crash with the popularization of safety belt and airbag, the injury problem of occupant's chest is still most frequent and fatal in traffic accidents. 37 groups of data of C-NCAP crash tests including full frontal crash and offset frontal crash tests were investigated in this paper. The chest injury distributing characteristic of drivers and passengers in these two kinds of crash configurations were obtained, and the effect rules of characteristic parameters on chest injury were summarized.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2020
Gregory Fitch, Myra Blanco, Richard Hanowski, Paul Rau, Chris Flanigan
On-board Camera/Video Imaging Systems (C/VISs) for heavy vehicles display live images to the driver of selected areas to the sides, and in back of the truck's exterior using displays inside the truck cabin. They provide a countermeasure to blind-spot related crashes by allowing drivers to see objects not ordinarily visible by a typical mirror configuration, and to better judge the clearance between the trailer and an adjacent vehicle when changing lanes. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute is currently investigating commercial motor vehicle (CMV) driver performance with C/VISs through a technology field demonstration sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). Data collection, which consists of recording twelve CMV drivers performing their daily employment duties with and without a C/VIS for four months, is currently underway.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2011
Carsten John
Geometric product representations are of gaining importance in product manufacturing industries. Several case studies yield that the utilization of three-dimensional digital product data in the product development chain has given many manufacturing companies a big advantage in business competition. The field of application for 3D technology is versatile and its further implementation still proceeds along product delivery processes. Leveraging 3D graphics in service information creation processes like the creation of manual illustrations or service instruction imagery is currently a big topic at many companies. E. g. the utilization of animated 3D product representations for explanation of service tasks becomes possible due to the recent advances in computer hardware more and more popular.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2010
Josko Petric
Recent innovative drives in hydraulics could introduce very competitive hybrid hydraulic vehicles (HHV). These drives has been considered and analyzed only in the serial HHV architecture. The series-parallel transmission architecture, also called power-split or e-CVT is highlighted as the most popular concept for full (strong) hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The examples are one-mode power-split in Toyota Prius and two-mode (compound) power-split in GM-Allison EVT. Ambitions to make the hybrid hydraulic power trains better and more efficient would certainly require deeper analysis of more complex power-split (series-parallel) HHV transmission structures and related optimal controls. This paper presents bond graph based mathematical model of kinematics of a one-mode and a two-mode power-split hybrid hydraulic vehicle transmissions which are based on their hybrid electrical counterpart.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2008
Yang Yang, Benjamin Morris, William Liou
Recent studies have shown that hydraulic hybrid drivelines can significantly improve fuel savings for medium weight vehicles on stop-start drive cycles. In a series hydraulic hybrid (SHH) architecture, the conventional mechanical driveline is replaced with a hydraulic driveline that decouples vehicle speed from engine speed. In an effort to increase the design space, this paper explores the use of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump in an SHH driveline. This paper identifies the potential life-limiting components of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump and examines the likelihood of surface fatigue in the check valves themselves. Numerical analysis in ABAQUS software suggests that under worst case operating conditions, cyclic pressure loading will result in low-cycle plastic deformation of check valve surfaces.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2015
Saurabh Singh, Narayan Jadhav, Kamaljeet Nandkeolyar, Shirish Pandav, Pankaj Sali
The automotive sector is going through a phase of stiff competition among various Original Equipment Manufacturers for increasing their profitability while ensuring highest levels of customer satisfaction. The biggest challenge for such companies lies in minimizing their overall cost involving investments in Research and Development, manufacturing, after sales service and warranty costs. Higher warranty costs not only affect the net profit but in turn it also affects the brand image of the company to a large extent in the long run. An effort is made here to target such warranty costs due to frequent tail pinion and hub seal leakages on single reduction/hub reduction axles of Heavy Commercial Vehicles in the field. A preliminary study involving the severity analysis of such failures is followed by a step by step investigation of these failures.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2014
Chris Merkle, Lisa Kennedy
Manufacturers have engineered high voltage batteries and highly efficient electric motors that have been combined with an internal combustion engine (ICE) or in some cases, replaced the engine altogether. While this advancement is beneficial in many ways, service technicians are faced with new challenges in servicing high voltage vehicle systems. Although highly trained in many areas, today's automotive and commercial vehicle service technicians traditionally have not been trained to work with high voltage (HV). To ensure proper and safe HV service, information and training is critical. This paper will highlight some typical safety precautions and service procedures directed by manufacturers, such as the use of high voltage insulation gloves, proper tools needed and the practices of performing HV disabling procedures including zero voltage checks.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2013
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Jan Michaelsen, Jean-Sebastien Foisy
The experience with the implementation of IV-ITS (In-vehicle Intelligent Transportation Systems, also know as EOBR or electronic onboard recorders) type tools and services in previous projects showed that there is an opportunity to standardize an infrastructure that would increase a project's rate of success. As such, a project that defined, streamlined and standardized a tech transfer approach to IV-ITS products and services was initiated. Therefore, the objective of the project was to develop a standard procedure based on technology transfer best practices and defining the steps and actions required to increase the rate of success and the optimization of the implementation of IV-ITS products and services. A literature review was conducted to identify technology transfer and implementation best practices and to assist in defining a survey for measuring the success of the implementation of participants in IV-ITS implementation projects.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2012
Arnold Taube, Matthew Cappel, Vincent Boens
Light-weight, tessellated surface models are increasingly used in marketing websites and electronic documents as well as in electronic training materials and service information documents. While these models are effective in developing consumer interest and communicating information, without implementing adequate Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) they also provide valuable geometry to miscreants wanting to reverse engineer a product and/or its component parts. Geometry Distortion is an excellent component of a layered IPP Plan for implementation when publishing 3-D models. However, how much distortion is needed to provide adequate IPP? Too much distortion detracts from their appearance while too little does not sufficiently complicate reverse engineering analysis. This paper describes a practical process for determining rational geometry distortion values that provide adequate IPP.
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