Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 3903
2016-10-27 ...
  • October 27-28, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Baltimore, Maryland
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Improving vehicular fuel efficiency is of paramount importance to the global economy. Governmental regulations, climate change and associated health concerns, as well as the drive towards energy independence, have created a technical need to achieve greater fuel efficiency. While vehicle manufacturers are focusing efforts on improved combustion strategies, smaller displacement engines, weight reduction, low friction surfaces, etc., the research involved in developing fuel efficient engine oils has been less publicized.
2016-10-26
Event
A new split HD diesel engine oil category is introduced in December 2016. It promises a strong backward compatible performance in oxidation resistance, shear stability, aeration control (CK-4) as well as improvements in fuel economy/ greenhouse gases emissions (FA-4). Technical papers presented focus on challenges faced by formulators of novel low viscosity lubricants. Innovative screening techniques capable to examine additive package degradation over extended drain intervals are discussed.
2016-10-25
Event
The industry continues to work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with engine hardware in order to improve vehicle efficiency, durability, and performance. The Engine Lubricants Session presents a variety of papers dealing with advances in engine oils and their relationship to improved hardware performance.
2016-10-24
Event
In the industry there is continuing work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with driveline hardware and on improving the fluids used in these applications. In this session are presented a variety of papers dealing with different applications where the interaction of driveline fluids with equipment is important.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2279
Xiuhua Sui, Wanying Li
The pursuit of fuel economy brought by proper engine oil is one of the important focuses of the development of engine oil specifications in the global automobile and lubricating oil industry. The lower frictional oil is gaining more and more popularity in the world. In this paper series of passenger car motor oils of low viscosity were designed and engine friction torque tests were conducted on three engines to investigate the effects of viscosity grade, viscosity index (viscosity modifier) and friction modifier on the fuel economy of the gasoline engine of passenger cars. Results from these tests showed that lower viscosity grade and higher VI and addition of FMs all could improve fuel economy of gasoline engines. While working patterns or effects of these factors differ with engine configuration or working conditions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2318
Wangkan Lin, Nancy Diggs, Catherine Frampton
As modern heavy-duty diesel engines produce more power while running at higher temperatures, increased levels of oxidation can introduce more acidic chemical species into the engine lubricants. In addition, higher compression ratios of the combustion chamber can lead to increased blow-by gases into the crankcase. These severe conditions can cause higher levels of corrosion on key engine parts, such as soft-metal-containing bearings. Protection against this type of corrosion in engine hardware has always been an important performance function of today’s HDD engine lubricants. All today’s lubricants contain various additives which neutralize the acids to prevent hardware corrosion through their base content, commonly measured as total base number (TBN). The majority of the TBN in lubricants comes from metal-containing over-based detergents, with different chemistries of the metals and soap molecules.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2204
Takafumi Mori, Masanori Suemitsu, Nobuharu Umamori, Takehisa Sato, Satoshi Ogano, Kenji Ueno, Oji Kuno, Kotaro Hiraga, Kazuhiko Yuasa, Shinichiro Shibata, Shinichiro Ishikawa
One effective and easy way to improve fuel economy for automobiles is to decrease viscosity of lubricants, as it brings less churning loss. However, this option creates a higher potential for thinner oil film, which could damage the mechanical parts. This paper describes a new low-viscosity gear oil technology which was successfully developed to improve wear at tapered-roller bearings in differential gear units, whereas achieving higher fuel economy performance. As for tapered-roller bearings in differential gear units protected by gear oils, one major damage is supposed to cause wear at large end face of rollers and the counterpart, so-called bearing bottom wear. In order to understand the wear mechanism, wear at rolling contact surface of rollers and the counterparts, so-called bearing side wear was additionally observed to confirm the wear impact on tapered-roller bearing.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2205
Chris McFadden, Lydia Raser PhD, Kevin Hughes PhD
Hybrid drivetrain hardware combines an electric motor and a transmission, gear box, or hydraulic unit. With many hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) hardware designs the transmission fluid is in contact with the electric motor, and so some OEMs and tier suppliers have concerns about the electrical properties of automatic transmission fluids (ATFs). Lubrizol has conducted a fundamental research project to better understand the electrical conductivity of ATFs. In this paper we will present conductivity data as a function of temperature for a range of commercially available lubricants, including engine oils and gear oils, in addition to ATFs. All fluids, regardless of type, had conductivities in the range of 1E-8 to 1E-10 S/cm at 100oC and as such are good insulators with the ability to dissipate static charge. Next we will deconstruct one ATF to show the relative impact of the various classes of lubricant additives.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2206
Darryl Williams, Jeffrey Guevremont, John Perry
Good shift quality in automatic transmissions is important for fuel efficiency, driver comfort, and performance. Maintaining this performance over the life of the vehicle is also important. Typical lubricant development focuses on reducing viscosity and friction in order to reduce parasitic losses. In an automatic transmission, other factors are also important for good performance, primarily due to the shifting and torque converter clutches. A high level of friction is desirable for torque capacity and a steady decrease in friction as sliding speed (rpm) decreases is necessary for both good shift feel and good friction system durability over the lifetime of the vehicle. Friction system changes over time that result in a lowering of the friction level at high sliding speed compromise the performance of both types of clutches.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2207
Elizabeth Schiferl, Timothy N. Hunt, Robert Slocum
With government mandates, OEMs are increasingly focusing on fuel economy and finding efficiency gains throughout the vehicle. Lubricant companies have been asked to design fluids (engine oil, transmission fluid, and gear oil) that can deliver efficiency improvements. Demonstrating real gains becomes quite complex given the intricacies of these systems, and methods range from bench top screen tests to component test stands to full vehicle testing. This paper addresses the variation that can occur when testing automatic transmission fluid efficiency within a full vehicle test. Lubrizol has tested at several independent laboratories and found that ignoring the magnitude of the impact of variation in average operating conditions between tests can mislead as to which fluid is delivering greater efficiency benefit.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2269
Peter Morgan, Alexander Michlberger, Michael Kocsis, Matt Gieselman, Ewan Delbridge
Chassis dynamometer tests are often used to determine vehicle fuel economy (FE). Since the entire vehicle is used, these methods are generally accepted to be more representative of ‘real-world’ conditions than engine dynamometer tests or small-scale bench tests. Unfortunately, evaluating vehicle fuel economy introduces higher levels of test-to-test variability than seen on engine dynamometer or bench tests. Recently, improvements to controls and procedures have led to drastically improved test precision in chassis dynamometer testing. Described herein are chassis dynamometer results from five fully-formulated engine oils (utilizing improved testing protocols on the FTP-75 and HwFET cycles) which not only show statistically significant FE changes across viscosity grades but also meaningful FE differentiation within a viscosity grade where additive systems have been modified.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2268
Anthony Khoraych, Michael Stuparyk
There are five problems associated with aerated oil that can be deadly to lubrication components. By aerated oil, we mean entrained air, foam or both. Problems include: oxidative oil degradation, thermal degradation, impaired heat transfer, retarded oil supply and cavitation. Depending on the design, application and aeration severity, it is possible that all of these conditions could be happening at the same time. We study the symptoms and effects of each of these phenomena. OEMs, component and lubricant suppliers have an interest in preventing aeration. Research constantly yields advancements, such as silicone antifoam or acrylate copolymer additives to reduce aeration. It is important to be able to accurately measure the aeration within a given fluid to evaluate the effectiveness of such advancements. With proper measurements one can quantify the susceptibility of a design to the effects of aeration, as well as the performance of an additive and any potential side effects.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2270
Ho Teng
For turbo-charged gasoline direction injection (TGDI) engines, an abnormal combustion phenomenon is often encountered at low speeds and high torques, known as the low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI), which leads to a severe knock combustion with the level of the cylinder pressure fluctuations reaching that of the peak cylinder pressure in a normal combustion cycle. The LSPI events are widely believed to be triggered by the particles of the engine oil entering the cylinder. This paper reports an experimental investigation on the influence of the crankcase oil properties on the engine combustion in the LSPI zone. The investigation was conducted on a highly boosted 1.5L TGDI engine operated at the low-speed-end maximum torque, at which LSPI events were observed most frequently. Six different engine oils were tested, covering SAE-0W20, 0W30, 0W40, 5W20, 5W30 and 5W40 from three different oil suppliers.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2271
John Cuthbert, Arup Gangopadhyay, Larry Elie, Z. Liu, Douglas Mcwatt, Ellen D. Hock, Ali Erdemir
The application of polyalkylene glycol (PAG) as a base stock for engine oil formulation has been explored for substantial fuel economy gain over traditional formulations with mineral oils. Various PAG chemistries were explored depending on feed stock material used for manufacturing. Most of the formulations have the same additive package. The friction performance of these oils were evaluated in a motored single cylinder engine with current production engine hardware in the temperature range 40C-120C and in the speed range 500 RPM-2500 RPM. PAG formulations showed up to 50% friction reduction over GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil depending on temperature, speed, and oil chemistry. Friction evaluation in motored I-4 engine showed up to 11% friction reduction in the temperature range 40C-100C over GF-5 oil. The presentation will share results on ASTM Sequence VID fuel economy and Sequence IVA wear tests. Chassis roll fuel economy data will also be shared.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2276
Toyoharu Kaneko, Kazuo Yamamori, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Ko Onodera, Satoshi Ogano
This paper describes our newly developed friction reduction technology for low viscosity engine oils formulated with molybdenum dithio-carbamate (MoDTC) and magnesium detergents. The surface chemistry of additive interactions will also be discussed. Low viscosity grade engine oils are being utilized in modern engines to achieve improved fuel economy. As a result, engine conditions increase in severity through a tendency to operate in a higher degree of boundary lubrication conditions. Therefore, MoDTC, a friction modifier known to reduce friction under these conditions, is becoming a key component. In addition to fuel economy, formulation chemistry to prevent Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) is also required. These chemistry advances are a necessity for downsized, turbocharged engines to maximize fuel economy improvement. To ensure sufficient engine oil performance, magnesium detergents are a key additive to prevent damaging LSPI events in the engine.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2277
Kristin Fletcher, Lisa dingwell, Kongsheng Yang, William Lam, Jeremy Styer
Low speed preignition (LSPI) is an undesirable combustion phenomenon that limits the fuel economy, drivability, emissions and durability performance of modern turbocharged engines. Because of the potential to catastrophically damage an engine after only a single event, the ability to reduce LSPI frequency has grown in importance over the last several years. This is evident in the significant increase in industry publications. It quickly became apparent that select engine oil components impact the frequency of LSPI events when evaluated in different engine tests, notably calcium detergent, molybdenum and phosphorus. However, a close examination of the impact of other formulation additives is lacking. A systematic evaluation of the impact of ashless as well as ash-containing additives has been undertaken using a GM 2.0L Ecotec engine installed on a conventional engine dynamometer test stand.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2278
Ashutosh Gupta, Huifang Shao, Joseph Remias, Joseph Roos, Yinhui Wang, Yan Long, Zhi Wang, Shi-Jin Shuai
Superknock is an undesirable combustion phenomenon that limits the fuel economy, drivability, emissions and durability performance of modern turbocharged engines. Numerous researchers have previously reported that the frequency of super knock is sensitive to engine oil and fuel composition in controlled laboratory and engine-based studies. Several studies indicate that droplets of oil and residual fuel ejected from the piston crevice could play a role. Recent studies by Tsinghua University and Afton Chemical Corporation have demonstrated that controlled injection of oil-fuel droplets into the combustion chamber can induce pre-ignition and superknock. Afton and Tsinghua recently developed a 3D CFD engine simulation which was able to realistically model all of the elementary processes involved in droplet induced pre-ignition. The model was able to successfully simulate droplet induced pre-ignition at conditions where the phenomenon has been experimentally observed.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2272
Carl Bennett, Jason Bell, Jeffrey Guevremont
Elastomer compatibility is an important property of lubricants. When seals degrade oil leakages may occur, which is a cause of concern for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) because of warranty claims. Leakage is also a concern for environmental reasons. Most often, the mechanical properties and fitting of the oil seals is identified as the source of failure, but there are cases where the interaction between the lubricant and the seal material can be implicated. The performance of seal materials in tensile testing is a required method that must be passed in order to qualify lubricant additive packages. We conducted an extensive study of the interactions between these elastomeric materials and lubricant additive components, and their behavior over time. The physicochemical mechanisms that occur to cause seal failures will be discussed.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2273
Herve Marie, Sascha Rigol, Hans Peter Deeg, Harald Philipp
This paper describes the observed impact of aniline octane booster and more specifically N-Methyl Aniline (NMA) on lubricating oil, following field issues encountered in vehicles in certain areas of the world where aniline based octane booster was suspected to be used. The observed field issue was heavy sludge formation, leading to engine failures. The suspected impact of NMA on lubricating oil could be replicated using the Daimler oxidation bench test, with oil diluted with fuel and NMA at start of test, as a rapid and cost effective screener. Significant kinematic viscosity increase at the end of test was evidenced, especially as NMA content was increased in the oil to reach a critical level observed in the field. Some differences in performance could also be observed between different oil technologies, suggesting that lubricant formulation approach might mitigate the negative impact of NMA, while not completely alleviating it.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2275
Kongsheng Yang, Kristin Fletcher, Jeremy Styer, William Lam, Gregory Guinther
There has been a global technology convergence by engine manufacturers as they strive to meet or exceed the ever-increasing fuel economy mandates that are intended to mitigate the trend in global warming associated with CO2 emissions. While turbocharging and direct-injection gasoline technologies are not new, when combined they create the opportunity for substantial increase in power output at lower engine speeds. Higher output at lower engine speeds is inherently more efficient, and this leads engine designers to overall smaller engines. Lubricants optimized for older engines may not have the expected level of durability with more operating time being spent at higher specific output levels. Additionally, a phenomenon that is called low-speed preignition has become more prevalent with these engines.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2274
Paul V. Harvath, Shaelah Reidy, Jonathan Byer
The determination of acidic material in used engine oil is widely accepted as a measure of the remaining useful life of the oil. Total acid number, determined by titration, is the most widely accepted method for determining acidic content. Total acid number is not capable of speciation of individual acids. In this work, high molecular weight residue was isolated from used engine oil from various sources by dialysis in heptane. This residue was analyzed using pyrolysis-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Carboxylic acids from C1-C18 were identified in the samples with C1-C3 acids typically found to be the most abundant. This identification provides new information to help improve the current acid detection methodologies for used engine oils.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2315
Xiaobo Shen, Rajiv Taribagil, Stuart Briggs, Isabella Goldmints
An unprecedented global focus on the environment and greenhouse gas emissions has driven recent government regulations on automotive emissions across the globe. To achieve this improvement, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have advocated a progressive move to the use of low viscosity grade oils; the rationale being that lower viscosity oils reduce hydrodynamic frictional losses in the engine, thereby delivering higher levels of fuel economy and lower carbon emissions. However, the use of lower viscosity grades should not come at a compromise of engine durability and wear protection. Viscosity modifiers (VM) –polymeric additive components used to tailor the lubricant’s viscometric properties – have been viewed as a key enabler for achieving the desirable balance between fuel economy and engine durability performance.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2316
sanjeev singh
Global Fuel Economy Initiative with a goal to make automobiles worldwide 50 percent more efficient by the year 2050, enhanced interest in improvements of fuel economy and emission reduction from vehicles through engine technologies, lubricants and after treatment devices. Low viscosity grade engine oils can improve the fuel economy by reducing the friction and lower the greenhouse gases. In this study, low viscosity grade oils - 0W-20, 5W-30 and 20W-40 were selected for assessing fuel economy of diesel engines. Effects of viscosity on engine performance with respect to power, fuel economy and emissions were assessed by conducting fuel economy tests on single cylinder Petter AV1 diesel engine. Higher fuel economy and reduced CO, HC, CO2 and NOx emissions were observed with lower viscosity engine oils compared to higher viscosity engine oils.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 3903

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: