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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3770
Event
2015-03-23
Event
2014-11-20
This session contains a variety of presentations regarding engine oil technologies developed for small engines. There are three papers addressing new lubricants for motorcycles ranging from increasing engine power, to new high performance oils needed to meet the every increasing demand of new low emission engines. There are also two papers to address reducing friction and wear required for energy conserving performance in small engines.
Training / Education
2014-11-03
Improving vehicular fuel efficiency is of paramount importance to the global economy. Governmental regulations, climate change and associated health concerns, as well as the drive towards energy independence, have created a technical need to achieve greater fuel efficiency. While vehicle manufacturers are focusing efforts on improved combustion strategies, smaller displacement engines, weight reduction, low friction surfaces, etc., the research involved in developing fuel efficient engine oils has been less publicized. This seminar will highlight the role of lubricants in improving fuel efficiency and provide strategies for selecting the best oil for a given application. The course begins with a brief overview of the fuel consumption regulations and global perspective of passenger car lubricants and diesel oil specifications in North America, Europe and Asia. Limitations and advantages of various methods to measure fuel consumption in a variety of bench tests, dyno tests and actual vehicles will be presented.
Event
2014-10-20
This session reviews advancements in heavy-duty engine oil technology and test methodology, focusing on achieving future emissions, durability and fuel efficiency expectations both in North America and Europe.
Event
2014-10-20
The industry continues to work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with engine hardware in order to improve vehicle efficiency, durability, and performance. The Engine Lubricants Session presents a variety of papers dealing with advances in engine oils and their relationship to improved hardware performance.
Event
2014-10-20
The industry continues to work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with driveline hardware in order to improve vehicle efficiency, durability, and performance. Discussions in this session involve lubricant studies that offer improvements to current fluids, alterations of test methods or provide new insights into how lubricants impact current technology.
Event
2014-10-16
Event
2014-10-15
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Sunthorn predapitakkun
Development of an API SN, SAE 0W-20 engine oil for Tropical Climate using a new Novel Viscosity Modifier and verification of its performance via a field trial in Thailand Sunthorn Predapitakkun PTT Research & Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited Lim Jing Jing, Infineum Singapore Amporn Sudsanguan , Arunratt Wuttimongkolchai, PTT Research & Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited Engine lubrication in the global automotive industry has many challenges in the world today. One of them is the pursuit of fuel economy. As a result, the use of lower viscosity engine oils is becoming increasingly popular. However, engine wear protection of low viscosity oils is not as robust as higher viscosity grade oils. Due to this, even though low viscosity grades engine oils like SAE 0W-20 could provide the added benefit of fuel economy, they are not common in tropical climates. To address this two seemingly discordant performance characteristics, PTT Public Company Limited (PTT) has developed new API SN, SAE 0W-20 engine oil with a novel viscosity modifier and conducted a field trial with extended oil drain intervals to verify its performance.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Junya Iwasaki PhD, Yasunori Shimizu, Hiroshi fujita PhD, Moritsugu Kasai PhD
It has been recently reported that sulfated ash derived from engine oil deteriorates DPF performance due to accumulation on the filter surface. In addition, it has been commonly understood that phosphorus from engine oil adsorbs onto catalytic metal surface and degrades the performance. From this background, sulfated ash and phosphorus in engine oil have been reduced. From this point of view, the authors have developed the novel engine oil (NPNA) which includes no phosphorus and no sulfated ash from metal detergent and ZnDTP and also introduced its competent performance by several engine tests and a fleet test. However, the impact of NPNA on after-treatment devices has not been investigated. This paper describes the influence of sulfated ash content on DPF performance and phosphorus content on catalyst. Several engine tests were carried out using commercially available engine oils and NPNA engine oil. In DPF performance study, a newly developed diesel engine test for the evaluation was used, and weight increase in DPF before and after the test was measured.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Oliver M. Smith, Alexander Michlberger, Doug Jayne, Alex Sammut, Mike Sutton
It has long been understood that the piston assembly of the internal combustion engine accounts for a significant proportion of total engine friction. Modern engines are required to have better fuel economy without sacrificing durability. The pursuit of better fuel economy drives trends like downsizing, turbocharging and direct injection fuelling systems that increase cylinder pressures and create a more arduous operating environment for the piston ring / cylinder bore tribocouple. The power-cylinder lubricant is therefore put under increased stress. Conventional tribological techniques have proved adequate in the past at allowing development of the lubricated tribocouple system. In the past, basic approximations to the tribological conditions in the power-cylinder have been used to guide engineering systems design and lubricant formulating on a macro scale. Compromise and informed assumption allowed simple simulations to be conducted on a bench-top scale. By employing this approach much knowledge has been generated that increases our understanding of the tribology of piston assemblies beyond what would have been possible from engine testing alone.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Anja Singer, Juergen Krahl, Wolfgang Ruck
Increasing the proportion of renewable energy in the transport sector and therefore the reduction of the dependence on fossil oil is a prime political and economic goal in Europe and also in many other parts of the world. On the diesel sector, especially vegetable oil methyl ester is introduced. The blending of commercial diesel fuel with up to 7 % of biodiesel leads to a lot of problems in the range of engine oil in cars. Because of the regeneration of the particle filter there is an increase of the fuel entry of unburnt fuel in the engine oil. The first effect of this fuel entry is the engine oil dilution which can be observed for all diesel fuels. Unlike biodiesel, commercial diesel fuel can mostly evaporate out of the engine oil because of its lower boiling point. Biodiesel has a boiling point of about 360 °C which is the reason for its accumulation in the engine oil. High temperatures and atmospheric oxygen have a big influence on the oil and thus also on the fuel in engines. The underlying effect is an autoxidation reaction which is known as oil aging.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Sakthinathan Ganapathy Pandian
Nanolubricants are suspensions of nanoparticles in base fluids, a new challenge for thermal sciences provided by nanotechnology.The objective of this work is to analyze the thermal, tribological properties of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nano lubricants. Nanosized YSZ particles were prepared by milling YSZ (10µm) in a planetary ball mill equipped with vials using tungsten carbide balls. After 40 hrs, milled YSZ nanoparticles of sizes ranging from 70-90nm were obtained . The nanoparticles were characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis(EDXA), Scanning Electron microscope(SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope, Thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimeter and non contact 3D surface profilometer and the images of the same were obtained. The heat transfer properties of automotive engine lubricants were determined by utilization of measured thermal conductivity, viscosity index, density, flash point, fire point and pour point revealed that lubricants with additive constituents have a significant effect on the resultant heat transfer characteristics of the lubricants.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Wim Van Dam, James Booth, Jimmy Pitta, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation. Formulation adjustments were necessary to deal with the impacts of lower sulfur diesel fuel, increased engine operating temperatures leading to more oxidation, increased levels of soot contamination as a result of EGR, and reductions in maximum allowable sulfated ash, sulfur and phosphorus for the benefit of exhaust gas after-treatment devices that were necessary to reduce NOx and Particulate Matter emissions. It seems that the industry has reached the point of diminishing returns where it comes to reducing emissions. With fuel economy as an important new technology driver, the industry is exploring and introducing diesel engine oils of viscosity grades that used to be applied solely in passenger car engines, such as API 10W-30 and even 5W-30. To avoid misapplication, API has decided that diesel engine oils, most of which are formulated close to the maximum 0.12% phosphorus limit in the API C specification, can no longer add the API S gasoline engine claim.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Damien Browne, Mark Dewey, Mike Sutton, Sarah Graham
Final Version Internal review completed: Fuel economy continues to be a significant driver of engine lubricant development. The cost of vehicle ownership, energy security and the need to limit greenhouse gas emissions are all factors in driving legislation that promotes vehicle fuel economy. These factors, as well as rising fuel costs, are forcing large fleet operators such as bus companies to investigate every possible area for improving the efficiency of their fleets. One area of interest for these companies is engine lubricants which are known to have a significant effect on the overall efficiency of a vehicle. Particularly since the incremental cost of such lubricants for the efficiency benefit obtained is a very good economic decision. One of the primary methods for delivering this benefit is by lowering the viscosity of the engine oil. However, the additive chemistry also plays an important role by maintaining the durability of the engine but also further improving the fuel efficiency by reducing the friction within the engine itself.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
James A. McGeehan
By 2014, all new on-highway diesel engines in North America, Europe, and Japan will employ diesel particulate filters (DPF) in the exhaust in order to meet particulate emission standards. If the pressure across the DPF increases due to incombustibles remaining after filter regeneration, the exhaust backpressure will increase, and this in turn reduces fuel economy and engine power, and increases emissions. Due to engine oil consumption, over 90% of the incombustibles in the DPF are derived from inorganic lubricant additives. These components are derived from calcium and magnesium detergents, zinc dithiophosphates (ZnDTP), and metal-containing oxidation inhibitors. They do not regenerate as they are non-volatile metals and salts. Consequently, the DPF has to be removed from the vehicle for cleaning. Ashless oil could eliminate the need for cleaning. This study initially focused on development of ashless oil, but eventually concluded that this oil could not meet the valve-train wear requirements of the API CJ-4, SN/ACEA E9 oil categories.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Congrui Cao, Gongde Liu, Runxiang zhang, Haibo She, Qiangqiang Tao
Harsh emission control regulation restricted the sulfated ash, sulfur and phosphorus (SAPS) level in passenger car motor oil (PCMO), thus lubricant industry need to find new additive to partially or wholly replace Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), which has been used as an antioxidant and anti-wear agent for several decades. Overbased crystalline calcium sulfonate (CCS) detergent comprises calcite calcium carbonate and this structure might be useful to improve the anti-wear property of engine oil in severe lubrication condition, especially for PCMO with lower SAPS level. Frictional characteristics were studied between overbased amorphous calcium sulfonate (ACS) detergent and CCS and their interactions with dispersant and ZDDP by Mini-Traction Machine (MTM), which is often used to measure the Stribeck Curve of lubricant. In PAO base oil, both the two detergents showed lower traction coefficient in boundary lubrication (BL) regime, and higher traction coefficient in mixed lubrication (ML) regime than that of the base oil itself, and the traction coefficient of CCS was higher than that of the ACS.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Xinqi Qiao, Pengfei Li, Jinlong Bai, Jian Zhuang, Zhen Huang
In engine lubrication system, oil lubricates moving parts, cools the engine, removes impurities and minimizes friction. Oil aeration is the entrapment of air into engine oil during operation. Air exists in Oil in the form of free air, foam, entrained air and dissolved air. Aeration would affect oil density, viscosity and its sound velocity, with a detriment to such properties as lubricity, cooling and lubricating temperature, possibly resulting in worse engine working environment. Oil aeration level could be measured using volume method, radionuclide method, compressibility method and density method. In general, volume method is to separate air from oil-air mixture sample drained from engine oil gallery, measure air and oil volume respectively and thus get oil aeration level. In this paper, a new volume method with temperature compensation is introduced. The measurement of oil aeration level is performed with the main oil gallery of a four cylinder, turbocharged, high-speed diesel engine under different operating conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Michael P Gahagan
ABSTRACT Although the European and Chinese passenger car markets have been seen as out of step with the North American and Japanese penetration of automatic transmissions, the continued growth of the dual clutch transmission (DCT) in Europe and China can be well understood against the background of its advantages. These include improved fuel economy, acceleration, shift quality, and compatibility with significant diesel engine use as well as electric drive motors. As an alternative to manual transmissions, the platform sharing provided by the DCT offers favourable manufacturing opportunities where they are based on manual transmission architecture. This is not to imply, however, that the same fluid can be used in both applications. The traditional balanced judgment that vehicle drivers make when choosing a manual transmission option is now being enhanced by the increasing choice of these efficient automatic transmission types. The industry expects the DCT penetration to increase over time as roads become more congested and driving becomes more of an effort due to the increased driver frequency of declutching, handshift, clutching episodes.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kazushi Tamura PhD, Moritsugu Kasai PhD, Yukinobu Nakamura, Tomoyuki Enomoto
Friction at piston ring-cylinder liner interface largely contributes to mechanical loss in reciprocating internal combustion engines of passenger cars. In addition to the fundamental lubrication parameters, i.e., viscosity of interfacial media, sliding velocity and normal load, the ring-liner friction could also be modified by geometrical and chemical feature of ring-liner interface system. The effects of lubricant formulation on ring-liner friction have not been reported as much as those of surface geometry and chemistry of piston rings and cylinder liners. We previously reported that addition of viscosity modifiers, the polymeric additives frequently used in fuel economy engine oils, caused strong shear-thinning at piston ring-cylinder liner interface and the shear rate is estimated approximately 10^7 sec^(-1). This means that in mixed- and boundary-lubrication regimes viscosity modifiers potentially increase frictional loss and wear probability. Thus we need to investigate impacts of boundary lubrication performance of engine oils on friction at ring-liner interface in order to improve performance of fuel economy engine oils.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kosuke Fujimoto, Minoru Yamashita, Satoshi Hirano, Katsuyoshi Kato, Izumi Watanabe, Koki Ito
Automotive companies have been working on technology development for reducing CO2 emission during driving cycle to be more environmentally conscious and to meet strict CO2 emission standard. Gasoline engine downsizing with turbocharger and direct-injection system is one of the effective approaches to improve fuel efficiency of vehicles without sacrificing power performance. The benefit comes from lower mechanical friction due to down-sizing of the engine displacement and down-speeding of the engine by using higher transmission gear ratios which is allowed by the higher engine torque at low engine speed. However abnormal combustion referred to as Low-Speed Pre-ignition (LSPI) often occurs in low-speed and high-torque conditions. Therefore the engine torque improvement at low engine speed must be limited to avoid the LSPI event, since it increase combustion chamber pressure significantly and may damage engine hardware. According to recent technical reports, auto-ignition of engine oil droplet in combustion chamber is believed to be a major contributing factor of LSPI and engine oil formulations have a significant effect on LSPI frequency.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Simon David Evans
ABSTRACT The fuel economy of vehicles today is in everyone’s focus, governments, original equipment manufacturers, and consumers alike for different reasons are demanding improvements. Historically, reducing the oil viscosity has resulted in improved fuel economy—but lower viscosities mean reduced or “weakened” lubricant films which may fail to hold up under higher temperatures and heavier loading associated with axle operations. The fluid development challenge is to bridge the gap between fuel economy and operating temperature control. Achieving both fuel economy and durability are not always mutually compatible objectives. The real challenge is to build in the high torque protection historically associated with SAE 75W-90 viscosity grades while delivering the axle efficiency of a lighter SAE 75W-85 grade. This is achieved through the careful selection of base fluid, viscosity modifier, and additive chemistry. Axle oils are subjected to different modes of energy dissipation: losses related to loading and losses which are independent of loading—i.e., churning or spin losses.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Wim Van Dam, James Booth, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation. Formulation adjustments were necessary to deal with the impacts of lower sulfur diesel fuel, increased engine operating temperatures leading to more oxidation, increased levels of soot contamination as a result of EGR, and reductions in maximum allowable sulfated ash, sulfur and phosphorus for the benefit of exhaust gas after-treatment devices that were necessary to reduce NOx and Particulate Matter emissions. It seems that the industry has reached the point of diminishing returns where it comes to reducing emissions. In the absence of an NOx and particulate emission legislation driven, technical need for renewing the diesel engine oils, the current API CJ-4 specification has had the longest life time of any API diesel engine oil specification in the last 25 years. However, economical, market driven developments seem to have taken over the task as a driver for renewal of diesel engine oils.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Nishant Mohan, Mayank Sharma, Ramesh Singh
The need for advanced lubricants is increasing rapidly due to the current wide range of operational usage, i.e., high loads and speeds of motion between friction pairs, broader temperature range, and the overall requirements for increased reliability and service life of machinery. It is essentially important to develop specialized anti-friction and anti-wear materials that will help in preventing wear and decreasing friction, thereby saving fuel and electricity. Simultaneously, such materials are also expected to reduce vibration, noise and maintenance of machine parts. Thus, the research into extending the service life of such materials continues to be imperative. Nanoparticles (NPs) present a novel approach in this regard, as they can be used in lubricants in between two mating contact surfaces as a third body. When compared with the widely used conventional micro-particles for tribological applications, NPs have unique features owing primarily to their much higher specific surface area.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ben Leach, Richard Pearson
Rising fuel prices and changes to CO2 and fuel economy legislation have prompted an interest in the electrification of vehicles since this can significantly improve vehicle tailpipe CO2 emissions over homologation test cycles. To this end plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and range extended electric vehicles (REEVs) have been introduced to the market. The operation of the engines in these vehicles differs from conventional vehicles in several key ways .This study was conducted to better understand how the engine design and control strategy of these vehicles affects the temperature and operating regimes experienced by engine crankcase lubricants. A Toyota Prius PHEV and Chevrolet VOLT REEV were tested on a chassis dynamometer over several legislated and pseudo ‘real world’ drive cycles to determine the operating strategy and behaviour of the powertrain. The lubricant and coolant temperatures were monitored, together with other key control parameters. Tests were completed with both hot and cold engine starts at 25˚C and -7˚C test cell temperatures in charge-depleting and charge-sustaining operating modes.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Isabella Goldmints, Sonia Oberoi, Stuart Briggs, Jun Cui
Global environmental and economic concerns of today’s world dictate strict requirements for modern heavy duty engines, especially in emissions, noise control, power generation, and extended oil drain intervals. These requirements lead to increased stresses imposed on lubricants in modern heavy duty engines. At the same time, the original equipment manufacturer (OEMs) desire to gain additional fuel economy from the lubricating oil requires the use of lower viscosity lubricants to minimize frictional losses in the engine. These lower viscosity oils subjected to increased stresses in the engine need to provide robust performance throughout their lifetime in order to protect engine parts from wear and damage. One of the most important lubricant qualities is to maintain viscosity throughout the drain interval and thus provide continuous engine protection. Multigrade engine oils contain polymeric viscosity modifiers that can be mechanically degraded in the high shear environment of the engine with a resulting drop in viscosity.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Vicente Macian, Bernardo Tormos, Santiago Ruiz, Guillermo Miró, Tomás Pérez
Due to the increasingly stringent emissions standards in the world and, on the other hand, the foreseen shortage of fossil fuels, the application of low viscosity engine lubricants (LVO) is considered one of the most interesting option for counter these threats. Parallel to a fuel consumption fleet test, the aim of this study was to verify the performance of low viscosity lubricants regarding to engine wear, since the use of LVO could imply an increase in wear rate. Potential higher wear could result in a reduction in life cycle for the internal combustion engines, a non-desired effect. In addition, currently limited data are available regarding “real-world” performance of LVO in a real service fleet. On this test 40 buses were monitored using a deep and extensive oil analysis program, comprising two engine technologies (Diesel and CNG) and four different lubricants, two of them LVO and other two as a reference baseline, during an oil life cycle of 30000 km, sampling each 3000 km. For every sample, a broad list of thermo-physical and chemical properties were measured, and specially wear engine was quantified using ICP-OES, in order to detect abnormal wear patterns in the engine.
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