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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3776
Event
2015-03-23
Training / Education
2015-03-03
Lubricating fluids are the lifeblood of modern engines, performing numerous vital functions from reducing system friction, temperature, and fuel consumption to minimizing tailpipe emissions. This comprehensive seminar covers the latest developments in lubricating fluids technologies and explores the relationships between lubricating fluids and emissions, after-treatment devices, bio-fuels, and fuel economy. Fundamentals of crankcase lubrication, including the properties and performance requirements of global base stocks and lubricants will be covered. The seminar will further explore the need for lubricating systems to possess thermal and oxidative stability sufficient to withstand the rigors of low-heat-rejection, high performance diesel engines or other modern engines equipped with various emission control devices.
Event
2014-11-20
This session contains a variety of presentations regarding engine oil technologies developed for small engines. There are three papers addressing new lubricants for motorcycles ranging from increasing engine power, to new high performance oils needed to meet the every increasing demand of new low emission engines. There are also two papers to address reducing friction and wear required for energy conserving performance in small engines.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Mikael Bergman, Magnus Bergwall, Thomas Elm, Sascha Louring, Lars Nielsen
Abstract: Husqvarna as a member of group of European SMEs, surface coating technology providers and engine manufacturers - wish to develop and demonstrate a second-to-none advanced low-friction coating tailored for engine applications. Contrary to existing approaches this is based on a holistic approach combining coating technologies, substrate alloys and well known large-scale second-to-none production technologies. The implementation of the AdEC project will significantly contribute to upgrading state-of-the-art surface technologies and improve existing advanced coating processes through investigation within the field of material science, especially in the area of complex materials focusing on Ni-Co based dispersion coatings containing a mixture of nano-diamonds and hexa-boron nitride (BN). The latest development in use of advanced coating materials was introduced when NSU invented the wankel engine in the late 60s. For that purpose an electrochemical deposit coating (Nikasil) was invented.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Matthew Smeeth
Rolling contact fatigue is a particular type of fatigue that occurs in heavily loaded, non-conformal contacts, such as gears and rolling element bearings. It is primarily a failure mode associated with repeated cyclic loading that generates high local Hertzian pressures, leading to local plastic deformation and substantial surface or sub surface stress. This in turn leads to crack formation and propagation. In some instances this results in sudden and often critical mechanical failure of contacting parts. This failure mode can, to a certain degree, be controlled by the appropriate choice of lubricant; in terms of both the physical and chemical properties of the films formed at the surface. A three contact disc machine has been used to examine the rolling contact fatigue of motorcycle lubricants in such heavily loaded contacts. Three counterface test rings of equal diameter (54mm) are mounted 120° apart with a smaller (12mm diameter) test roller in the centre. Using this configuration, a large number of contact cycles are possible in a short period of time (up to one million per hour), which greatly accelerates the testing test.
Training / Education
2014-11-03
Improving vehicular fuel efficiency is of paramount importance to the global economy. Governmental regulations, climate change and associated health concerns, as well as the drive towards energy independence, have created a technical need to achieve greater fuel efficiency. While vehicle manufacturers are focusing efforts on improved combustion strategies, smaller displacement engines, weight reduction, low friction surfaces, etc., the research involved in developing fuel efficient engine oils has been less publicized. This seminar will highlight the role of lubricants in improving fuel efficiency and provide strategies for selecting the best oil for a given application.
Event
2014-10-22
This session reviews advancements in heavy-duty engine oil technology and test methodology, focusing on achieving future emissions, durability and fuel efficiency expectations both in North America and Europe.
Event
2014-10-22
This session reviews advancements in heavy-duty engine oil technology and test methodology, focusing on achieving future emissions, durability and fuel efficiency expectations both in North America and Europe.
Event
2014-10-21
The industry continues to work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with driveline hardware in order to improve vehicle efficiency, durability, and performance. Discussions in this session involve lubricant studies that offer improvements to current fluids, alterations of test methods or provide new insights into how lubricants impact current technology.
Event
2014-10-20
The industry continues to work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with engine hardware in order to improve vehicle efficiency, durability, and performance. The Engine Lubricants Session presents a variety of papers dealing with advances in engine oils and their relationship to improved hardware performance.
Event
2014-10-20
The industry continues to work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with engine hardware in order to improve vehicle efficiency, durability, and performance. The Engine Lubricants Session presents a variety of papers dealing with advances in engine oils and their relationship to improved hardware performance.
Event
2014-10-16
Event
2014-10-15
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Sunthorn Predapitakkun, Padol Sukajit
Development of an API SN, SAE 0W-20 engine oil for Tropical Climate using a new Novel Viscosity Modifier and verification of its performance via a field trial in Thailand Sunthorn Predapitakkun PTT Research & Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited Lim Jing Jing, Infineum Singapore Amporn Sudsanguan , Arunratt Wuttimongkolchai, PTT Research & Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited Engine lubrication in the global automotive industry has many challenges in the world today. One of them is the pursuit of fuel economy. As a result, the use of lower viscosity engine oils is becoming increasingly popular. However, engine wear protection of low viscosity oils is not as robust as higher viscosity grade oils. Due to this, even though low viscosity grades engine oils like SAE 0W-20 could provide the added benefit of fuel economy, they are not common in tropical climates. To address this two seemingly discordant performance characteristics, PTT Public Company Limited (PTT) has developed new API SN, SAE 0W-20 engine oil with a novel viscosity modifier and conducted a field trial with extended oil drain intervals to verify its performance.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Oliver M. Smith, Alexander Michlberger, Doug Jayne, Alex Sammut, Mike Sutton
It has long been understood that the piston assembly of the internal combustion engine accounts for a significant proportion of total engine friction. Modern engines are required to have better fuel economy without sacrificing durability. The pursuit of better fuel economy drives trends like downsizing, turbocharging and direct injection fuelling systems that increase cylinder pressures and create a more arduous operating environment for the piston ring / cylinder bore tribocouple. The power-cylinder lubricant is therefore put under increased stress. Conventional tribological techniques have proved adequate in the past at allowing development of the lubricated tribocouple system. In the past, basic approximations to the tribological conditions in the power-cylinder have been used to guide engineering systems design and lubricant formulating on a macro scale. Compromise and informed assumption allowed simple simulations to be conducted on a bench-top scale. By employing this approach much knowledge has been generated that increases our understanding of the tribology of piston assemblies beyond what would have been possible from engine testing alone.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ben Leach, Richard Pearson
Rising fuel prices and changes to CO2 and fuel economy legislation have prompted an interest in the electrification of vehicles since this can significantly improve vehicle tailpipe CO2 emissions over homologation test cycles. To this end plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and range extended electric vehicles (REEVs) have been introduced to the market. The operation of the engines in these vehicles differs from conventional vehicles in several key ways .This study was conducted to better understand how the engine design and control strategy of these vehicles affects the temperature and operating regimes experienced by engine crankcase lubricants. A Toyota Prius PHEV and Chevrolet VOLT REEV were tested on a chassis dynamometer over several legislated and pseudo ‘real world’ drive cycles to determine the operating strategy and behaviour of the powertrain. The lubricant and coolant temperatures were monitored, together with other key control parameters. Tests were completed with both hot and cold engine starts at 25˚C and -7˚C test cell temperatures in charge-depleting and charge-sustaining operating modes.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Nishant Mohan, Mayank Sharma, Ramesh Singh, Naveen Kumar
The need for advanced lubricants is increasing rapidly due to the current wide range of operational usage, i.e., high loads and speeds of motion between friction pairs, broader temperature range, and the overall requirements for increased reliability and service life of machinery. It is essentially important to develop specialized anti-friction and anti-wear materials that will help in preventing wear and decreasing friction, thereby saving fuel and electricity. Simultaneously, such materials are also expected to reduce vibration, noise and maintenance of machine parts. Thus, the research into extending the service life of such materials continues to be imperative. Nanoparticles (NPs) present a novel approach in this regard, as they can be used in lubricants in between two mating contact surfaces as a third body. When compared with the widely used conventional micro-particles for tribological applications, NPs have unique features owing primarily to their much higher specific surface area.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Junya Iwasaki, Yasunori Shimizu, Hiroshi Fujita, Moritsugu Kasai
It has been recently reported that sulfated ash derived from engine oil deteriorates DPF performance due to accumulation on the filter surface. In addition, it has been commonly understood that phosphorus from engine oil adsorbs onto catalytic metal surface and degrades the performance. From this background, sulfated ash and phosphorus in engine oil have been reduced. From this point of view, the authors have developed the novel engine oil (NPNA) which includes no phosphorus and no sulfated ash from metal detergent and ZnDTP and also introduced its competent performance by several engine tests and a fleet test. However, the impact of NPNA on after-treatment devices has not been investigated. This paper describes the influence of sulfated ash content on DPF performance and phosphorus content on catalyst. Several engine tests were carried out using commercially available engine oils and NPNA engine oil. In DPF performance study, a newly developed diesel engine test for the evaluation was used, and weight increase in DPF before and after the test was measured.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Heju Zhu, Wanying Li, Hanguo Tao, Jun Li, Xiuhua Sui
In order to study and evaluate the effect of sulfated ash in different diesel engine lubricants on the performance and durability of diesel particulate filters (DPF), lubricants CI-4 and CJ-4 are used respectively in the durability test of DPF system. Moreover, the pressure drop, ash loading and filtration efficiency of DPF as well as intake flow rate and fuel consumption rate of engine are measured and compared. The test results show that: Compared to lubricant CI-4 which has more ash in the formulation than lubricant CJ-4, lubricant CJ-4 shows a markedly excellent performance on the lower ash loading and longer service interval and life for DPF, as well as lower fuel consumption rate for diesel engine .
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Vicente Macian, Bernardo Tormos, Santiago Ruiz, Leonardo Ramirez Roa, Javier de Diego
This paper describes the results of a comparison test where the effect of the use of Low Viscosity Oils on fuel consumption was assessed. The aim was to verify and quantify the theoretical benefits in terms of fuel consumption claimed by several studies. The study was performed using 39 urban buses which include diesel and CNG models of the city of Valencia over an 8 month period where every bus reached and average distance close to 30000 km. This group was divided in a control and a test group, using regular oils and Low Viscosity Oils respectively. The fuel consumption of buses was calculated with distance and refueling. Distance measurements were controlled by GPS and fuel consumption was measured by means of the buses refueling both of them in a daily basis. In the same way, 10 oil samples per bus, taken every 3000 km, were taken to control kinematic viscosity and HTHS viscosity, of reference and candidate oils, in order to control and report possible correlations between the viscosity changes and fuel consumption improvement changes over the test.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kazushi Tamura, Moritsugu Kasai, Yukinobu Nakamura, Tomoyuki Enomoto
Friction at piston ring-cylinder liner interface largely contributes to mechanical loss in reciprocating internal combustion engines of passenger cars. In addition to the fundamental lubrication parameters, i.e., viscosity of interfacial media, sliding velocity and normal load, the ring-liner friction could also be modified by geometrical and chemical feature of ring-liner interface system. The effects of lubricant formulation on ring-liner friction have not been reported as much as those of surface geometry and chemistry of piston rings and cylinder liners. We previously reported that addition of viscosity modifiers, the polymeric additives frequently used in fuel economy engine oils, caused strong shear-thinning at piston ring-cylinder liner interface and the shear rate is estimated approximately 10^7 sec^(-1). This means that in mixed- and boundary-lubrication regimes viscosity modifiers potentially increase frictional loss and wear probability. Thus we need to investigate impacts of boundary lubrication performance of engine oils on friction at ring-liner interface in order to improve performance of fuel economy engine oils.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Anja Singer, Wolfgang Ruck, Juergen Krahl
Increasing the proportion of renewable energy in the transport sector and therefore the reduction of the dependence on fossil oil is a prime political and economic goal in Europe and also in many other parts of the world. On the diesel sector, especially vegetable oil methyl ester is introduced. The blending of commercial diesel fuel with up to 7 % of biodiesel leads to a lot of problems in the range of engine oil in cars. Because of the regeneration of the particle filter there is an increase of the fuel entry of unburnt fuel in the engine oil. The first effect of this fuel entry is the engine oil dilution which can be observed for all diesel fuels. Unlike biodiesel, commercial diesel fuel can mostly evaporate out of the engine oil because of its lower boiling point. Biodiesel has a boiling point of about 360 °C which is the reason for its accumulation in the engine oil. High temperatures and atmospheric oxygen have a big influence on the oil and thus also on the fuel in engines. The underlying effect is an autoxidation reaction which is known as oil aging.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Xinqi Qiao, Pengfei Li, Jinlong Bai, Jian Zhuang, Zhen Huang
In engine lubrication system, oil lubricates moving parts, cools the engine, removes impurities and minimizes friction. Oil aeration is the entrapment of air into engine oil during operation. Air exists in Oil in the form of free air, foam, entrained air and dissolved air. Aeration would affect oil density, viscosity and its sound velocity, with a detriment to such properties as lubricity, cooling and lubricating temperature, possibly resulting in worse engine working environment. Oil aeration level could be measured using volume method, radionuclide method, compressibility method and density method. In general, volume method is to separate air from oil-air mixture sample drained from engine oil gallery, measure air and oil volume respectively and thus get oil aeration level. In this paper, a new volume method with temperature compensation is introduced. The measurement of oil aeration level is performed with the main oil gallery of a four cylinder, turbocharged, high-speed diesel engine under different operating conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Congrui Cao, Gongde Liu, Runxiang Zhang, Haibo She, Qiangqiang Tao
Harsh emission control regulation restricted the sulfated ash, sulfur and phosphorus (SAPS) level in passenger car motor oil (PCMO), thus lubricant industry need to find new additive to partially or wholly replace Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), which has been used as an antioxidant and anti-wear agent for several decades. Overbased crystalline calcium sulfonate (CCS) detergent comprises calcite calcium carbonate and this structure might be useful to improve the anti-wear property of engine oil in severe lubrication condition, especially for PCMO with lower SAPS level. Frictional characteristics were studied between overbased amorphous calcium sulfonate (ACS) detergent and CCS and their interactions with dispersant and ZDDP by Mini-Traction Machine (MTM), which is often used to measure the Stribeck Curve of lubricant. In PAO base oil, both the two detergents showed lower traction coefficient in boundary lubrication (BL) regime, and higher traction coefficient in mixed lubrication (ML) regime than that of the base oil itself, and the traction coefficient of CCS was higher than that of the ACS.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Vicente Macian, Bernardo Tormos, Santiago Ruiz, Guillermo Miró, Tomás Pérez
Due to the increasingly stringent emissions standards in the world and, on the other hand, the foreseen shortage of fossil fuels, the application of low viscosity engine lubricants (LVO) is considered one of the most interesting option for counter these threats. Parallel to a fuel consumption fleet test, the aim of this study was to verify the performance of low viscosity lubricants regarding to engine wear, since the use of LVO could imply an increase in wear rate. Potential higher wear could result in a reduction in life cycle for the internal combustion engines, a non-desired effect. In addition, currently limited data are available regarding “real-world” performance of LVO in a real service fleet. On this test 40 buses were monitored using a deep and extensive oil analysis program, comprising two engine technologies (Diesel and CNG) and four different lubricants, two of them LVO and other two as a reference baseline, during an oil life cycle of 30000 km, sampling each 3000 km. For every sample, a broad list of thermo-physical and chemical properties were measured, and specially wear engine was quantified using ICP-OES, in order to detect abnormal wear patterns in the engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Sakthinathan Ganapathy Pandian
Nanolubricants are suspensions of nanoparticles in base fluids, a new challenge for thermal sciences provided by nanotechnology.The objective of this work is to analyze the thermal, tribological properties of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nano lubricants. Nanosized YSZ particles were prepared by milling YSZ (10µm) in a planetary ball mill equipped with vials using tungsten carbide balls. After 40 hrs, milled YSZ nanoparticles of sizes ranging from 70-90nm were obtained . The nanoparticles were characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis(EDXA), Scanning Electron microscope(SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope, Thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimeter and non contact 3D surface profilometer and the images of the same were obtained. The heat transfer properties of automotive engine lubricants were determined by utilization of measured thermal conductivity, viscosity index, density, flash point, fire point and pour point revealed that lubricants with additive constituents have a significant effect on the resultant heat transfer characteristics of the lubricants.
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