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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3774
2015-03-16
Event
2015-03-03 ...
  • March 3-4, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Lubricating fluids are the lifeblood of modern engines, performing numerous vital functions from reducing system friction, temperature, and fuel consumption to minimizing tailpipe emissions. This comprehensive seminar covers the latest developments in lubricating fluids technologies and explores the relationships between lubricating fluids and emissions, after-treatment devices, bio-fuels, and fuel economy. Fundamentals of crankcase lubrication, including the properties and performance requirements of global base stocks and lubricants will be covered. The seminar will further explore the need for...
2014-11-20
Event
This session contains a variety of presentations regarding engine oil technologies developed for small engines. There are three papers addressing new lubricants for motorcycles ranging from increasing engine power, to new high performance oils needed to meet the every increasing demand of new low emission engines. There are also two papers to address reducing friction and wear required for energy conserving performance in small engines.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0096
Norikuni Hayakawa, Kenta Miura, Tomomi Miyasaka, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano
Abstract Spontaneous low-speed pre-ignition, strong knock and other abnormal combustion events that occur in supercharged direct-injection engines are viewed as serious issues. The effects of the engine oil and the components of engine oil additives have been pointed out as one cause of such abnormal combustion. However, the mechanisms involved have yet to be elucidated, and it is unclear how the individual components of engine oil additives influence autoignition. This study investigated the effect on autoignition of boundary lubricant additives that are mixed into the engine oil for the purpose of forming a lubricant film on metal surfaces. A high-speed camera was used to photograph and visualize combustion through an optical access window provided in the combustion chamber of the four-stroke naturally aspirated side-valve test engine. Spectroscopic measurements were also made simultaneously to investigate the characteristics of abnormal combustion in detail. We mixed Zinc additive into primary reference fuel (PRF50) at zinc concentration of 115 ppm, 570 ppm and 800 ppm.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0091
Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano, Norikuni Hayakawa, Tomomi Miyasaka, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Abstract Although metallic compounds are widely known to affect combustion in internal combustion engines, the potential of metallic additives in engine oils to initiate abnormal combustion has been unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of combustion chamber deposits derived from engine oil additives on combustion in a spark-ignited engine. We used a single-cylinder four-stroke engine, and measured several combustion characteristics (e.g., cylinder pressure, in-cylinder ultraviolet absorbance in the end-gas region, and visualized flame propagation) to evaluate combustion anomalies. To clarify the effects of individual additive components, we formed combustion products of individual additives in a combustion chamber prior to measuring combustion characteristics. We tested three types of metallic additives: a calcium-based detergent, a zinc-based antiwear agent, and a molybdenum-based friction modifier. Measurements of combustion characteristics after deposit formation revealed that the deposits derived from the calcium and zinc compounds facilitated auto-ignition and increased knock intensity.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0092
Tomomi Miyasaka, Kenta Miura, Norikuni Hayakawa, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano
Abstract Supercharged direct-injection engines are known to have a tendency toward abnormal combustion such as spontaneous low-speed pre-ignition and strong knock because they operate under low-speed, high-load conditions conducive to the occurrence of irregular combustion. It has been hypothesized that one cause of such abnormal combustion is the intrusion of engine oil droplets into the combustion chamber where they become a source of ignition. It has also been reported that varying the composition of engine oil additives can change susceptibility to abnormal combustion. However, the mechanisms involved are not well understood, and it is not clear how the individual components of engine oil additives affect autoignition. In this study, abnormal combustion experiments were conducted to investigate the effect on autoignition of a calcium-based additive that is typically mixed into engine oil to act as a detergent. The experiments were performed with a single-cylinder 4-cycle gasoline engine using a primary reference fuel (PRF 50) into which the calcium salicylate (CaSa)-based detergent was mixed at various ratios.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0115
Mikael Bergman, Magnus Bergwall, Thomas Elm, Sascha Louring, Lars Nielsen
Abstract: Husqvarna as a member of group of European SMEs, surface coating technology providers and engine manufacturers - wish to develop and demonstrate a second-to-none advanced low-friction coating tailored for engine applications. Contrary to existing approaches this is based on a holistic approach combining coating technologies, substrate alloys and well known large-scale second-to-none production technologies. The implementation of the AdEC project will significantly contribute to upgrading state-of-the-art surface technologies and improve existing advanced coating processes through investigation within the field of material science, especially in the area of complex materials focusing on Ni-Co based dispersion coatings containing a mixture of nano-diamonds and hexa-boron nitride (BN). The latest development in use of advanced coating materials was introduced when NSU invented the wankel engine in the late 60s. For that purpose an electrochemical deposit coating (Nikasil) was invented.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0037
Stefano Bernardi, Marco Ferrari, Dario Catanese
Abstract Many two stroke engine for hand-held applications are equipped with muffler that contain a catalyst in order to reduce emissions. However, one of the main problems, is to mantain the performances of the catalyst over time; this often leads to the adoption of systems with increased culling oversized issues related to weight, dimensions and temperature. One of the major causes of degradation of the catalyst is derived from elements of poison present in the oil mixture. This study showed the results obtained by comparing different types of oils of mixture, through durability tests carried out on an engine of a brush cutter.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0117
Matthew Smeeth
Abstract Rolling contact fatigue is a particular type of fatigue that occurs in heavily loaded, non-conformal contacts, such as gears and rolling element bearings. It is primarily a failure mode associated with repeated cyclic loading that generates high local Hertzian pressures, leading to local plastic deformation and substantial surface or sub surface stress. This in turn leads to crack formation and propagation. In some instances this results in sudden and often critical mechanical failure of contacting parts. This failure mode can, to a certain degree, be controlled by the appropriate choice of lubricant; in terms of both the physical and chemical properties of the films formed at the surface. A three contact disc machine has been used to examine the rolling contact fatigue of motorcycle lubricants in such heavily loaded contacts. Three counterface test rings of equal diameter (54mm) are mounted 120° apart with a smaller (12mm diameter) test roller in the centre. Using this configuration, a large number of contact cycles are possible in a short period of time (up to one million per hour), which greatly accelerates the testing test.
2014-11-03 ...
  • November 3-4, 2014 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • August 18-19, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • November 2-3, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Improving vehicular fuel efficiency is of paramount importance to the global economy. Governmental regulations, climate change and associated health concerns, as well as the drive towards energy independence, have created a technical need to achieve greater fuel efficiency. While vehicle manufacturers are focusing efforts on improved combustion strategies, smaller displacement engines, weight reduction, low friction surfaces, etc., the research involved in developing fuel efficient engine oils has been less publicized. This seminar will highlight the role of lubricants in improving fuel efficiency...
2014-10-22
Event
This session reviews advancements in heavy-duty engine oil technology and test methodology, focusing on achieving future emissions, durability and fuel efficiency expectations both in North America and Europe.
2014-10-22
Event
This session reviews advancements in heavy-duty engine oil technology and test methodology, focusing on achieving future emissions, durability and fuel efficiency expectations both in North America and Europe.
2014-10-21
Event
The industry continues to work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with driveline hardware in order to improve vehicle efficiency, durability, and performance. Discussions in this session involve lubricant studies that offer improvements to current fluids, alterations of test methods or provide new insights into how lubricants impact current technology.
2014-10-20
Event
The industry continues to work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with engine hardware in order to improve vehicle efficiency, durability, and performance. The Engine Lubricants Session presents a variety of papers dealing with advances in engine oils and their relationship to improved hardware performance.
2014-10-20
Event
The industry continues to work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with engine hardware in order to improve vehicle efficiency, durability, and performance. The Engine Lubricants Session presents a variety of papers dealing with advances in engine oils and their relationship to improved hardware performance.
2014-10-16
Event
2014-10-15
Event
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2574
Tenghua Shieh, Kiyotaka Yamashita, Oana Nitulescu, Satoshi Hirano, Norio Inami, Hiroshi Moritani
Abstract This paper focuses on the fuel contribution to crankcase engine oil degradation in gasoline fueled engines in view of insoluble formation. The polymerization of degraded fuel is responsible for the formation of insoluble which is considered as a possible cause of low temperature sludge in severe vehicle operating conditions. The main objective of the study is to understand the mechanism of formation of partially oxidized compounds from fuel during the combustion process, before their accumulation in the crankcase oil. A numerical method has been established to calculate the formation of partially oxidized compounds in spark ignition engines directly, by using 3D CFD. To further enable the possibility of running a large number of simulations with a realistic turn-around time, a coupled approach of 3D CFD (with simplified chemical mechanism) and 0D Kinetics (with full chemical mechanism) is proposed here. Information such as pressure, air-fuel ratio, temperature at the time when the flame approaches the wall is extracted from 3D CFD and is applied as initial condition in the detailed analysis of 0D Closed Homogeneous Reactor(CHR) model for the formation of partially oxidized compounds.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2591
Florian Kleiner, Marcel Kaspar, Christina Artmann, Hans-Peter Rabl
Abstract In coming years a special focus in the field of GDI engines will be on downsized concepts and highly-charged gasoline direct injection engines. This is due to stricter emission laws, higher customer requirements, greater environmental awareness as well as high demands on materials and resources. Especially at cold start, catalyst heating and warm up operation GDI engines have an issue with oil dilution. Fuel gets into the oil pan and is mixed with the engine oil so that the physical and chemical properties of the engine oil are changed. Adjusting engine operating points to higher mean effective pressures in downsizing concepts also an additional increase of the fuel input into the engine oil occurs. At the University of Applied Sciences Regensburg measurements were carried out at a direct injected gasoline engine with lateral injector position. This engine with 1.8 l displacement disposes e.g. a common rail injection system up to 20 MPa, a variable camshaft regulation and a variable tumble system.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2793
Damien Browne, Mark Dewey, Sarah Graham, Mike Sutton, Mark Munday, James Blackshaw, Andrea Clegg, Paul Timmis
Abstract Improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency continue to be a significant driver for all parties involved in the operation of automotive vehicles. The cost of vehicle ownership, energy security and the need to limit greenhouse gas emissions are all factors in driving the need to improve operating efficiency. One particular area of interest is engine lubricants which are known to have a significant effect on the overall efficiency of a vehicle. The decision to move to a more fuel efficient lubricant is enhanced since the incremental cost of introducing a fuel efficient lubricant is low in comparison to the potential fuel saving leading to a favourable economic decision for a fleet owner. This paper describes a study undertaken where upon two significantly different UK buses were taken directly from the FirstGroup fleet and used for a period of two weeks for fuel economy testing. The testing centres on two commercially available engine lubricants and was completed on a test track in the UK.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2792
Wim van Dam, James Booth, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation for NOx and Particulates. Over the last few years, the focus has shifted to reducing CO2 emissions, which created an interest in fuel efficient lubricants. In addition, increased fuel cost and a need to control operational expenses in a weaker economy have further heightened the interest in fuel efficient lubricants. Where the trucking industry was reluctant to move away from the tried and true SAE 15W-40 viscosity grade, there is now a strong interest in pushing the boundaries of lower viscosity to reduce internal friction in the engine and thereby improve fuel efficiency. Consequently, the industry is exploring and introducing lower viscosity grades, such as SAE 10W-30 and even SAE 5W-30. Fuel economy research work, looking at viscosity reductions as a means to improved fuel economy, was expanded to also evaluate the fuel economy improvement potential for changes in the additive chemistry.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2795
Wim van Dam, James Booth, Jimmy Pitta, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation for NOx and Particulates. Over the last few years, the focus has shifted to reducing CO2 emissions and reducing operating cost by improving the engine's fuel economy. With fuel economy as an important new technology driver, the industry is exploring and introducing diesel engine oils of viscosity grades that used to be applied solely in passenger car engines, such as SAE 10W-30 and even SAE 5W-30. To avoid misapplication, API has decided that heavy duty diesel engine oils, most of which are formulated close to the maximum 0.12% phosphorus limit in the API C specification, can no longer add the API S gasoline engine claim. The only way to create a lubricant that carries both an API C and S claim for mixed fleet or municipality application, is to formulate at less than 0.08% phosphorus, a limit that was adopted in API S specifications because there are indications that phosphorus may foul three-way catalysts used with gasoline engines to control tailpipe emissions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2794
Vicente Macian, Bernardo Tormos, Santiago Ruiz, Leonardo Ramirez Roa, Javier de Diego
Abstract This paper shows the results of a fuel consumption in-use comparison test where the effect of Low Viscosity Oils (LVO) was evaluated over a sample of 39 urban buses powered by Diesel and CNG engines. The aim of the test was to verify the fuel consumption benefits of LVO in Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV) found in previous works, which were obtained mainly in engine test bench, when engines are working on “on-Road” conditions. In order to achieve this goal, a sample of 39 urban buses was studied over an Oil Drain Interval or 30.000 km (approximately an 11 month period), measuring daily mileage and fuel consumed to calculate each bus fuel consumption. Mileage was measured by GPS and fuel consumed was measured from refueling system. The sample was divided into two groups; a control group of buses using reference oils (SAE grade viscosities of 15W-40 and 10W-40) and a candidate group using LVO oils (SAE grade viscosities 5W-30). As kinematic viscosity at 100°C and High Temperature High Shear (HTHS) viscosity at 150°C have shown a good correlation with engine fuel consumption, an oil sampling program was implemented to study the possible variation of these oil parameters and its effect on the fleet fuel consumption during the test.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2789
Congrui Cao, Gongde Liu, Runxiang Zhang, Haibo She, Qiangqiang Tao
Abstract Harsh emission control regulation restricted the sulfated ash, sulfur and phosphorus (SAPS) level in passenger car motor oil (PCMO), thus lubricant industry need to find new additive to partially or wholly replace Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), which has been used as an antioxidant and anti-wear agent for several decades. Overbased crystalline calcium sulfonate (CCS) detergent comprises calcite calcium carbonate and this structure might be useful to improve the anti-wear property of engine oil in severe lubrication condition, especially for PCMO with lower SAPS level. Frictional characteristics were studied between overbased amorphous calcium sulfonate (ACS) detergent and CCS and their interactions with dispersant and ZDDP by Mini-Traction Machine, which is often used to measure the Stribeck Curve of lubricant. In poly alpha-olefin base oil, both the two detergents showed lower traction coefficient in boundary lubrication (BL) regime, and higher traction coefficient in mixed lubrication (ML) regime than that of the base oil itself, and the traction coefficient of CCS was higher than that of the ACS.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2790
Sakthinathan Ganapathy Pandian
Nanolubricants are suspensions of nanoparticles in base fluids, a new challenge for thermal sciences provided by nanotechnology. The objective of this work is to analyze the thermal and tribological properties of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanolubricants. Nanosized YSZ particles were prepared by milling YSZ (10μm) in a planetary ball mill equipped with vials using tungsten carbide balls. After 40 hrs, milled YSZ nanoparticles of sizes ranging from 70-90nm were obtained. The nanoparticles were characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), Scanning Electron microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope, Thermo Gravimetric-Differential Scanning Calorimeter and non contact 3D surface profilometer and the images of the same were obtained. The heat transfer properties of automotive engine lubricants were determined by utilization of measured thermal conductivity, viscosity index, density, flash point, fire point and pour point, which revealed that lubricants with additive constituents have a significant effect on the resultant heat transfer characteristics of the lubricants.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2797
Vicente Macian, Bernardo Tormos, Santiago Ruiz, Guillermo Miró, Tomás Pérez
Abstract Due to the increasingly stringent emissions standards in the world and, on the other hand, the foreseen shortage of fossil fuels, the application of low viscosity engine oils (LVO) is considered one of the most interesting options for counter these threats. In parallel to a fuel consumption fleet test, the aim of this study was to assess the performance of commercial low viscosity oils regarding their degradation and engine wear, since the use of LVO could imply an increase in wear rate. Potential higher engine wear could result in a reduction in the expected engine life cycle, obviously is a non-desired effect. In addition, currently limited data are available regarding “real-world” performance of LVO in a real service fleet. On this test, 39 urban buses were monitored using a detailed and extensive oil analysis program, comprising two engine technologies (Diesel and CNG) and four different lubricants, two of them LVO and other two considered as a reference baseline, during an oil drain period of 30000 km.
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