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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3780
Event
2015-03-16
Training / Education
2015-03-03
Lubricating fluids are the lifeblood of modern engines, performing numerous vital functions from reducing system friction, temperature, and fuel consumption to minimizing tailpipe emissions. This comprehensive seminar covers the latest developments in lubricating fluids technologies and explores the relationships between lubricating fluids and emissions, after-treatment devices, bio-fuels, and fuel economy. Fundamentals of crankcase lubrication, including the properties and performance requirements of global base stocks and lubricants will be covered. The seminar will further explore the need for lubricating systems to possess thermal and oxidative stability sufficient to withstand the rigors of low-heat-rejection, high performance diesel engines or other modern engines equipped with various emission control devices.
Event
2014-11-20
This session contains a variety of presentations regarding engine oil technologies developed for small engines. There are three papers addressing new lubricants for motorcycles ranging from increasing engine power, to new high performance oils needed to meet the every increasing demand of new low emission engines. There are also two papers to address reducing friction and wear required for energy conserving performance in small engines.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Matthew Smeeth
Rolling contact fatigue is a particular type of fatigue that occurs in heavily loaded, non-conformal contacts, such as gears and rolling element bearings. It is primarily a failure mode associated with repeated cyclic loading that generates high local Hertzian pressures, leading to local plastic deformation and substantial surface or sub surface stress. This in turn leads to crack formation and propagation. In some instances this results in sudden and often critical mechanical failure of contacting parts. This failure mode can, to a certain degree, be controlled by the appropriate choice of lubricant; in terms of both the physical and chemical properties of the films formed at the surface. A three contact disc machine has been used to examine the rolling contact fatigue of motorcycle lubricants in such heavily loaded contacts. Three counterface test rings of equal diameter (54mm) are mounted 120° apart with a smaller (12mm diameter) test roller in the centre. Using this configuration, a large number of contact cycles are possible in a short period of time (up to one million per hour), which greatly accelerates the testing test.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Mikael Bergman, Magnus Bergwall, Thomas Elm, Sascha Louring, Lars Nielsen
Abstract: Husqvarna as a member of group of European SMEs, surface coating technology providers and engine manufacturers - wish to develop and demonstrate a second-to-none advanced low-friction coating tailored for engine applications. Contrary to existing approaches this is based on a holistic approach combining coating technologies, substrate alloys and well known large-scale second-to-none production technologies. The implementation of the AdEC project will significantly contribute to upgrading state-of-the-art surface technologies and improve existing advanced coating processes through investigation within the field of material science, especially in the area of complex materials focusing on Ni-Co based dispersion coatings containing a mixture of nano-diamonds and hexa-boron nitride (BN). The latest development in use of advanced coating materials was introduced when NSU invented the wankel engine in the late 60s. For that purpose an electrochemical deposit coating (Nikasil) was invented.
Training / Education
2014-11-03
Improving vehicular fuel efficiency is of paramount importance to the global economy. Governmental regulations, climate change and associated health concerns, as well as the drive towards energy independence, have created a technical need to achieve greater fuel efficiency. While vehicle manufacturers are focusing efforts on improved combustion strategies, smaller displacement engines, weight reduction, low friction surfaces, etc., the research involved in developing fuel efficient engine oils has been less publicized. This seminar will highlight the role of lubricants in improving fuel efficiency and provide strategies for selecting the best oil for a given application.
Event
2014-10-22
This session reviews advancements in heavy-duty engine oil technology and test methodology, focusing on achieving future emissions, durability and fuel efficiency expectations both in North America and Europe.
Event
2014-10-22
This session reviews advancements in heavy-duty engine oil technology and test methodology, focusing on achieving future emissions, durability and fuel efficiency expectations both in North America and Europe.
Event
2014-10-21
The industry continues to work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with driveline hardware in order to improve vehicle efficiency, durability, and performance. Discussions in this session involve lubricant studies that offer improvements to current fluids, alterations of test methods or provide new insights into how lubricants impact current technology.
Event
2014-10-20
The industry continues to work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with engine hardware in order to improve vehicle efficiency, durability, and performance. The Engine Lubricants Session presents a variety of papers dealing with advances in engine oils and their relationship to improved hardware performance.
Event
2014-10-20
The industry continues to work on understanding the interaction of lubricating fluids with engine hardware in order to improve vehicle efficiency, durability, and performance. The Engine Lubricants Session presents a variety of papers dealing with advances in engine oils and their relationship to improved hardware performance.
Event
2014-10-16
Event
2014-10-15
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Sunthorn Predapitakkun, Padol Sukajit
Development of an API SN, SAE 0W-20 engine oil for Tropical Climate using a new Novel Viscosity Modifier and verification of its performance via a field trial in Thailand Sunthorn Predapitakkun PTT Research & Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited Lim Jing Jing, Infineum Singapore Amporn Sudsanguan , Arunratt Wuttimongkolchai, PTT Research & Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited Engine lubrication in the global automotive industry has many challenges in the world today. One of them is the pursuit of fuel economy. As a result, the use of lower viscosity engine oils is becoming increasingly popular. However, engine wear protection of low viscosity oils is not as robust as higher viscosity grade oils. Due to this, even though low viscosity grades engine oils like SAE 0W-20 could provide the added benefit of fuel economy, they are not common in tropical climates. To address this two seemingly discordant performance characteristics, PTT Public Company Limited (PTT) has developed new API SN, SAE 0W-20 engine oil with a novel viscosity modifier and conducted a field trial with extended oil drain intervals to verify its performance.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ben Leach, Richard Pearson
Rising fuel prices and changes to CO2 and fuel economy legislation have prompted an interest in the electrification of vehicles since this can significantly improve vehicle tailpipe CO2 emissions over homologation test cycles. To this end plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and range extended electric vehicles (REEVs) have been introduced to the market. The operation of the engines in these vehicles differs from conventional vehicles in several key ways .This study was conducted to better understand how the engine design and control strategy of these vehicles affects the temperature and operating regimes experienced by engine crankcase lubricants. A Toyota Prius PHEV and Chevrolet VOLT REEV were tested on a chassis dynamometer over several legislated and pseudo ‘real world’ drive cycles to determine the operating strategy and behaviour of the powertrain. The lubricant and coolant temperatures were monitored, together with other key control parameters. Tests were completed with both hot and cold engine starts at 25˚C and -7˚C test cell temperatures in charge-depleting and charge-sustaining operating modes.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Xinqi Qiao, Pengfei Li, Jinlong Bai, Jian Zhuang, Zhen Huang
Abstract Engine lubricating oil perform functions including wear reduction, friction reduction, piston cooling, corrosion prevention, cleaning pistons, preventing leakage and serving as a hydraulic media. Oil aeration is the entrapment of air into engine oil during operation. Aeration would affect oil density, viscosity and its sound velocity, with a detriment to such properties as lubricity, cooling and lubricating temperature, possibly resulting in worse engine working environment. In this paper, a new volume method with temperature compensation is introduced and proved to be indispensable. The measurement of oil aeration rate is performed with the main oil gallery of a four cylinder, turbocharged, high-speed diesel engine under different operating conditions. The temperature compensation is carried out for the measured oil aeration rate and the compensation effect evaluated. The variation of oil aeration rate with time after oil leaving the main oil gallery is also presented. The measured oil aeration rate is somewhat greater than normalized one, while the latter is much greater than on-line oil aeration rate in the main oil gallery.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Wim van Dam, James Booth, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation for NOx and Particulates. Over the last few years, the focus has shifted to reducing CO2 emissions, which created an interest in fuel efficient lubricants. In addition, increased fuel cost and a need to control operational expenses in a weaker economy have further heightened the interest in fuel efficient lubricants. Where the trucking industry was reluctant to move away from the tried and true SAE 15W-40 viscosity grade, there is now a strong interest in pushing the boundaries of lower viscosity to reduce internal friction in the engine and thereby improve fuel efficiency. Consequently, the industry is exploring and introducing lower viscosity grades, such as SAE 10W-30 and even SAE 5W-30. Fuel economy research work, looking at viscosity reductions as a means to improved fuel economy, was expanded to also evaluate the fuel economy improvement potential for changes in the additive chemistry.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Damien Browne, Mark Dewey, Sarah Graham, Mike Sutton, Mark Munday, James Blackshaw, Andrea Clegg, Paul Timmis
Abstract Improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency continue to be a significant driver for all parties involved in the operation of automotive vehicles. The cost of vehicle ownership, energy security and the need to limit greenhouse gas emissions are all factors in driving the need to improve operating efficiency. One particular area of interest is engine lubricants which are known to have a significant effect on the overall efficiency of a vehicle. The decision to move to a more fuel efficient lubricant is enhanced since the incremental cost of introducing a fuel efficient lubricant is low in comparison to the potential fuel saving leading to a favourable economic decision for a fleet owner. This paper describes a study undertaken where upon two significantly different UK buses were taken directly from the FirstGroup fleet and used for a period of two weeks for fuel economy testing. The testing centres on two commercially available engine lubricants and was completed on a test track in the UK.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Wim van Dam, James Booth, Jimmy Pitta, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation for NOx and Particulates. Over the last few years, the focus has shifted to reducing CO2 emissions and reducing operating cost by improving the engine's fuel economy. With fuel economy as an important new technology driver, the industry is exploring and introducing diesel engine oils of viscosity grades that used to be applied solely in passenger car engines, such as SAE 10W-30 and even SAE 5W-30. To avoid misapplication, API has decided that heavy duty diesel engine oils, most of which are formulated close to the maximum 0.12% phosphorus limit in the API C specification, can no longer add the API S gasoline engine claim. The only way to create a lubricant that carries both an API C and S claim for mixed fleet or municipality application, is to formulate at less than 0.08% phosphorus, a limit that was adopted in API S specifications because there are indications that phosphorus may foul three-way catalysts used with gasoline engines to control tailpipe emissions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Congrui Cao, Gongde Liu, Runxiang Zhang, Haibo She, Qiangqiang Tao
Abstract Harsh emission control regulation restricted the sulfated ash, sulfur and phosphorus (SAPS) level in passenger car motor oil (PCMO), thus lubricant industry need to find new additive to partially or wholly replace Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), which has been used as an antioxidant and anti-wear agent for several decades. Overbased crystalline calcium sulfonate (CCS) detergent comprises calcite calcium carbonate and this structure might be useful to improve the anti-wear property of engine oil in severe lubrication condition, especially for PCMO with lower SAPS level. Frictional characteristics were studied between overbased amorphous calcium sulfonate (ACS) detergent and CCS and their interactions with dispersant and ZDDP by Mini-Traction Machine, which is often used to measure the Stribeck Curve of lubricant. In poly alpha-olefin base oil, both the two detergents showed lower traction coefficient in boundary lubrication (BL) regime, and higher traction coefficient in mixed lubrication (ML) regime than that of the base oil itself, and the traction coefficient of CCS was higher than that of the ACS.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Sakthinathan Ganapathy Pandian
Nanolubricants are suspensions of nanoparticles in base fluids, a new challenge for thermal sciences provided by nanotechnology. The objective of this work is to analyze the thermal and tribological properties of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanolubricants. Nanosized YSZ particles were prepared by milling YSZ (10μm) in a planetary ball mill equipped with vials using tungsten carbide balls. After 40 hrs, milled YSZ nanoparticles of sizes ranging from 70-90nm were obtained. The nanoparticles were characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), Scanning Electron microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope, Thermo Gravimetric-Differential Scanning Calorimeter and non contact 3D surface profilometer and the images of the same were obtained. The heat transfer properties of automotive engine lubricants were determined by utilization of measured thermal conductivity, viscosity index, density, flash point, fire point and pour point, which revealed that lubricants with additive constituents have a significant effect on the resultant heat transfer characteristics of the lubricants.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Yasuhiro Hikita, Masahiro Kawahara, Naoto Noguchi
Abstract On internal combustion engines, the intake and exhaust valves are reciprocated by the cam mechanism. ‘Cam-shower’ is oil supplying device for each cam of a camshaft. The conventional cam-shower is simple pipe shape with several same size outlets for each cam. Oil from cylinder head is supplied in the middle point of cam-shower pipe. The oil flow of outlets near the oil supplied point is large amount, and outlet far from supplied point is small. The distribution of oil flow from each outlet is uneven. A new structure of cam-shower has been developed, and it has two important features. First, it has branched oil passage like cereoid cactus. Second, supplied oil flow from cylinder head to a cam-shower is intermittent by using throughhole passage in a camshaft journal. The new developed cam-shower properly distributes oil flow to each cam evenly and reduces wasted oil flow, so that total amount of oil flow of the cam-shower can be remarkably reduced by 90%. Then small discharge rate of the oil pump for engine can be set up and its driving torque gets lower.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Vicente Macian, Bernardo Tormos, Santiago Ruiz, Guillermo Miró, Tomás Pérez
Abstract Due to the increasingly stringent emissions standards in the world and, on the other hand, the foreseen shortage of fossil fuels, the application of low viscosity engine oils (LVO) is considered one of the most interesting options for counter these threats. In parallel to a fuel consumption fleet test, the aim of this study was to assess the performance of commercial low viscosity oils regarding their degradation and engine wear, since the use of LVO could imply an increase in wear rate. Potential higher engine wear could result in a reduction in the expected engine life cycle, obviously is a non-desired effect. In addition, currently limited data are available regarding “real-world” performance of LVO in a real service fleet. On this test, 39 urban buses were monitored using a detailed and extensive oil analysis program, comprising two engine technologies (Diesel and CNG) and four different lubricants, two of them LVO and other two considered as a reference baseline, during an oil drain period of 30000 km.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Simon David Evans
The fuel economy of vehicles is today in everyone's focus. Governments, original equipment manufacturers, and consumers alike are all demanding improvements. Historically, reducing oil viscosity has resulted in improved fuel economy; however, lower viscosities can lead to reduced or “weakened” lubricant films, which may fail to hold up under higher temperatures and heavy loading associated with axle operations. The fluid development challenge is to bridge the gap between fuel economy and operating temperature control. Achieving both fuel economy and durability are not always compatible objectives. The real challenge is to build in the high torque protection historically associated with higher viscosity grades, like SAE 75W-90, while delivering the axle efficiency of lighter grades such as an SAE 75W-85 grade. In previous work, it has been shown that critical factors for achieving the proper efficiency-durability balance include viscosity, traction, fluid film thickness and additive chemistry. [1,2,3,4,5] Axle oils are subjected to different modes of energy dissipation: losses related to loading and losses that are independent of loading i.e., churning or spin losses.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Oliver P. Taylor, Richard Pearson, Richard Stone, Phil Carden, Helen Ballard
Abstract Most major regional automotive markets have stringent legislative targets for vehicle greenhouse gas emissions or fuel economy enforced by fiscal penalties. Large improvements in vehicle efficiency on mandated test cycles have already taken place in some markets through the widespread adoption of technologies such as downsizing or dieselization. There is now increased focus on approaches which give smaller but significant incremental efficiency benefits such as reducing parasitic losses due to engine friction. Fuel economy improvements which achieve this through the development of advanced engine lubricants are very attractive to vehicle manufacturers due to their favorable cost-benefit ratio. For an engine with components which operate predominantly in the hydrodynamic lubrication regime, the most significant lubricant parameter which can be changed to improve the tribological performance of the system is the lubricant viscosity. Low viscosity lubricants are increasingly being specified by vehicle manufacturers who are now more frequently working directly with the lubricant supplier to design fluids specific to their requirements.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Nishant Mohan, Mayank Sharma, Ramesh Singh, Naveen Kumar
The need for advanced lubricants is increasing rapidly due to the current wide range of operational usage, i.e., high loads and speeds of motion between friction pairs, broader temperature range, and the overall requirements for increased reliability and service life of machinery. It is essentially important to develop specialized anti-friction and anti-wear materials that will help in preventing wear and decreasing friction, thereby saving fuel and electricity. Simultaneously, such materials are also expected to reduce vibration, noise and maintenance of machine parts. Thus, the research into extending the service life of such materials continues to be imperative. Nanoparticles (NPs) present a novel approach in this regard, as they can be used in lubricants in between two mating contact surfaces as a third body. When compared with the widely used conventional micro-particles for tribological applications, NPs have unique features owing primarily to their much higher specific surface area.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 3780

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