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2016-09-27
Event
Topics of interest include historical perspectives of Powered Lift Aviation Systems relevant to Short, Extremely Short, and Vertical Takeoff (STOL, ESTOL, VTOL) fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. Histories of both “successful” and “unsuccessful” concepts that provided experience, lessons learned, and pushed the state-of-the-art in a way that significantly advanced the safety, efficiency, reliability and affordability of Powered Lift flight are appropriate for this session.
2016-04-12
Event
The Mobility History Committee has as its mission to link the lessons of the past to the present and, with such an understanding, to support the platform for future developments.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0177
Edward G. Groff
During the late 1980’s and early 1990’s the two-stroke-cycle engine was an extremely popular and highly publicized automotive powertrain technology globally. Active development programs existed at many OEMs during that period, including GM, where the author was involved, and production seemed eminent. Autoweek stated on the cover of its March 12, 1990 issue, “Revolution for the millennium or Wankel of the ‘90s?” This paper covers the new technologies that led to the generation of so much excitement in the industry and press, the advantages and disadvantages of the engine concept, R&D tools developed at that time that are still in use today, and various engine concepts pursued in the industry. The story is not only interesting from engineering and technology perspectives but illustrates how innovations in certain subsystems become enablers to revive a system technology by eliminating issues that prevented it from making it to production in the past.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0176
Joseph M. Colucci
Abstract This paper summarizes the history and most significant accomplishments of the GMR-GMR&D Fuels and Lubricants Department from its predecessor organization starting about 100 years ago to its demise during a reorganization in the late 1990s. It covers: Combustion research to improve engine efficiency and reduce emissions, Development of chemical, bench, engine, and vehicle tests to improve fuel and lubricant quality, Development of technology to reduce vehicle emissions, Research to understand and reduce air pollution, and Evaluation of alternative fuels and lubricants. In total, the above activities helped not only GM and the worldwide auto industry, but also society. They improved the operation of vehicles and the quality of the air in the United States and around the globe, favorably affecting the lives of hundreds of millions of people. They also created the recognition of and the reputation of the Fuels and Lubricants Department as the best of its kind in the world.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0175
Edward G. Groff
Abstract Spark-ignition direct-injection technology existed since about 1930 for the primary purpose to give multifuel capability over what the compression-ignited diesel engine could provide. In subsequent decades development of multifuel engines continued both as higher-compression-ratio “spark-ignited diesel” and moderate-compressionratio stratified-charge engines. Global events in the 1960-1970’s, namely the oil embargo, oil-supply crises, and the passage of the U.S. Clean Air Act intensified interest in such engines. The military and large commercial fleet operators were particularly focused on efficiency and multifuel capability over concerns for fuel supplies. Automobile manufacturers were focused on gasoline-fueled efficiency and the potential to reduce engine-out legislated NOx emissions with the stratified-charged combustion systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1497
William Bortles, Wayne Biever, Neal Carter, Connor Smith
Abstract This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of original equipment event data recorders (EDR) installed in passenger vehicles, as well as a summary of results from the instrumented validation studies. The authors compiled 187 peer-reviewed studies, textbooks, legal opinions, governmental rulemaking policies, industry publications and presentations pertaining to event data recorders. Of the 187 total references, there were 64 that contained testing data. The authors conducted a validation analysis using data from 27 papers that presented both the EDR and corresponding independent instrumentation values for: Vehicle velocity change (ΔV) Pre-Crash vehicle speed The combined results from these studies highlight unique observations of EDR system testing and demonstrate the observed performance of original equipment event data recorders in passenger vehicles.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2487
Dara Childs
Abstract Rotordynamics developed from the beginning of the 20th century to deal with problems associated with steam turbines. This paper deals with intense developments starting around 1975 through 2000 in rotordynamics to deal with new, larger machines running at higher speeds and higher power levels. Most of the new problems of interest dealt with subsynchronous instabilities. Issues associated with “synchromnously unstable” motion due to the Morton Effect is also reviewed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2580
David Lednicer
Abstract During the 1930s and 1940s, aircraft designers worked on developing novel design features. Some of these features worked and are commonplace today. Other features fell by the wayside and have been forgotten. These novel design features include laminar flow wings, low-drag cooling systems, buried propulsion systems, canard configurations, jet engines, break-away wing tips, pressure cabins and swept wings. The development and applications of these features will be examined. Specific technical details of these applications will be included in this examination. For the design features that fell by the wayside, the reasons for this outcome will be discussed
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2581
Scott Eberhardt
Abstract World War 1 began with the airplane as a frail, unarmed means of observing enemy troop movements and ended with the airplane as a powerful, much more evolved weapon of war. There were specialized roles for fighter, bomber and ground attack aircraft as well as newly developed aerial strategies and tactics for operational effectiveness. Many aircraft design technologies greatly matured during the war. Four will be the subject of this paper: Drag reduction, aircraft handling qualities, stability and control, airfoil design technology, and structures design technology. Propulsion and armament also matured greatly but are not discussed in the paper. The discussion of drag reduction will illustrate the innovations of the British on external wire bracing drag, the French on cowl design and the Germans on cantilevered wings and induced drag.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2581.01
Paul Dees, Scott Eberhardt
The original paper published mistakenly did not include Paul Dees, Boeing in the author listing.
2015-06-24
Event
Frequency analysis is often referred to as Fourier analysis but is that really true? The foundation is based on stationary and "Fourier signals." What happens if that is not the case? Modern FFT signal analyzers use very sparse sampling that is correct according to Shannon but what will happen when using time domain analysis. Many of the myths and frequent questions will be answered using a "user perspective" and rules of thumb will be given together with good methods to avoid large errors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0416
Howard Evans
Abstract This paper summarises the history of Rochdale Motor Panels and Engineering Ltd. (RMP), established in England after the Second World War, from its origins as a small car-repair business though to the manufacture of sports coupés utilising an innovative glass-fibre monocoque construction. The political climate which caused RMP and similar undertakings to develop and flourish in the 1950s and 60s is explained together with details of the three men who had the defining influence on the cars that were created. Products, including aluminium-bodied cars, produced primarily for racing, are described, leading into the introduction of glass-fibre construction which enabled a profitable transition into higher volume body and chassis manufacture, and ultimately completely assembled cars.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0972
Alexander Pawlowski, Derek Splitter
Abstract It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
2014-11-24
Book
Gijs Mom
This book covers one and a quarter century of the automobile, conceived as a cultural history of its technology, aimed at engineering students and all those who wish to have a concise introduction into the basics of automotive technology and its long-term development . Its approach is systemic and includes the behavior of drivers, producers, nonusers, victims, and other "stakeholders" as well as the discourse around mobility. Nowadays, students of innovation prefer the term co-evolution, emphasizing the parallel and mutually dependent development of technology and society. This acknowledges the importance of contingency and of the impact of the past upon the present, the very reason why The Evolution of Automotive Technology: A Handbook looks at car technology from a long-term perspective. Often we will conclude that the innovation was in the (re)arrangement of existing technologies. Since its beginnings, car manufacturers have brought a total of 1 billion automobiles to the market.
2014-07-09
Video
SAE International is the ultimate knowledge source for mobility engineers, and SAE International is moving forward. Take a look at where we come from, where we are, and where we are going.
2013-04-01
Book
Bernhard Rieger
At the Berlin Auto Show in 1938, Adolf Hitler presented the prototype for a small, oddly shaped, inexpensive family car that all good Aryans could enjoy. Decades later, that automobile—the Volkswagen Beetle—was one of the most beloved in the world. Bernhard Rieger examines culture and technology, politics and economics, and industrial design and advertising genius to reveal how a car commissioned by Hitler and designed by Ferdinand Porsche became an exceptional global commodity on a par with Coca-Cola. Beyond its quality and low cost, the Beetle’s success hinged on its uncanny ability to capture the imaginations of people across nations and cultures. In West Germany, it came to stand for the postwar “economic miracle” and helped propel Europe into the age of mass motorization. In the United States, it was embraced in the suburbs, and then prized by the hippie counterculture as an antidote to suburban conformity.
2013-01-01
Book
Michael Plemmons
Writing in 1901, the futurist H. G. Wells predicted not only the decline of railways but the rise of the “motor truck” – a term unfamiliar to most readers at that time. Wells foresaw “large carrier companies” with fleets of horseless vehicles “to carry goods in bulk or parcels.” At the turn of the 20th century, colossal railroad companies ruled long-distance “land locomotion.” And the prospect of commercial life without draft horses seemed about as likely as Martians invading Earth – a story Wells had published four years earlier. But only one year later, ironically in a horse barn near a Chicago tannery, an ex-bicycle maker named Magnus Hendrickson began assembling Wells’ vision. This would become a decades-long undertaking to divine, design, build, continuously improve and ultimately perfect what makes a truck a truck – not simply a bigger car. Along the way, Magnus and his sons founded The Hendrickson Motor Truck Company, which in 2013 celebrated 100 continuous years of operations.
2010-01-01
Book
Jack Connors
This book describes the evolution from piston engines to gas turbines by the engineers who created those engines. Included are hundreds of archival photographs, as well as over a dozen tables listing specifications and applications. The story starts with the founding of the company in the 1920's to provide reliable air-cooled piston engines to the military and to help create coast-to-coast commercial flight service. Pratt & Whitney quickly dominated commercial and military flight in the 1930's - ultimately providing half the horsepower of American engines during WWII. Jack Connors explains how Pratt & Whitney came from behind the competition on developing gas turbines after the war with the debut of the J57, which powered the B-52 in 1952 and later the Air Force Century Series fighters (F-100, F-101, F-102) and the Navy A3D, F4D, and F-8 airplanes.
2009-12-01
Book
Dennis Gorodji
This highly informative book is a comprehensive guide to Nissan’s revolutionary supercar and its motorsport record. Covering the period from 1957 to 2009, it contains rare pictures, schematics and graphs detailing the many unique qualities of the GT-R. Nissan GT-R Supercar: Born to Race also features an original and critical analysis of the GT-R R35, and the R35 Spec V, which was launched at the start of 2009. Comparative and crucial analysis is included, as well as information previously unpublished in English. Quick access to specific information is provided via three different indexes. With over 400 color photographs, this is essential reading for the motorsports enthusiast, particularly GT-R owners and potential owners.
2008-08-19
Journal Article
2008-01-2258
Melinda Laubach
Due to current economic conditions, aircraft companies of today are experiencing an increasing need for their fleets to maintain safe operation beyond their original design life. The result is a growing percentage of aging aircraft that must maintain their airworthiness by utilizing standard methods of inspection and repair. In order to determine if potential continuing airworthiness problems exist for the general aviation fleet as a function of the aging process, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) established a research program at the National Institute for Aviation Research (NIAR), Wichita State University, to conduct destructive evaluations on four aged general aviation airplanes. The intent of the program is to provide insight into the condition of a typical aged airplane and to see if a correlation exists between its maintenance history and current condition from a safety of flight perspective.
2008-08-19
Journal Article
2008-01-2259
K. S. Raju, B. L. Smith, F. Caido, C. Gomez, M. Shiao
The fatigue behavior of Hilok fastener joints under constant amplitude loading has been investigated experimentally. The effects of load transfer in an unbalanced joint configuration was characterized in terms of a stress severity factor relative to the open-hole configuration. The experimental data indicates that the clamp-up forces dominate the performance of fastener joints with the open-hole fatigue life being the lower bound at the stress levels investigated. The failure modes were observed to transition from a net-section type failure across the minimum section to a fretting induced failure at some distance from the hole. The experimental data has been used to develop stress severity factors to be used as a measure of the fatigue quality of the fastener joints.
2007-10-26
Book
Willem L. Weertman
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