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Training / Education
2015-04-20
Preventing future problems and troubleshooting existing problems in today's stamping plants requires greater stamping process knowledge. The link between inputs and outputs isn't as clear as many think, increasing the need for detailed understanding of the variables involved. This course discusses the key inputs and outputs associated with sheet metal stamping, including important elements for controlling the process and making it more robust. The course reviews sheet metal characteristics and their application, especially from a formability standpoint, using many automotive-related examples. Common issues such as springback, dent resistance, and process differences among mild steel, high strength steel, bake hardenable steel, and aluminum are discussed. Stamping die types and functions, in particular the types of dies used in draw forming, are explained. Mechanical presses and lubrication are briefly discussed as other variables in the process. Other processes, including tube and sheet hydroforming, and progressive dies are covered in less detail.
Training / Education
2014-12-02
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are now commonly used in automotive body structural applications. The high strength of this grade classification is attractive to help reduce mass in the automotive body through reduction in thickness. Strength also supports improvements in safety requirements so that mass increases are minimized. In some specific grades of AHSS, energy absorption is possible in addition to the high strength. This course will review the definition and properties of AHSS and cover several common applications in automotive body structures. In addition, key manufacturing areas including stamping and welding will be addressed to demonstrate the increased challenges as compared to lower strength steel grades. Troubleshooting of typical engineering and production problems will round out the seminar leaving attendees with tools to help design more robust engineering solutions to AHSS applications.
Standard
2014-07-23
This specification covers a premium aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.
WIP Standard
2014-07-21
General Agreement Ballot will simplify the decarburization requirements of flat rolled products to that of the bar products and will eliminate the step procedure.
WIP Standard
2014-07-18
This specification covers quality assurance sampling and testing procedures used to determine conformance to applicable specification requirements of carbon and low-alloy steel forgings.
Standard
2014-07-17
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.
Standard
2014-07-17
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.
Standard
2014-07-17
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of seamless tubing. This tubing has been used typically for thin wall-thickness sections where minimum tensile strength up to 160 ksi (1103 MPa) is required and where parts may be welded during fabrication, but usage is not limited to such applications.
Standard
2014-07-10
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant steel in the form of bars, wire, forgings, mechanical tubing, flash welded rings, and stock for forging or flash welded rings.
Standard
2014-06-30
In 1941, the SAE Iron and Steel Division, in collaboration with the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), made a major change in the method of expressing composition ranges for the SAE steels. The plan, as now applied, is based in general on narrower cast or heat analysis ranges plus certain product analysis allowances on individual samples, in place of the fixed ranges and limits without tolerances formerly provided for carbon and other elements in SAE steels. For years the variety of chemical compositions of steel has been a matter of concern in the steel industry. It was recognized that production of fewer grades of steel could result in improved deliveries and provide a better opportunity to achieve advances in technology, manufacturing practices, and quality, and thus develop more fully the possibilities of application inherent in those grades. Comprehensive and impartial studies were directed toward determining which of the many grades being specified were the ones in most common demand, and the feasibility of combining compositions having like requirements.
Book
2014-06-13
Paul E. Geck
Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) are a family of steels that are stronger than most steels and have better formability than today’s conventional high-strength steels. New U.S. safety and fuel economy regulations have intensified pressure on OEMs to reduce vehicle weight. These pressures are causing auto companies to rethink alternative material applications and to look for opportunities that steel offers. The purpose of this book is to provide information for engineers who are designing the next generation of lighter vehicles. The material in the book is presented to help them make informed decisions on what basic materials to use and how to optimize those materials to achieve cost-effective weight reduction. The emphasis is on steels in general and AHSS in particular. However, there is much information on comparisons of steel with alternative materials for different subsystems of the vehicle. To support the latest automotive challenges in terms of weight reduction, this book lays out the opportunities for alternative material use in automobiles and offers the most up-to-date design guidance in efficient architectures that use AHSS.
Standard
2014-06-12
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of sheet and strip. These products have been used typically for parts requiring strength and moderate forming or bending, but usage is not limited to such applications. Mechanical properties specified herein are obtained by cold working (strain hardening) and not by heat treatment. Therefore, the cold-worked product should not be heated to a temperature which adversely affects the mechanical properties or corrosion resistance before, during, or after fabrication.
Standard
2014-06-05
This specification covers a premium aircraft-quality, corrosion-resistant steel in the form of bars, wire, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock. These products have been used typically for parts requiring a through-hardening, corrosion-resistant steel, operating under heavy loads at high speeds, requiring resistance to wear and softening at elevated temperatures, and subject to very rigid inspection standards, but usage is not limited to such applications.
Standard
2014-06-05
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, flash welded rings, and stock for forging or flash welded rings.
Standard
2014-06-05
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant steel in the form of bars, wire, forgings, mechanical tubing, flash welded rings, and stock for forging, flash welded rings, or heading. These products have been used typically for parts requiring oxidation resistance up to 1000 degrees F (538 degrees C), but usage is not limited to such applications. Strength at the higher temperature is superior to that of the standard 12Cr type steel.
Standard
2014-06-05
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of round, seamless tubing having a wall thickness not greater than 0.188 inch (4.78 mm). This tubing has been typically used in thin-walled sections where a minimum tensile strength of 125 ksi (862 MPa) is required, but usage is not limited to such applications.
Standard
2014-06-05
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of round, seamless tubing having a wall thickness not greater than 0.188 inch (4.78 mm). This tubing has been used typically for general use where a minimum tensile strength of 150 ksi (1034 MPa) is required, but usage is not limited to such applications.
Standard
2014-06-05
This specification covers quality assurance sampling and testing procedures used to determine conformance to applicable specification requirements of carbon and low-alloy steel forgings.
Standard
2014-05-19
This specification covers a premium aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.
Standard
2014-05-14
This specification covers a premium aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.
Technical Paper
2014-05-07
Torbjörn Narström
Abstract The use of modern quenched and tempered steels in dumper bodies to reduce weight to increase the payload and reduce the fuel consumption is briefly discussed. Modern quenched and tempered steels in combination with adopted design concept will further increase weight savings of the dumper body. Use of these materials may lead to 4 times longer wear life than ordinary steels. One of the main load cases for a dumper body is impact of an object, i.e. boulders and rocks, into the body. A well-proven test setup is used to develop a model to predict failure and depth of the dent after the impact. A material model with damage mechanic was utilized to predict fracture. The developed model was used to study the effect of the geometry of the impacting object, thickness of the plate and unconstrained plate field. The model was also implemented in larger model and compared with a full scale test of dumper body. It was found that the most sensitive parameter is the geometry of the falling object.
Technical Paper
2014-05-07
Timo Björk, Ilkka Valkonen, Jukka Kömi, Hannu Indren
Abstract The development of weldable high-strength and wear-resistant steels have made modern structures such as booms and mobile equipment possible. These sorts of novel and effective designs could not be constructed with traditional mild steel. Unfortunately, the use of these novel steels requires proper design, and there is no practical design code for these novel steels. This paper addresses stability issues, which are important considerations for designs with high-strength steels, and the properties of the heat-affected zone, which may require special attention. Fatigue design is also discussed in this paper, and the importance of the weld quality is highlighted, along with discussions on which details in the weld are the most important. By comparing the test results with the classical load limit solution, it is determined that full plastic capacity is reached and that the samples display good strain properties. Additionally, the reliability of the classical formulas is shown by comparing them to a recently proposed, novel formula.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Lars Elek, Christian Fischer, Tobias Melz, Rainer Wagener, Vera Wirths, Wolfgang Bleck
Abstract Lightweight design in the automotive industry is not always combined with the usage of alternative materials like composites. Even high strength steels have high potential for reducing the weight for lightweight design. For the forging industry a new steel is developed, which enables the TRIP-effect (Transformation Induced Plasticity) for forging parts. This material effect is already well known and used for steel sheet structures. The TRIP-effect is based on the structure of the TRIP-material containing retained austenite, which has the possibility to form residual stresses due to the austenite-martensite transformation under cyclic loading. Beside static properties, the dynamic and cyclic material behaviour has a high importance for parts in the automotive industry. So, for lightweight design, a focus has to be on fatigue behaviour under service loads including overloads for an optimal weight reduction. The traditional forging steels are the precipitation hardening ferritic-pearlitic steels (PHFP steel) and the martensitic quenched and tempered (Q&T) steels.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Jian Bian, Jitendra Patel
Abstract In order to increase safety standards and to reduce CO2 emissions, advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly being used in the manufacturing of car bodies. As state of art the body mass of the latest vehicles already constitute more than 30% AHSS and the future target is to increase this to 60%. However unlike conventional high strength steels many OEMs find it challenging to apply AHSS due to the differences in forming behaviour, high strain-rate behaviour, weldability, and potential HIC delayed cracking. In the development and application of the new generation of AHSS a key enabler has been the use of a low carbon concept microalloyed with niobium (Nb). The present paper explains the fundamental concepts and metallurgy of low-carbon Nb-microalloyed AHSS. Focusing on Nb microalloyed Dual Phase (DP), Press Hardened (PH) and Complex Phase (CP) steels, the performance of these steels when applied in modern forming technologies are also discussed together with specific automotive component examples.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
V.S Sreenivasan, S. Dhanasekaran, Samir Sharma, M. Sathya Prasad
Abstract Cylinder liner and piston ring materials play an important role in the tribological performance of engines. It is possible to reduce friction and wear of cylinder liner and piston ring by using wear resistant material. Compacted graphite iron finds increasing application as a liner material because of its high strength and good wear resistance. In this work, wear performance of two different grades of compacted graphite iron has been compared with that of gray cast iron liner material. Wear characteristics were evaluated using cylindrical specimens in a pin on disc sliding apparatus. High strength compacted graphite iron grade is found to have the best wear resistance among the three materials evaluated in this study. Increased volume fraction of pearlite enhances the wear resistance of high strength compacted graphite iron grade.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Rohitt Ravi, Sivasubramanian, Bade Simhachalam, Dhanooj Balakrishnan, Krishna Srinivas
Abstract Tubular stabilizer bar for commercial vehicle is developed using advanced high strength steel material. Tubular section is proposed to replace the existing solid section. The tubular design is validated by component simulation using ANSYS Software. The tubes are then manufactured of the required size. The bend tool is designed to suit the size of the profile stabilizer bar and the prototypes are made using the tube bending machine. The strength of the tubular stabilizer is increased by using robotic induction hardening system. The tubular stabilizer bar is tested for fatigue load using Instron actuators. Higher weight reduction is achieved by replacing the existing solid stabilizer bar with the tubular stabilizer bar.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
A. K. Bhakat, Ramen Datta, B. K. Jha, M. K. Pradhan, C. Muthuswamy
Abstract Development of economical, as rolled, high strength low alloy steels is the requirement of the day due to its unique features such as increased strength, toughness, formability and weldability property. These materials are required for a variety of critical applications such as long and cross members of auto chassis, pre-engineered building (PEB) structures etc. In line with the developmental trend and market requirement, special quality hot rolled formable grades such as HSFQ 350/ 450 (High Strength Formable Quality) have been selected for development at Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP). The newly developed HSFQ hot rolled steel possess an attractive combination of strength and formability property which is typically quantified as high elongation (25 % min) and hole expansion ratio (145 % min) coupled with lower YS/UTS ratio (0.80-0.85). This has been possible as a result of innovative alloy design and synergistic effect of Nb & Si during controlled processing. Similarly medium carbon steels are being used for wide range of automotive applications.
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