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2016-05-05
Standard
AMS1424/2
The foundation specification (AMS1424M) and the detail specifications (AMS1424/1 and AMS1424/2) cover deicing/anti-icing materials in the form of a fluid.
2016-04-28
Standard
J2937_201604
The objective of this document is to enhance the test procedure that is used for ejection mitigation testing per the NHTSA guidelines as mentioned in the FMVSS226 Final Rule document (NHTSA Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0004). The countermeasure for occupant ejection testing is to be tested with an 18kg mass on a guided linear impactor using the featureless headform specifically designed for ejection mitigation testing. SAE does not endorse any particular countermeasure for ejection mitigation testing. However, the document reflects guidelines that should be followed to maintain consistency in the test results. Examples of currently used countermeasures include the Inflatable Curtain airbags and Laminated Glass.
2016-04-28
Video
Ann Arbor, Michigan is fast becoming the world capital of testing and research for connected cars, automated driving, and safety technology. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Editor-In-Chief Lindsay Brooke looks at Ann Arbor's testing facilities. SAE Eye on Engineering also airs Monday mornings on WJR 760 AM Detroit's Paul W. Smith Show. Access archived episodes of SAE Eye on Engineering.
2016-04-19
WIP Standard
AIR4906A
A review of droplet sizing instruments used for icing research is presented. These instruments include the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe, the Optical Array Probe, the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, the Malvern Particule Size Analyzer, the oil slid technique, and the rotating multicylinder. The report focuses on the theory of operation of these instruments and practical considerations when using them in icing facilities.
2016-04-08
Magazine
Software's role continues to expand Design teams use different technologies to create new software and link systems together. Emissions regulations and engine complexity With the European Commission announcing a Stage V criteria emissions regulation for off-highway, scheduled to phase-in as earlly as 2019, there will be an end to a brief era of harmonized new-vehicle regulations. Will this affect an already complex engine development process? Evaluating thermal design of construction vehicles CFD simulation is used to evaluate two critical areas that address challenging thermal issues: electronic control units and hot air recirculation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1521
Masaaki Kuwahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Takeki Tanoue, Ryosuke Chikazawa
Abstract This paper describes impact kinematics and injury values of Hybrid III AM50, THOR AM50 and THUMS AM50 in simulated oblique frontal impact conditions. A comparison was made among them in driver and passenger seat positions of a midsize sedan car finite element (FE) model. The simulation results indicated that the impact kinematics of THOR was close to that of THUMS compared to that of the Hybrid III. Both THOR and THUMS showed z-axis rotation of the rib cage, while Hybrid III did not. It was considered that the rib cage rotation was due primarily to the oblique impact but was allowed by flexibility of the lumbar spine in THOR and THUMS. Lateral head displacement observed in both THOR and THUMS was mostly induced by that rotation in both driver seat and passenger seat positions. The BrIC, thorax and abdominal injury values were close to each other between THOR and THUMS, while HIC15 and Acetabulum force values were different.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1525
Anil Kalra, Kartik Somasundram, Ming Shen, Vishal Gupta, Clifford C. Chou, Feng Zhu
Abstract Numerical models of Hybrid III had been widely used to study the effect of underbody blast loading on lower extremities. These models had been primarily validated for automotive loading conditions of shorter magnitude in longer time span which are different than typical blast loading conditions of higher magnitude of shorter duration. Therefore, additional strain rate dependent material models were used to validate lower extremity of LSTC Hybrid III model for such loading conditions. Current study focuses on analyzing the mitigating effect of combat boots in injury responses with the help of validated LSTC Hybrid III model. Numerical simulations were run for various impactor speeds using validated LSTC Hybrid III model without any boot (bare foot) and with combat boot.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1527
Paul Podzikowski, Suk Jae Ham, John Cadwell, Aviral Shrivatri
Abstract The introduction of a revised New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) frontal crash test in the US has been challenging due to more stringent Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) rating metrics such as neck injury (Nij). These ATD responses in full vehicle tests may be under-predicted with conventional linear sleds because they are not capable of reproducing the pitching effect seen in some vehicle tests. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the effects of pitching sled on front passenger 5th %ile female ATD Nij response by comparing prototype vehicle test to pitching sled and linear sled tests. A second objective was to confirm that newly introduced pitching sled with enhanced pitching capability was able to reproduce similar vehicle kinematics when compared to a baseline vehicle test.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1534
Rudolf Reichert, Pradeep Mohan, Dhafer Marzougui, Cing-Dao Kan, Daniel Brown
Abstract A detailed finite element model of a 2012 Toyota Camry was developed by reverse engineering. The model consists of 2.25M elements representing the geometry, thicknesses, material characteristics, and connections of relevant structural, suspension, and interior components of the mid-size sedan. This paper describes the level of detail of the simulation model, the validation process, and how it performs in various crash configurations, when compared to full scale test results. Under contract with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Center for Collision Safety and Analysis (CCSA) team at the George Mason University has developed a fleet of vehicle models which has been made publicly available. The updated model presented is the latest finite element vehicle model with a high level of detail using state of the art modeling techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1506
David Poulard, Huipeng Chen, Matthew Panzer
Abstract Pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) are used to investigate and predict the injury outcomes from vehicle-pedestrian impact. As postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) differ in anthropometry across subjects, it is believed that the biofidelity of PFEM cannot be properly evaluated by comparing a generic anthropometry model against the specific PMHS test data. Global geometric personalization can scale the PFEM geometry to match the height and weight of a specific PMHS, while local geometric personalization via morphing can modify the PFEM geometry to match specific PMHS anatomy. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the benefit of morphed PFEM compared to globally-scaled and generic PFEM by comparing the kinematics against PMHS test results. The AM50 THUMS PFEM (v4.01) was used as a baseline for anthropometry, and personalized PFEM were created to the anthropometric specifications of two obese PMHS used in a previous pedestrian impact study using a mid-size sedan.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1510
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Pratapnaidu Vallabhaneni, Munenori Shinada, Kazuto Sato
Abstract Many active safety systems are being developed with the intent of protecting pedestrians namely; pedestrian airbags, active hood, active emergency braking (AEB), etc. Effectiveness of such protection system relies on the efficiency of the sensing systems. The pop-uphood system was developed to help reduce pedestrian head injuries. A pop-up system is expected to make full deployment of the hood before the pedestrian’s head could hit the hood. The system should have the capability to detect most road users ranging from a six year old (6YO) child to a large male. To test the sensing system, an impactor model (PDI-2) was developed. Sensor response varies for vehicles with different front end profile dimensions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1516
Takahiro Suzaki, Noritaka Takagi, Kosho Kawahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Abstract Approximately 20% of traffic fatalities in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment, whose body size is 50th percentile male (AM50), were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using rollover buck testing system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. On the other hand, the kinematics research of body size except AM50 will be needed in order to decrease traffic fatalities. There were few reports about the researches of occupant kinematics using FE models of body sizes except AM50.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1568
L. Daniel Metz
Abstract Roadway tractive capabilities are an important factor in accident reconstruction. In the absence of full-scale experiments, tire/road coefficient of friction values are sometimes quoted from reference textbooks. For the various types of road construction, the values are given only in the form of a wide range. One common roadway type is oil-and-chip construction. We examine stopping distances for newly-rocked oil-and-chip roads vs. similarly constructed roads that have been traffic-polished. The examination was conducted through full-scale braking experiments with instrumented vehicles. Results show that the differences between newly-rocked oil-and-chip roads when compared to roads that are traffic-polished are on the same order as vehicle, tire and ABS algorithm differences, and that full-scale testing is required for accurate μ-values.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1540
Timothy Keon
Abstract The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has performed research investigating the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint 50th male (THOR-50M) response in Oblique crash tests. This research is being expanded to investigate THOR-50M in the driver position in a 56 km/h frontal impact crash. Hybrid III 5th percentile adult female (AF05) anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) were used in this testing to evaluate the RibEye Deflection Measurement System. The AF05 ATDs were positioned in the right front passenger and right rear passenger seating positions. For the right front passenger, the New Car Assessment Procedure (NCAP) seating procedure was used, except the seat fore-aft position was set to mid-track. For the right rear passenger, the seating followed the FMVSS No. 214 Side Impact Compliance Test Procedure. The NCAP frontal impact test procedure was followed with additional vehicle instrumentation and pre/post-test measurements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1539
Do Hoi KIm
Abstract Given the importance of vehicle safety, OEMs are focused on ensuring the safety of passengers during car accidents. Injury is related to the passenger’s kinematics and interaction with airbag, seatbelt, and vehicle drop. However, the correlation between vehicle drop (vehicle pitch) and passengers’ injury is the main issue recently being discussed. This paper presents the definition of vehicle drop and analyzes the relationship through a dynamic sled test. This study defines the relationship between individual vehicle systems (body, chassis, tire, etc.) and vehicle drop, and how to control the amount of vehicle drop to minimize the injury of passengers.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1494
Peter Xing, Felix Lee, Thomas Flynn, Craig Wilkinson, Gunter Siegmund
Abstract The accuracy of the speed change reported by Generation 1 Toyota Corolla Event Data Recorders (EDR) in low-speed front and rear-end collisions has previously been studied. It was found that the EDRs underestimated speed change in frontal collisions and overestimated speed change in rear-end collisions. The source of the uncertainty was modeled using a threshold acceleration and bias model. This study compares the response of Generation 1, 2 and 3 Toyota EDRs from Toyota Corolla, Camry and Prius models. 19 Toyota airbag control modules (ACMs) were mounted on a linear sled. The ACMs underwent a series of frontal and rear-end haversine crash pulses of varying severity, duration and peak acceleration. The accuracy and trigger thresholds of the different models and generations of EDRs were compared. There were different accuracy trends found between the early Generation 1 and the more modern Generation 2 and 3 EDRs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1496
Richard R. Ruth, Brad Muir
Abstract Earlier research1 suggests there may be positive offset in the longitudinal G sensor in Toyota Corolla Gen 02 EDR’s. This research tests if a similar offset is present in Toyota Gen 04 EDR’s in the 2007 Yaris. A series of low speed forward and rearward collisions into a stationary vehicle were conducted. In addition to the installed vehicle ACM, additional identical “ride along” ACM’s were installed back to back, one front facing and one rear facing. The vehicle was also instrumented with a video VBOX to record speed at impact, and with the high precision “IST” accelerometer reference instrumentation. ACM’s facing toward the crash under-reported the negative longitudinal Delta V. After the initial impact was over, these forward facing ACM’s had a positive slope and at the end of the 200 ms recording were reporting a positive net Delta V, indicating a G sensor bias. The ACM’s facing away from the crash over reported the positive longitudinal Delta V.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1492
Ming Shen, Haojie Mao, Binhui Jiang, Feng Zhu, Xin Jin, Liqiang Dong, Suk Jae Ham, Palani Palaniappan, Clifford Chou, King Yang
Abstract To help predict the injury responses of child pedestrians and occupants in traffic incidents, finite element (FE) modeling has become a common research tool. Until now, there was no whole-body FE model for 10-year-old (10 YO) children. This paper introduces the development of two 10 YO whole-body pediatric FE models (named CHARM-10) with a standing posture to represent a pedestrian and a seated posture to represent an occupant with sufficient anatomic details. The geometric data was obtained from medical images and the key dimensions were compared to literature data. Component-level sub-models were built and validated against experimental results of post mortem human subjects (PMHS). Most of these studies have been mostly published previously and briefly summarized in this paper. For the current study, focus was put on the late stage model development.
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