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Viewing 1 to 30 of 94
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0944
Håkan Persson, Mats Agrell, Jan-Ola Olsson, Bengt Johansson, Hans Ström
A naturally aspirated in-line six-cylinder 2.9-litre Volvo engine is operated in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode, using camshafts with low lift and short duration generating negative valve overlap. This implementation requires only minor modifications of the standard SI engine and allows SI operation outside the operating range of HCCI. Standard port fuel injection is used and pistons and cylinder head are unchanged from the automotive application. A heat exchanger is utilized to heat or cool the intake air, not as a means of combustion control but in order to simulate realistic variations in ambient temperature. The combustion is monitored in real time using cylinder pressure sensors. HCCI through negative valve overlap is recognized as one of the possible implementation strategies of HCCI closest to production. However, for a practical application the intake temperature will vary both geographically and from time to time.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0941
Petter Strandh, Johan Bengtsson, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
A known problem of the HCCI engine is its lack of direct control and its requirements of feedback control. Today there exists several different means to control an HCCI engine, such as dual fuels, variable valve actuation, inlet temperature and compression ratio. Independent of actuation method a sensor is needed. In this paper we perform closed-loop control based on two different sensors, pressure and ion current sensor. Results showing that they give similar control performance within their operating range are presented. Also a comparison of two methods of designing HCCI timing controller, manual tuning and model based design is presented. A PID controller is used as an example of a manually tuned controller. A Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller exemplifies model based controller design. The models used in the design were estimated using system identification methods. The system used in this paper performs control on cycle-to-cycle basis. This leads to fast and robust control.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0940
Jan-Ola Olsson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) holds great promises for good fuel economy and low emissions of NOX and soot. The concept of HCCI is premixed combustion of a highly diluted mixture. The dilution limits the combustion temperature and thus prevents extensive NOX production. Load is controlled by altering the quality of the charge, rather than the quantity. No throttling together with a high compression ratio to facilitate auto ignition and lean mixtures results in good brake thermal efficiency. However, HCCI also presents challenges like how to control the combustion and how to achieve an acceptable load range. This work is focused on solutions to the latter problem. The high dilution required to avoid NOX production limits the mass of fuel relative to the mass of air or EGR. For a given size of the engine the only way to recover the loss of power due to dilution is to force more mass through the engine.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1064
Jacob Svendenius, Magnus Gäfvert
This paper presents a new method to derive the tire forces for simultaneous braking and cornering, by combining empirical models for pure braking and cornering using brush-model tire mechanics. The method is aimed at simulation of vehicle handling, and is of intermediate complexity such that it may be implemented and calibrated by the end user. The brush model states that the contact patch between the tire and the road is divided into an adhesion region where the rubber is gripping the road and a sliding region where the rubber slides on the road surface. The total force generated by the tire is then composed of components from these two regions. In the proposed method the adhesion and the sliding forces are extracted from an empirical pure-slip tire model and then scaled to account for the combined-slip condition. The combined-slip self-aligning torque is described likewise.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0108
Jos Reijnders, Michael Boot, Philip de Goey, Bengt Johansson
Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3541
J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, I. Magnusson
Two-dimensional cycle-resolved burnt gas temperatures were measured using two line atomic fluorescence (TLAF) in a single cylinder spark ignition car engine. Mapping of the in-cylinder flow was done under the same operating conditions using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Experimental data for temperature and flow was compared to results from numerical simulations.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3540
M. Richter, B. Axelsson, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, L-O. Carlsson, M. Dahlberg, J. Nisbet, H. Simonsen
This paper presents an investigation of a Volvo Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine, where the fuel distribution and the in-cylinder flow field have been mapped by the use of laser techniques in an engine with optical access. Along with the experimental work, CFD-modelling of flow and fuel distribution has been performed. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) visualisation of the fuel distribution in a DI-engine has been performed using an endoscopic detection system. Due to the complex piston crown geometry it was not possible to monitor the critical area around the sparkplug with conventional, through the piston, detection. Therefore, an endoscope inserted in the spark plug hole was used. This approach gave an unrestricted view over the desired area. In addition, the in-cylinder flow fields have been monitored by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) through cylinder and piston. The results from both the LIF and the PIV measurements have been compared with CFD-modelling at Volvo.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3548
Rolf Egnell
Modern diesel engine injection systems are largely computer controlled. This opens the door for tailoring the fuel rate. Rate shaping in combination with increased injection pressure and nozzle design will play an important role in the efforts to maintain the superiority of the diesel engine in terms of fuel economy while meeting future demands on emissions. This approach to studying the potential of rate shaping in order to reduce NO formation is based on three sub-models. The first model calculates the fuel rate by using standard expressions for calculating the areas of the dimensioning flow paths in the nozzle and the corresponding discharge coefficients. In the second sub-model the heat release rate is described as a function of available fuel energy, i.e. fuel mass, in the cylinder. The third submodel is the multizone combustion model that calculates NO for a given heat release rate under assumed air /fuel ratios.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3484
Hakan Soyhan, Per Amnéus, Fabian Mauss, Cem Sorusbay
A method for automatic reduction of detailed kinetic to skeletal mechanisms for complex fuels is proposed. The method is based on the simultaneous use of sensitivity and reaction-flow analysis. The resulting skeletal mechanism is valid for the parameter range of initial and boundary values, the analysis have been performed for. The gas-phase chemistry is analyzed in the end gas of an SI-engine, using a two-zone model. Species, not relevant for the occurrence of autoignition in the end gas, are defined as redundant. They are identified and eliminated for different pre-set levels of minimum reaction flow and sensitivity. The error in the mechanism increases monotony with increasing pre-set level of minimum reaction flow.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0954
Shahrokh Hajireza, Bengt Sundén, Fabian Mauss
This paper reports an one–dimensional modeling procedure of the hot spot autoignition with a detailed chemistry and multi–species transport in the end gas in an SI engine. The governing equations for continuity of mass, momentum, energy and species for an one–dimensional, unsteady, compressible, laminar, reacting flow and thermal fields are discretized and solved by a fully implicit method. A chemical kinetic mechanism is used for the primary reference fuels n–heptane and iso–octane. This mechanism contains 510 chemical reactions and 75 species. The change of the cylinder pressure is calculated from both flame propagation and piston movement. The turbulent velocity of the propagating flame is modeled by the Wiebe function. Adiabatic conditions, calculated by minimizing Gibb's free energy at each time step, are assumed behind the flame front in the burned gas.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3679
Magnus Christensen, Anders Hultqvist, Bengt Johansson
The potential of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine with variable compression ratio has been experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a single cylinder engine, equipped with a modified cylinder head. Altering the position of a secondary piston in the cylinder head enabled a change of the compression ratio. The secondary piston was controlled by a hydraulic system, which was operated from the control room. Dual port injection systems were used, which made it possible to change the ratio of two different fuels with the engine running. By mixing iso-octane with octane number 100 and normal heptane with octane number 0, it was possible to obtain any octane rating between 0 and 100. By using an electrical heater for the inlet air, it was possible to adjust the inlet air temperature to a selected value.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3680
Hultqvist* Anders, Magnus Christensen, Bengt Johansson, Axel Franke, Mattias Richter, Marcus Aldén
An experimental study of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process has been conducted by using chemiluminescence imaging. The major intent was to characterize the flame structure and its transient behavior. To achieve this, time resolved images of the naturally emitted light were taken. Emitted light was studied by recording its spectral content and applying different filters to isolate species like OH and CH. Imaging was enabled by a truck-sized engine modified for optical access. An intensified digital camera was used for the imaging. Some imaging was done using a streak-camera, capable of taking eight arbitrarily spaced pictures during a single cycle, thus visualizing the progress of the combustion process. All imaging was done with similar operating conditions and a mixture of n-heptane and iso-octane was used as fuel. Some 20 crank angles before Top Dead Center (TDC), cool flames were found to exist.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3649
M. Richter, A. Franke, M. Aldén, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson
Basic optical properties have been investigated in order to characterize the HCCI-combustion process. Basic optical properties of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine have been investigated in order to characterize the combustion process. The absorption of light propagating through the combustion chamber has been spectrally resolved for four different fuels. Significant differences between the fuels could be detected. Complementary information could be obtained by recording spontaneous emission of radiation during combustion. Raman point measurements were used to quantify cycle-to-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio. The homogeneity of the charge was monitored by the use of two-dimensional tracer LIF. That method was also utilized to investigate the flame development. The experiments were performed in a six-cylinder, truck-sized engine with one cylinder modified to allow for optical access.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0263
Magnus Gäfvert, Karl-Erik Årzén, Bo Bernhardsson, Lars Malcolm Pedersen
A novel approach to the control of a GDI engine is presented. The controller consists of a combination of sub-controllers, where torque feedback is a central part. The sub-controllers are with a few exceptions designed using simple linear feedback and feedforward control design methods. Special mode switch strategies are used to minimize the torque bumps during combustion mode changes. The controller has been evaluated on the European driving cycle using a dynamic simulation model, including a powertrain model and a driver model, with good results.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0041
Rickard Solsjö, Xue-Song Bai
This paper presents a large eddy simulation study of the liquid spray mixing with hot ambient gas in a constant volume vessel under engine-like conditions with the injection pressure of 1500 bar, ambient density 22.8 kg/m₃, ambient temperature of 900 K and an injector nozzle of 0.09 mm. The simulation results are compared with the experiments carried out by Pickett et al., under similar conditions. Under modern direct injection diesel engine conditions, it has been argued that the liquid core region is small and the droplets after atomization are fine so that the process of spray evaporation and mixing with the air is controlled by the heat and mass transfer between the ambient hot gas and central fuel flow. To examine this hypothesis a simple spray breakup model is tested in the present LES simulation. The simulations are performed using an open source compressible flow solver, in OpenFOAM.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0641
J. Olofsson, H. Seyfried, M. Richter, M. Aldén, A. Vressner, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, K. Lombaert
High-speed laser diagnostics was utilized for single-cycle resolved studies of the formaldehyde distribution in the combustion chamber of an HCCI engine. A multi-YAG laser system consisting of four individual Q-switched, flash lamp-pumped Nd:YAG lasers has previously been developed in order to obtain laser pulses at 355 nm suitable for performing LIF measurements of the formaldehyde molecule. Bursts of up to eight pulses with very short time separation can be produced, allowing capturing of LIF image series with high temporal resolution. The system was used together with a high-speed framing camera employing eight intensified CCD modules, with a frame-rate matching the laser pulse repetition rate. The diagnostic system was used to study the combustion in a truck-size HCCI engine, running at 1200 rpm using n-heptane as fuel. By using laser pulses with time separations as short as 70 μs, cycle-resolved image sequences of the formaldehyde distribution were obtained.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0147
Petter Strandh, Johan Bengtsson, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
Autoignition of a homogeneous mixture is very sensitive to operating conditions. Therefore fast combustion phasing control is necessary for reliable operation. There are several means to control the combustion phasing of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. This paper presents cycle-to-cycle cylinder individual control results from a six-cylinder HCCI engine using a Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) system. As feedback signal, the crank angle for 50% burned, based on cylinder pressure, is used. Three control structures are evaluated, Model Predictive Control (MPC), Linear Quadratic Gaussian control (LQG) and PID control. In the control design of the MPC and LQG controller, dynamic models obtained by system identification were used. Successful experiments were performed on a port-injected six-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel engine operating in HCCI mode.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0130
H. Persson, R. Pfeiffer, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, H. Ström
A naturally aspirated in-line six-cylinder 2.9-litre Volvo engine is operated in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode, using camshafts with low lift and short duration generating negative valve overlap. Standard port fuel injection is used and pistons and cylinder head are unchanged from the automotive application. HCCI through negative valve overlap is recognized as one of the possible implementation strategies of HCCI closest to production. It is important to gain knowledge of the constraints and limits on the possible operating region. In this work, the emphasis is on investigating how cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder deviations limit the operating region, how these effects change in different parts of the operating region and how they can be controlled. At low load the cycle-to-cycle phenomena cause periodic behavior in combustion timing; together with cylinder deviations this is found responsible for decreasing the operating regime.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0250
Patrik Einewall, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
Exhaust Emissions from lean burn natural gas engines may not always be as low as the potential permits, especially engines with open loop lambda control. These engines can produce much higher emissions than a comparable diesel engine without exhaust gas after treatment. Even if the engine has closed loop lambda control, emissions are often unacceptably high for future emission regulations. A three way catalyst is, today, the best way to reduce hazardous emissions. The drawback is that the engine has to operate with a stoichiometric mixture and this leads to; higher heat losses, higher pumping work at low to medium loads, higher thermal stress on the engine and higher knock tendency (requiring lower compression ratio, and thus lower brake efficiency). One way to reduce these drawbacks is to dilute the stoichiometric mixture with EGR. This paper compares lean burn operation with operation at stoichiometric conditions diluted with EGR, and using a three way catalyst.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1646
Tobias Husberg, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt, Alaa Omrane, Marcus Aldén, Johan Engström
Piston temperature experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel research engine, based on the Volvo Powertrain D12C engine both by use of optical temperature sensitive phosphor and of thermocouples mounted on the piston surface. In the former case, a thin coating of a suitable thermographic phosphor was applied to the areas on the piston surface to be investigated. The optical measurements of piston temperatures made involved use of an optical window and of an endoscope. The possibility of using optical fibres into guide light in and out of the engine was also investigated. Results of the optical and of the thermocouple measurements were compared and were also related to more global data with the aim of exploring the use of thermographic phosphors for piston- temperature measurements in Diesel engines. Thermographic phosphors thermometry was found to represent an alternative to the thermocouple method since it easily can be applied to various piston geometries.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3731
Carl Wilhelmsson, Andreas Vressner, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson, Gustaf Särner, Marcus Aldén
In this paper the combustion chamber wall temperature was measured by the use of thermographic phosphor. The temperature was monitored over a large time window covering a load transient. Wall temperature measurement provide helpful information in all engines. This temperature is for example needed when calculating heat losses to the walls. Most important is however the effect of the wall temperature on combustion. The walls can not heat up instantaneously and the slowly increasing wall temperature following a load transient will affect the combustion events sucseeding the transient. The HCCI combustion process is, due to its dependence on chemical kinetics more sensitive to wall temperature than Otto or Diesel engines. In depth knowledge about transient wall temperature could increase the understanding of transient HCCI control. A “black box” state space model was derived which is useful when predicting transient wall temperature.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3729
H. Persson, L. Hildingsson, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson, J. Ruebel
A five-cylinder diesel engine, converted to a single cylinder operated optical engine is run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. A blend of iso-octane and n-heptane is used as fuel. An experimental study of the horizontal boundary layer between the main combustion and the non-reacting surface of the combustion chamber is conducted as a function of speed, load, swirl and injection strategy. The combustion behaviour is monitored by chemiluminescence measurements. For all cases an interval from -10 to 16 crank angles after top dead center (CAD ATDC) in steps of one CAD are studied. One image-intensified camera observes the boundary layer up close from the side through a quartz cylinder liner while a second camera has a more global view from below to see more large scale structure of the combustion. The averaged chemiluminescence intensity from the HCCI combustion is seen to scale well with the rate of heat release.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0008
Vittorio Manente, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
Nowadays for small-scale power generation there are electrochemical batteries and mini engines. Many efforts have been done for improving the power density of the batteries but unfortunately the value of 1 MJ/kg seems to be asymptotic. If the energy source is an organic fuel which has an energy density of around 29 MJ/kg with a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5%, this device would surpass the batteries. This paper is the fifth of a series of publications aimed to study the HCCI combustion process in the milli domain at high engine speed in order to design and develop VIMPA, Vibrating Microengine for Low Power Generation and Microsystems Actuation. Previous studies ranged from general characterization of the HCCI combustion process by using metal and optical engines, to more specific topics for instance the influence of the boundary layer and quenching distance on the quality of the combustion.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4075
Vittorio Manente, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
Power supply systems play a very important role in applications of everyday life. Mainly, for low power generation, there are two ways of producing energy: electrochemical batteries and small engines. In the last few years many improvements have been carried out in order to obtain lighter batteries with longer duration but unfortunately the energy density of 1 MJ/kg seems to be an asymptotic value. If the energy source is an organic fuel with an energy density of around 29 MJ/kg and a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5%, this device can surpass the batteries. Nowadays the most efficient combustion process is HCCI combustion which is able to combine high energy conversion efficiency and low emission levels with a very low fuel consumption. In this paper, an investigation has been carried out concerning the effects of the compression ratio on the performance and emissions of a mini, Vd = 4.11 [cm3], HCCI engine fueled with diethyl ether.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4053
Hans Aulin, Pascal Bentioulis, Per Tunestål, Jari Hyvönen, Bengt Johansson
In HCCI you do not have the same control of the combustion like in SI and Diesel engines. Controlling the start of a combustion event is a difficult task and requires feedback from previous cycles. This feedback can be retrieved from ion current measurements. By applying a voltage over the spark gap, ions will lead a current and a signal that represents the combustion in the cylinder will be retrieved. Voltages of 450 V were used. The paper describes a new method to enhance the combustion phasing from the Ion current trace in HCCI engines. The method is using the knowledge of how the signal should look. This is known due to the fact that the shape of the ion current signal is similar from cycle to cycle. This new observation is shown in the paper. Also the correlation between the ion current and CA50 was studied. Later the signals have been used for combustion feedback.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3606
Vittorio Manente, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
Power supply systems play a very important role in everyday life applications. There are mainly two ways of producing energy for low power generation: electrochemical batteries and small engines. In the last few years, many improvements have been carried out in order to obtain lighter batteries with longer durations but unfortunately the energy density of 1 MJ/kg seems to be an asymptotic value. An energy source constituted of an organic fuel with an energy density around 29 MJ/kg and a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5% could surpass batteries. Nowadays, the most efficient combustion process is HCCI combustion which has the ability to combine a high energy conversion efficiency with low emission levels and a very low fuel consumption. The present paper describes an investigation carried out on a modified model airplane engine, on how a pure HCCI combustion behaves in a small volume, Vd = 4.11 cm3, at very high engine speeds (up to 17,500 [rpm]).
2009-09-13
Journal Article
2009-24-0043
Isaac W. Ekoto, Will F. Colban, Paul C. Miles, Sung Wook Park, David E. Foster, Rolf D. Reitz, Ulf Aronsson, Öivind Andersson
Unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission sources are examined in an optical, light-duty diesel engine operating under low load and engine speed, while employing a highly dilute, partially premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategy. The impact of engine load and charge dilution on the UHC and CO sources is also evaluated. The progression of in-cylinder mixing and combustion processes is studied using ultraviolet planar laser-induced fluorescence (UV PLIF) to measure the spatial distributions of liquid- and vapor-phase hydrocarbon. A separate, deep-UV LIF technique is used to examine the clearance volume spatial distribution and composition of late-cycle UHC and CO. Homogeneous reactor simulations, utilizing detailed chemical kinetics and constrained by the measured cylinder pressure, are used to examine the impact of charge dilution and initial stoichiometry on oxidation behavior.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1669
R. Yu, T. Joelsson, X. S. Bai, B. Johansson
It has been known from multi-zone simulations that HCCI combustion can be significantly affected by temperature stratification of the in-cylinder gas. With the same combustion timing (i.e. crank angles at 50% heat release, denoted as CA50), large temperature stratification tends to prolong the combustion duration and lower down the in-cylinder pressure-rise-rate. With low pressure-rise-rate HCCI engines can be operated at high load, therefore it is of practical importance to look into more details about how temperature stratification affects the auto-ignition process. It has been realized that multi-zone simulations can not account for the effects of spatial structures of the stratified temperature field, i.e. how the size of the hot and cold spots in the temperature field could affect the auto-ignition process. This question is investigated in the present work by large eddy simulation (LES) method which is capable of resolving the in-cylinder turbulence field in space and time.
2008-09-09
Technical Paper
2008-32-0003
Vittorio Manente, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
The paper describes a novel method for calculating the residual gas fraction and the trapping efficiency in a 2 stroke engine. Assuming one dimensional compressible flow through the inlet and exhaust ports, the method estimates the instantaneous mass flowing in and out from the combustion chamber; later the residual gas fraction and trapping efficiency are estimated combining together the perfect displacement and perfect mixing scavenging models. It is assumed that when the intake port opens, the fresh mixture is pushing out the burned charge without any mixing and after a multiple of the time needed for the largest eddy to perform one rotation, the two gasses are instantly mixed up together and expelled. The result is a very simple algorithm that does not require much computational time and is able to estimate with high level of precision the trapping efficiency and the residual gas fraction in 2 stroke engines.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0057
Vittorio Manente, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson
Nowadays the power supplying systems have a fundamental importance for all small and portable devices. For low power applications, there are two main ways for producing power: electrochemical batteries and mini engines. Even though in recent years many developments have been carried out in improving the design of batteries, the energy density of 1MJ/kg seems to be an asymptotic value. If the energy source is a hydrocarbon fuel, whose energy density is 46 MJ/kg, with an overall efficiency of only 2.5 % it is possible to surpass the electrochemical batteries. On the other hand, having a mini engine, as energy source, implies three main problems: vibrations, noise and emissions. A light (230 g) model airplane engine with a displacement volume of 4.11 cm3 and a geometrical compression ratio of 13.91 has been studied. The work carried out in this paper can be divided basically in three parts.
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