This paper presents results from a study of the particle size distributions emitted by a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a common-rail fuel injection system. The study focused on two key sampling and engine operating variables: dilution ratio and fuel injection pressure. Results show that the number mean diameter of the particle size distributions decreased with increasing dilution ratios. Also, the total number concentration of particles did not change with different dilution ratios. In addition, it was found that fuel injection pressures affected the size distribution of the particles sampled. Under some engine operating conditions increasing the fuel injection pressure resulted in an increased number of nuclei mode particles.