Development of LPG SI and CI engines for heavy duty vehicles has been carried out. In order to measure the performance and emissions of an LPG lean burn SI engine, the piston cavity, swirl ratio, and propane-butane fuel ratio were varied and tested. Compared to the bathtub and dog dish cavities, the nebula type cavity showed the best performance in terms of cyclic variation and combustion duration. High swirl improved combustion by achieving a high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. A feasibility study of an LPG DI diesel engine also has been carried out to study the effectiveness of the selected cetane enhancing additives:Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP). When more than 5 wt% DTBP was added to the base fuel, stable engine operation over a wide range of engine loads was possible. The thermal efficiency of LPG fueled operation was found to be comparable to diesel fuel operation at DTBP levels over 5 wt%. Exhaust emissions measurements showed that NOx and smoke levels can be significantly reduced using the LPG+DTBP fuel blend compared to a light diesel fuel at the same experimental conditions.