Performance and Analysis of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with CAI Combustion 2002-01-0420
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was realised in a production type 4-stroke 4-cylinder gasoline engine without intake charge heating or increasing compression ratio. The CAI engine operation was achieved using substantially standard components modified only in camshafts to restrict the gas exchange process
The engine could be operated with CAI combustion within a range of load (0.5 to 4 bar BMEP) and speed (1000 to 3500 rpm). Significant reductions in both specific fuel consumption and CO emissions were found. The reduction in NOx emission was more than 93% across the whole CAI range. Though unburned hydrocarbons were higher under the CAI engine operation.
In order to evaluate the potential of the CAI combustion technology, the European NEDC driving cycle vehicle simulation was carried out for two identical vehicles powered by a SI engine and a CAI/SI hybrid engine, respectively. The simulation results showed only moderate improvement in fuel economy and exhaust emissions because of low utilisation of CAI during the drive cycle.
In order to take full advantage of the CAI combustion technology, detailed analyses were carried out on the engine's performance, heat release and combustion characteristics, emissions and the effect of gas exchange processes. These analyses showed that the engine's performance and emissions were mainly affected by the trapped residual fractions and residual temperature. In addition, the backflow was found to affect the combustion and emission as well.