HCCI Operating Range in a Turbo-charged Multi Cylinder Engine with VVT and Spray-Guided DI 2009-01-0494
Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) has been identified as a promising way to increase the efficiency of the spark-ignited engine, while maintaining low emissions. The challenge with HCCI combustion is excessive pressure rise rate, quantified here with Ringing Intensity. Turbocharging enables increased dilution of the charge and thus a reduction of the Ringing Intensity. The engine used is an SI four cylinder base with 2.2L displacement and is equipped with a turbocharger. Combustion phasing control is achieved with individual intake/ exhaust cam phasing. Fuel injection with spray guided design is used. Cycle resolved combustion state is monitored and used for controlling the engine either in closed or open loop where balancing of cylinder to cylinder variations has to be done to run the engine at high HCCI load. When load is increased the NOx levels rise, the engine is then run in stoichiometric HCCI mode to be able to use a simple three-way catalyst. The fuel used is 95 RON pump gasoline and injection strategies are evaluated in order to maintain low soot levels and high efficiency. Limitations and benefits on operating range are examined between 1000 and 3000 rpm. This paper investigates how to extend the HCCI range and how to reduce the high pressure rise rate with: increased boost from turbocharging, external EGR and different injection strategies. A higher boost pressure was found to extend the load range. It is shown that the limitation from high RI, NOx or soot is not the same in all engine speed and load points. By turbocharging the engine in HCCI mode there is greater flexibility to increase the range of practical operating points.