Association of Impact Velocity with Serious-Injury and Fatality Risks to Cyclists in Commercial Truck-Cyclist Accidents 2017-22-0013
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck–cyclist collision impact velocity and the serious-injury and fatality risks to cyclists, and to investigate the effects of road type and driving scenario on the frequency of cyclist fatalities due to collisions with vehicles. We used micro and macro truck–cyclist collision data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans. The fatality risk was ≤5% for light-duty trucks, box vans, and sedans at impact velocities ≤40 km/h and for medium-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤30 km/h. The fatality risk was 6% for heavy-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤10 km/h. Thus, the fatality risk appears strongly associated with vehicle class and impact velocity. The results revealed that a 10 km/h reduction in impact velocities could mitigate the severity of cyclist injuries at impact velocities ≥30 km/h for all five vehicle types. The frequency of cyclist fatalities at intersections with traffic signals involving heavy-duty trucks was significantly higher during daytime than that at nighttime. Fatalities involving vehicles making a left turn generally increased with vehicle weight. The frequency of cyclist fatalities involving vehicles making a left turn was the largest for heavy-duty trucks both during daytime (67.6%) and at nighttime (52.3%).