Real-Time Wheel Brake and Tire Lateral Force Models Refined for Low Speeds 940178

This paper discusses the development of a model of wheel brake force and tire lateral force for real-time, human-in-the-loop simulation running on a relatively slow computer. The model is refined to avoid numerical instabilities in the vehicle's equations of motion, especially at zero and very low forward speeds. The result is a computationally inexpensive algorithm to approximate the model's behavior including its transient response.
The performance of this model is compared to published data for actual tires, and preliminary results from its implementation in a piloted flight simulator are discussed.


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