The Effects of Engine Performance and Engine Starts on Series HEV Operation 970288
This work presents the analytic and experimental results relating engine performance and operating schedule with fuel cost and tail-pipe emissions for the series hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design. Results are based on vehicle data from the electric G-van produced by Conceptor Industries. A computer simulation developed using basic principles predicts the battery demand over a specified vehicle operation profile. Engine tests on the effects of engine power level and number of starts show that while fuel consumption did not vary, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions did show an increase. The engine used was a 2-cylinder, spark ignited, 4-stroke, carbureted engine and did not utilize exhaust after-treatment. The results of the engine tests and simulation data are combined to predict the CO emissions and fuel cost for the series HEV design. The estimated CO output was 18.7 g/km, and the fuel cost was estimated between 4.3 and 4.5 cents/km. The estimated CO emissions are almost 9 times higher than the 1994 federal standards.