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Technical Paper

Oxidative Deterioration Properties of FAME-Blended Diesel Fuel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0924
The correlation between newly approved EN 15751 and the internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) due to fuel oxidative deterioration has not been made clear. In the present research, the Rancimat method was slightly modified to research the relationship between fuel oxidative deterioration and the deterioration products generated from the fuel. After heating fuel at 120 to 150°C for a set period, insoluble deterioration products (IDID-like substances) were generated and their weights were measured. At the same time, the shifts of the conductivity in trap water were analyzed from a new perspective, and its relationship with the deterioration products was investigated. At 120°C and 130°C, conductivity rising rates after the inflection point (this set of data represents the rate of organic acid generation in the fuel, and we named “Oxidation rate”) exhibited a strong correlation with the quantity of deterioration products.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of a Higher Compression Ratio in the Combustion Chamber on Diesel Engine Performance

2016-04-05
2016-01-0722
In order to improve the brake thermal efficiency of the engine, such as cooling and friction losses from the theoretical thermal efficiency, it is necessary to minimize various losses. However, it is also essential to consider improvements in theoretical thermal efficiency along with the reduction of the various losses. In an effort to improve the brake thermal efficiency of heavy-duty diesel engines used in commercial vehicles, this research focused on two important factors leading to the engine's theoretical thermal efficiency: the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio. Based on the results of theoretical thermodynamic cycle analyses for the effects of the above two factors, it was predicted that raising the compression ratio from a base engine specification of 17 to 26, and increasing the specific heat ratio would lead to a significant increase in theoretical thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Emissions from Urea-SCR and DPF System for Heavy Duty Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-2016
Urea selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems have a high NOx conversion rate because the ammonia formed by the hydrolyzing urea solution reacts with NOx efficiently as a reducing agent. Systems combining urea-SCR and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) have been adopted in heavy duty vehicles to meet the post new long term emissions regulations in Japan. This study examined the emissions reduction performance of these systems after 160,000 km. The emissions that were examined included both regulated emissions (NOx, PM, HC, and CO) and unregulated emissions. As a result, the cleanness of diesel emissions from a urea-SCR and DPF system was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Economy Engine Oil for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-2034
More stringent emissions regulations, fuel economy standards, and regulations are currently being discussed to help reduce both CO2 and exhaust emissions. Vehicle manufacturers have been developing new engine technologies, such as downsizing and down-speeding with reduced friction loss, improved engine combustion and efficiency, heat loss recycling, power-train friction loss recycling, and reduced power-train friction loss. The use of more efficient fuel economy 5W-30 engine oils for heavy duty commercial vehicles has started to expand since 2009 in Japan as one technological solution to help reduce CO2 emissions. However, fuel economy 5W-30 oils for use in heavy duty vehicles in Europe are mainly based on synthetic oils, which are much expensive than the mineral oils that are predominantly used in Japan.
Technical Paper

Effects of Alloying Elements on Wear Resistance of Automobile Cast Iron Materials

2014-04-01
2014-01-1011
Wear resistance is the important characteristics of cast iron materials for automobile components. Because the phenomenon of wear is a highly complicated mechanism involving many factors such as surface conditions, chemical reactions with lubricants, metals, and physics, it has not been fully explained. Therefore, it will be necessary to confirm and explain the wear mechanism to develop effective improvements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural change behavior and effects of alloying elements when the material top surface becomes worn, in order to improve the wear resistance of cylinder liners and other cast iron materials. For this purpose, several types of prototype materials were produced, and the relationship between components and wear resistance was investigated by using a laser microscope for quantitative observation of the degree of pearlite microstructure fineness.
Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics from After-Treatment System of Medium and Light Duty Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1501
1 To meet the Japan Post New-Long-Term (Japan 2009) emissions regulation introduced in 2009, The Hydrocarbon Selective Catalytic Reduction (HC-SCR) system for the NOx emission with a diesel fuel was chosen among various deNOx after-treatment systems (the Urea-SCR, the NOx storage-Reduction Catalyst and so on). The HC-SCR was adopted, in addition to combustion modification of diesel engine (mainly cooled EGR) as the New DPR system. The New DPR system for medium and light duty vehicles was developed as a world's first technology by Hino Motors. Advantages of the New DPR are compact to easy-to-install catalyst converter and no urea solution (DEF) injection (regardless urea infrastructure) as compared the Urea-SCR system.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Heat Release Analysis of Premixed Diesel Combustion with Various Fuel Ignitabilities and Oxygen Concentrations in a Constant Volume Combustion Vessel

2013-04-08
2013-01-0899
Low NOx and soot free premixed diesel combustion can be realized by increasing ignition delays in low oxygen atmospheres, as well as the combustion here also depends on fuel ignitability. In this report single intermittent spray combustion with primary reference fuels and a normal heptane-toluene blend fuel under several oxygen concentrations in a constant volume combustion vessel was analyzed with high-speed color video and pressure data. Temperature and KL factor distributions are displayed with a 2-D two-color method. The results show that premixing is promoted with a decrease in oxygen concentration, and the local high temperature regions, above 2200 K, as well as the duration of their appearance decreases with the oxygen concentration. With normal heptane, mild premixed diesel combustion can be realized at 15 vol% oxygen and there is little luminous flame.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Low-Temperature Performance of The NOx Reduction Efficiency on the Urea-SCR Catalysts

2013-04-08
2013-01-1076
Diesel engine has a good fuel economy and high durability and used widely for power source such as heavy duty in the world. On the other hand, it is required to reduce NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) and PM (Particulate Matter) emissions further from diesel exhaust gases to preserve atmosphere. The urea-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system is the most promising measures to reduce NOx emissions. DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) system is commercialized for PM reduction. However, in case that a vehicle has a slow speed as an urban area driving, a diesel exhaust temperature is too low to activate SCR catalyst for NOx reduction in diesel emissions. Moreover, the diesel exhaust temperature becomes lower as a future engine has less fuel consumption. The purpose of this study is reduction of NOx emission from a heavy-duty diesel engine using the Urea SCR system at the low temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of Efficient Urea-SCR Systems for EPA 2010-Compliant Medium Duty Diesel Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-1309
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued new emissions regulations, which came into effect in January, 2010. These EPA 2010 regulations are the most stringent emissions standards in the world, reducing both particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nearly zero levels. Hino Motors improved upon its previous EPA 2007-compliant engine, developing a new exhaust after-treatment system in which a Diesel Particulate active Reduction System (DPR), a Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System and a Burner System are employed to meet EPA 2010 emissions regulations for medium duty commercial vehicles. DPR was already developed and utilized to reduce PM to meet EPA 2007 standards, but the Urea-SCR System is newly developed technology used to reduce NOx emissions to comply with EPA2010 emissions regulations. In addition, a Burner System is used to elevate exhaust gas temperatures in order to improve both SCR performance and DPR active Regeneration.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx Reduction Using Plasma-assisted SCR System for a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0310
To reduce NOx emissions from a heavy-duty engine at low exhaust temperature conditions, the plasma-assisted SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system was evaluated. The plasma-assisted SCR system is mainly composed of an ammonia gas supply system and a plasma reactor including a pellet type SCR catalyst. The preliminary test with simulated gases of diesel exhaust showed an improvement in the NOx reduction performance by means of the plasma-assisted SCR system, even below 150°C conditions. Furthermore, NOx reduction ratio was improved up to 77% at 110°C with increase in the catalyst volume. Also NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine over the transient test mode in Japan (JE05) were reduced by the plasma-assisted SCR system. However, unregulated emissions, e.g., aldehydes, were increased with the plasma environment. This paper reports the advantages and disadvantages of the plasma-assisted SCR system for a heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Development of the Burner Systems for EPA2010 Medium Duty Diesel Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0295
EPA 2010 emissions regulations - currently the strictest standards in the world - place particular emphasis on exhaust gas thermal control technology. The Burner System, a device developed to control exhaust gas temperatures, is the most effective means of raising exhaust gas temperature, as this system can function under any engine conditions, including low engine speed and torque. The Burner System begins operating immediately when the engine is started, activating the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) - Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System immediately, because the Burner System is active, it enables the diesel particulate filter active regeneration under any engine operating conditions as well. This technical paper reports Burner System (ActiveClean™ Thermal Regenerator) development results.
Technical Paper

Development of New Diesel Particulate Active Reduction System for both NOx and PM Reduction

2011-04-12
2011-01-1277
The new Diesel Particulate active Reduction (DPR) system was developed for a medium-duty commercial vehicle as a deNOx catalyst combined with the conventional DPR system to achieve the Japan Post New-Long-Term (JPNLT) emissions regulations. It consists of a catalyst converter named as the new DPR cleaner, a fuel dosing injector, NOx sensors, temperatures and pressure sensors. The new DPR cleaner was constructed from a Front Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (F-DOC), a catalyzed particulate Filter (Filter), and a Rear Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (R-DOC). A newly developed Hydrocarbon Selective Catalyst Reduction (HC-SCR) catalyst was employed for each catalyst aiming to reduce NOx emissions with diesel fuel supplied from the fuel dosing injector. While the total volume of the catalyst was increased, the compact and easy-to-install catalyst converter was realized through the optimization of the flow vector and flow distribution in it by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Exhaust Emissions to Advanced Aftertreatment Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1292
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
Journal Article

Unregulated Harmful Substances in Exhaust Gas from Diesel Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1870
The volatile organic compounds (VOC) from diesel engines, including formaldehyde and benzene, are concerned and remain as unregulated harmful substances. The substances are positively correlated with THC emissions, but the VOC and aldehyde compounds at light load or idling conditions are more significant than THC. When coolant temperatures are low at light loads, there are notable increases in formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and with lower coolant temperatures the increase in aldehydes is more significant than the increase in THC. When using ultra high EGR so that the intake oxygen content decreases below 10%, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene increase significantly while smokeless and ultra low Nox combustion is possible.
Journal Article

Development of a Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions Test Method with HILS for Heavy-Duty HEVs

2008-04-14
2008-01-1318
The objective of this study was to develop a test method for heavy-duty HEVs using a hardware-in-the-loop simulator (HILS) to enhance the type-approval-test method. To achieve our objective, HILS systems for series and parallel HEVs were actually constructed to verify calculation accuracy. Comparison of calculated and measured data (vehicle speed, motor/generator power, rechargeable energy storage system power/voltage/current/state of charge, and fuel economy) revealed them to be in good agreement. Calculation error for fuel economy was less than 2%.
Journal Article

Diesel Engine Emissions and Performance Optimization for Neat GTL Fuel

2008-04-14
2008-01-1405
The emissions reduction potential of neat GTL (Gas to Liquids: Fischer-Tropsch synthetic gas-oil derived from natural gas) fuels has been preliminarily evaluated by three different latest-generation diesel engines with different displacements. In addition, differences in combustion phenomena between the GTL fuels and baseline diesel fuel have been observed by means of a single cylinder engine with optical access. From these findings, one of the engines has been modified to improve both exhaust emissions and fuel consumption simultaneously, assuming the use of neat GTL fuels. The conversion efficiency of the NOx (oxides of nitrogen) reduction catalyst has also been improved.
Technical Paper

Nano Particle Emission Evaluation of State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI) and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, FAME, Aromatics and Distillation)

2007-10-29
2007-01-4083
Newly designed laboratory measurement system, which reproduces particle number size distributions of both nuclei and accumulation mode particles in exhaust emissions, was developed. It enables continuous measurement of nano particle emissions in the size range between 5 and 1000 nm. Evaluations of particle number size distributions were conducted for diesel vehicles with a variety of emission aftertreatment devices and for gasoline vehicles with different combustion systems. For diesel vehicles, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (urea-SCR) system and catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) were evaluated. For gasoline vehicles, Lean-burn Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), Stoichiometric DISI and Multi Point Injection (MPI) were evaluated. Japanese latest transient test cycles were used for the evaluation: JE05 mode driving cycle for heavy duty vehicles and JC08 mode driving cycle for light duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

2007-10-29
2007-01-4082
In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

JCAPII Cross Check Tests of Fast Electrical Mobility Spectrometers for Evaluation of Accuracy

2007-10-29
2007-01-4081
Crosscheck tests of fast electrical mobility spectrometers, Differential Mobility Spectroscopy (DMS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer(EEPS), were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of fine particle measurement. Two kinds of particles were used as test particles for the crosscheck test of instruments: particles emitted from diesel vehicles and diluted in a full dilution tunnel, and particles generated by CAST. In the steady state tests, it was confirmed that the average concentration of each instrument was within the range of ±2σ from the average concentration of all the same type of instruments. In the transient tests, it is verified that the instruments have almost equal sensitivity. For application of the fast electrical mobility spectrometers to evaluation of particle number and size distributions, it is essential to develop a calibration method using reference particle counters and sizers (CPC, SMPS, etc.) and maintenance methods appropriate for each model.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx and PM Reduction Using Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1576
To reduce NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were studied. Proto type urea SCR system was composed of NO oxidation catalyst, SCR catalyst and ammonia (NH3) reduction catalyst. The NOx reduction performance of urea SCR system was improved by a new zeolite type catalyst and mixer for urea distribution at the steady state operating conditions. NOx and PM reduction performance of the urea SCR system with DPF was evaluated over JE05 mode of Japan. The NOx reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system was 72% at JE05 mode. The PM reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system with DPF was 93% at JE05 mode. Several kinds of un-regulated matters were detected including NH3 and N2O leak from the exhaust gas. It is necessary to have further study for detailed measurements for un-regulated emissions from urea solution.
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