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Journal Article

A Fuzzy Inference System for Understeer/Oversteer Detection Towards Model-Free Stability Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-1630
In this paper, a soft computing approach to a model-free vehicle stability control (VSC) algorithm is presented. The objective is to create a fuzzy inference system (FIS) that is robust enough to operate in a multitude of vehicle conditions (load, tire wear, alignment), and road conditions while at the same time providing optimal vehicle stability by detecting and minimizing loss of traction. In this approach, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is generated using previously collected data to train and optimize the performance of the fuzzy logic VSC algorithm. This paper outlines the FIS detection algorithm and its benefits over a model-based approach. The performance of the FIS-based VSC is evaluated via a co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim model of the vehicle under various road and load conditions. The results showed that the proposed algorithm is capable of accurately indicating unstable vehicle behavior for two different types of vehicles (SUV and Sedan).
Technical Paper

MMLV: Automatic Transmission Lightweighting

2015-04-14
2015-01-1240
This paper details the lightweighting efforts of the Ford Research & Advanced Transmission team as part of the Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle Project. The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefits and fuel consumption reduction.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on the Fatigue Behavior of Balanced and Unbalanced Epoxy-Aluminum Single Lap Joints

2015-04-14
2015-01-0551
The fatigue strength and failure behavior of A5754-O adhesively bonded single lap joints by a hot-curing epoxy adhesive were investigated in this paper. The single lap joints tested include balanced substrate joints (meaning same thickness) and unbalanced substrate joints, involving combinations of different substrate thicknesses. Cyclic fatigue test results show that the fatigue strength of bonded joints increase with the increasing substrate thickness. SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) were employed to investigate the failure mode of the joints. Two fatigue failure modes, substrate failure and failure within the adhesive were found in the testing. The failure mode of the joint changes from cohesive failure to substrate failure as the axial load is decreased, which reveals a fatigue resistance competition between the adhesive layer and the aluminum substrate.
Journal Article

Influence of Test Procedure on Friction Behavior and its Repeatability in Dynamometer Brake Performance Testing

2014-09-28
2014-01-2521
The efforts of the ISO “Test Variability Task Force” have been aimed at improving the understanding and at reducing brake dynamometer test variability during performance testing. In addition, dynamometer test results have been compared and correlated to vehicle testing. Even though there is already a vast amount of anecdotal evidence confirming the fact that different procedures generate different friction coefficients on the same brake corner, the availability of supporting data to the industry has been elusive up to this point. To overcome this issue, this paper focuses on assessing friction levels, friction coefficient sensitivity, and repeatability under ECE, GB, ISO, JASO, and SAE laboratory friction evaluation tests.
Technical Paper

Frontal Impact Responsesof Generic Steel Front Bumper Crush Can Assemblies

2014-04-01
2014-01-0550
The present investigation details an experimental procedure for frontal impact responses of a generic steel front bumper crush can (FBCC) assembly subjected to a rigid full and 40% offset impact. There is a paucity of studies focusing on component level tests with FBCCs, and of those, speeds carried out are of slower velocities. Predominant studies in literature pertain to full vehicle testing. Component level studies have importance as vehicles aim to decrease weight. As materials, such as carbon fiber or aluminum, are applied to vehicle structures, computer aided models are required to evaluate performance. A novel component level test procedure is valuable to aid in CAE correlation. All the tests were conducted using a sled-on-sled testing method. Several high-speed cameras, an IR (Infrared) thermal camera, and a number of accelerometers were utilized to study impact performance of the FBCC samples.
Technical Paper

Benefit of Structural Adhesives in Full Car Crash Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-0811
Structural adhesives are widely used across the automotive industry for several reasons like scale-up of structural performance and enabling multi-material and lightweight designs. Development engineers know in general about the effects of adding adhesive to a spot-welded structure, but they want to quantify the benefit of adding adhesives on weight reduction or structural performance. A very efficient way is to do that by applying analytical tools. But, in most of the relevant non-linear load cases the classical lightweight theory can only help to get a basic understanding of the mechanics. For more complex load cases like full car crash simulations, the Finite Element Method (FEM) with explicit time integration is being applied to the vehicle development process. In order to understand the benefit of adding adhesives to a body structure upfront, new FEM simulation tools need to be established, which must be predictive and efficient.
Technical Paper

Development of Battery Hardware-In-the-Loop System Implemented with Reduced-Order Electrochemistry Li-Ion Battery Models

2014-04-01
2014-01-1858
Aggressive battery usage profiles in electrified vehicle applications require extensive efforts in developing battery management strategy and system design determination to guarantee safe operation under every real-world driving conditions. Experiment based approaches have been widely used for battery system development, but higher costs and longer testing time restrain the number of test cases in the product development process. Battery experiments tend to be conservative to avoid inherent risks of battery failure modes under aggressive battery operation close to the capability limits. Battery Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) is an alternative way to overcome the limitations of experiment-based approaches. Battery models in the HIL should provide real-time computation capability and high (at least acceptable) prediction accuracy. Equivalent circuit model (ECM) based HILs have been used owing to their relatively good balance between computational time and prediction accuracy.
Journal Article

Investigation and Development of Fuel Slosh CAE Methodologies

2014-04-01
2014-01-1632
When a vehicle with a partially filled fuel tank undergoes sudden acceleration, braking, turning or pitching motion, fuel sloshing is experienced. It is important to establish a CAE methodology to accurately predict slosh phenomenon. Fuel slosh can lead to many failure modes such as noise, erroneous fuel indication, irregular fuel supply at low fuel level and durability issues caused by high impact forces on tank surface and internal parts. This paper summarizes activities carried out by the fuel system team at Ford Motor Company to develop and validate such CAE methodology. In particular two methods are discussed here. The first method is Volume Of Fluid (VOF) based incompressible multiphase Eulerian transient CAE method. The CFD solvers used here are Star CD and Star CCM+. The second method incorporates Fluid-Structure interaction (FSI) using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation.
Journal Article

A Systems Approach to the Development and Use of FMEA in Complex Automotive Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-0740
The effective deployment of FMEAs within complex automotive applications faces a number of challenges, including the complexity of the system being analysed, the need to develop a series of coherently linked FMEAs at different levels within the systems hierarchy and across intrinsically interlinked engineering disciplines, and the need for coherent linkage between critical design characteristics cascaded through the systems levels with their counterparts in manufacturing. The approach presented in this paper to address these challenges is based on a structured Failure Mode Avoidance (FMA) framework which promotes the development of FMEAs within an integrated Systems Engineering approach. The effectiveness of the framework is illustrated through a case study, centred on the development of a diesel exhaust aftertreatment system.
Journal Article

Modeling of an Advanced Steering Wheel and Column Assembly for Frontal and Side Impact Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0803
This paper presents the final phase of a study to develop the modeling methodology for an advanced steering assembly with a safety-enhanced steering wheel and an adaptive energy absorbing steering column. For passenger cars built before the 1960s, the steering column was designed to control vehicle direction with a simple rigid rod. In severe frontal crashes, this type of design would often be displaced rearward toward the driver due to front-end crush of the vehicle. Consequently, collapsible, detachable, and other energy absorbing steering columns emerged to address this type of kinematics. These safety-enhanced steering columns allow frontal impact energy to be absorbed by collapsing or breaking the steering columns, thus reducing the potential for rearward column movement in severe crashes. Recently, more advanced steering column designs have been developed that can adapt to different crash conditions including crash severity, occupant mass/size, seat position, and seatbelt usage.
Journal Article

A Copula-Based Approach for Model Bias Characterization

2014-04-01
2014-01-0735
Available methodologies for model bias identification are mainly regression-based approaches, such as Gaussian process, Bayesian inference-based models and so on. Accuracy and efficiency of these methodologies may degrade for characterizing the model bias when more system inputs are considered in the prediction model due to the curse of dimensionality for regression-based approaches. This paper proposes a copula-based approach for model bias identification without suffering the curse of dimensionality. The main idea is to build general statistical relationships between the model bias and the model prediction including all system inputs using copulas so that possible model bias distributions can be effectively identified at any new design configurations of the system. Two engineering case studies whose dimensionalities range from medium to high will be employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the copula-based approach.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Dissimilar Laser Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum and Copper Sheets

2014-04-01
2014-01-1986
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of dissimilar laser welds in lap-shear specimens of aluminum and copper sheets are investigated. Quasi-static tests and fatigue tests of laser-welded lap-shear specimens under different load ranges with the load ratio of 0.1 were conducted. Optical micrographs of the welds after the tests were examined to understand the failure modes of the specimens. For the specimens tested under quasi-static loading conditions, the micrograph indicates that the specimen failed through the fusion zone of the aluminum sheet. For the specimens tested under cyclic loading conditions, two types of failure modes were observed under different load ranges. One failure mode has a kinked crack initiating from the interfacial surface between the aluminum and copper sheets and growing into the aluminum fusion zone at an angle close to 90°.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Long Life Oil-Free Supercharger for Fuel Cell and Hybrid Vehicle Power Trains

2013-04-08
2013-01-0478
Automotive hybrid electric vehicle applications require 1 million (or more) start-stops. This same level of start-stops is also required for hydrogen PEM fuel cell vehicles. In this investigation, a test regime is developed to stress the failure mode of a set of airfoil journal bearings caused by start-stops, and conceive a proper improvement to meet the requirement. Airfoil bearings have been limited by the number of start-stops due to their inherent wearout of coating(s) at low speed. A complete electronic air cathode compressor (electronic supercharger) assembly is tested, employing a pair of φ25 mm journal airfoil bearings. The foils have 34 μm of surface PTFE coating. After 50,000 start-stops, the coating is worn through. Next an improved system is tested, which has modified coating on the bearing journal surfaces. These bearings are examined roughly every 250,000 start-stops. After 1 million start-stops, the coating has worn 5 μm.
Technical Paper

Optimization of New Plastic Bracket NVH Characteristics using CAE

2012-10-02
2012-36-0195
NVH requirements are critical in new driveline developments. Failure modes due to resonances must be carefully analyzed and potential root causes must have adequate countermeasures. One of the most common root causes is the modal alignment. This work shows the steps to design and optimize a new plastic bracket for an automotive half shaft bearing. This bracket replaces a very stiff bracket, made of cast iron. The initial design of plastic bracket was not stiff enough to bring natural frequency of the system above engine second order excitation at maximum speed. The complete power pack was modeled and NVH CAE analysis was performed. The CAE outputs included Driving Point Response, Frequency Response Function and Modal analysis. The boundary conditions were discussed deep in detail to make sure the models represented actual system.
Journal Article

Fracture Modeling Inputs for a Human Body Model via Inference from a Risk Curve: Application for Skull Fracture Potential

2012-04-16
2012-01-0562
A three-step process was developed to estimate fracture criteria for a human body model. The process was illustrated via example wherein skull fracture criteria were estimated for the Ford Human Body Model (FHBM)~a finite element model of a mid-sized human male. The studied loading condition was anterior-to-posterior, blunt (circular/planar) cylinder impact to the frontal bone. In Step 1, a conditional reference risk curve was derived via statistical analysis of the tests involving fractures in a recently reported dataset (Cormier et al., 2011a). Therein, Cormier et al., authors reported results for anterior-to-posterior dynamic loading of the frontal bone of rigidly supported heads of male post mortem human subjects, and fracture forces were measured in 22 cases. In Step 2, the FHBM head was used to conduct some underlying model validations relative to the Cormier tests. The model-based Force-at-Peak Stress was found to approximate the test-based Fracture Force.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Methods for Determining Sheared Edge Formability

2011-04-12
2011-01-1062
Imposing tensile stress on an edge of a sheet metal blank is a common condition in many sheet metal forming operations, making edge formability a very important factor to consider. Because edge formability varies greatly among different materials, cutting methods (and their control parameters), it is very important to have access to an experimental technique that would allow for quick and reliable evaluation of edge formability for a given case. In this paper, two existing techniques are compared: the hole expansion test and the tensile test. It is shown that the hole expansion test might not be adequate for many cases, and is prone to overestimating the limiting strain, because the burr on the sheared edge is typically smaller than what is observed in production. The tensile test represents an effective alternative to the hole expansion test. Advantages and disadvantages of each case are discussed.
Journal Article

Material Selection During Early Design Phase Using Simplified Models

2011-04-12
2011-01-0526
Optimal material selection for a part becomes quite challenging with dynamically changing data from various sources. Multiple manufacturing locations with varying supplier capabilities add to the complexity. There is need to balance product attribute requirements with manufacturing feasibility, cost, sourcing, and vehicle program strategies. The sequential consideration of product attribute, manufacturing, and sourcing aspects tends to result in design churns. Ford R&A is developing a web based material recommender tool to help engineers with material selection integrating sourcing, manufacturing, and design considerations. This tool is designed to filter the list of materials for a specific part and provide a prioritized list of materials; and allow engineers to do weight and cost trade-off studies. The initial implementation of this material recommender tool employs simplified analytical calculators for evaluation of structural performance metrics of parts.
Technical Paper

Brake Dynamometer Test Variability - Analysis of Root Causes

2010-10-10
2010-01-1697
Modern project management including brake testing includes the exchange of reliable results from different sources and different locations. The ISO TC22/SWG2-Brake Lining Committee established a task force led by Ford Motor Co. to determine and analyze root causes for variability during dynamometer brake performance testing. The overall goal was to provide guidelines on how to reduce variability and how to improve correlation between dynamometer and vehicle test results. This collaborative accuracy study used the ISO 26867 Friction behavior assessment for automotive brake systems. Future efforts of the ISO task force will address NVH and vehicle-level tests. This paper corresponds to the first two phases of the project regarding performance brake dynamometer testing and presents results, findings and conclusions regarding repeatability (within-lab) and reproducibility (between-labs) from different laboratories and different brake dynamometers.
Technical Paper

Diagnose Methodology Based on Bayesian Net to Indicate Failure Probability

2010-10-06
2010-36-0299
The Proposal of this paper is to demonstrate the diagnosis methodology based on Bayesian Net and fuzzy logic to indicate failure probability for vehicle systems and other segments, for instance medical and Aeronautic. This work was initially developed in a dissertation that has succeeded in developing a system of fault diagnosis for diesel engines and now this article demonstrated the possibility of extending this methodology to other vehicle systems and other segments science. Also extension to other areas was also added to the technique of logic that adds the advantage of supporting the fuzzy logic in complex environments, such as the vehicle approached the diagnosis, aerospace and medical.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Simulation Method for CAE Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation and Design Robustness Analysis

2010-10-06
2010-36-0251
This work presents a statistical approach for simulation based on Monte Carlo method. As an exercise of the method a CAE vehicle dynamics model was specifically created to evaluate the likelihood to meet a given target driving a maneuver for given inputs variations. In the exercise, three different inputs were chosen as stochastic inputs (also called noise factors) and all relevant information about their statistics has been raised, based in components information. The chosen inputs are: front/rear dampers curves, front/rear ride heights and tire surface temperature. A brief description of the Monte Carlo technique is presented. The choice of this method is due to the reduced number of simulations required to have a given accuracy in comparison with other approaches, especially for multivariable system. As output variable for the exercise, the tire patch height was chosen and the resulting probability density function of it is presented.
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