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Technical Paper

Calibration and Stitching Methods of Around View Monitor System of Articulated Multi-Carriage Road Vehicle for Intelligent Transportation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0873
The around view monitor (AVM) system for the long-body road vehicle with multiple articulated carriages usually suffers from the incomplete distortion rectification of fisheye cameras and the irregular image stitching area caused by the change of relative position of the cameras on different carriages while the vehicle is in motion. In response to these problems, a set of calibration and stitching methods of AVM are proposed. First, a radial-distortion-based rectification method is adopted and improved. This method establishes two lost functions and solves the model parameters with the two-step optimization method. Then, AVM system calibration is conducted, and the perspective transformation matrix is calculated. After that, a static basic look-up table is generated based on the distortion rectification model and perspective transformation matrix.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Experimental Research on Compression Release Engine Brake Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-1382
A 3D grid model of engine brake is established for an automobile engine. The dynamic compression release braking process is simulated by using this model. In the process of engine braking, the movement of valve and piston causes changes of the internal flow field of the engine. In this paper, the movement of valve and piston were defined by using the dynamic grid technology, so that the numerical simulation is closer to the actual situation via the updating of grid. Based on the relevant parameters of compression release engine brake (including the opening of the exhaust valve, the engine speed and the exhaust back pressure), the pressure and power of the compression release braking system were simulated under the conditions of multiple operating conditions and experimental verification was carried out. The results showed that the braking works of the compression release engine brake are mainly from the compression stroke and the exhaust stroke.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of an Ambulance with Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0815
The vibration and instability experienced in an ambulance can lead to secondary injury to a patient and discourage a paramedic from emergency care. This paper presents a hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system which can achieve enhanced cooperative control of roll, pitch and bounce motion modes to improve the ambulance's ride comfort and handling performance. A lumped-mass model integrated with a mechanical and hydraulic coupled system is developed by using free-body diagram and transfer matrix methods. The mechanical-fluid boundary condition in the double-acting cylinders is modelled as an external force on the mechanical system and a moving boundary on the fluid system. A special modal analysis method is employed to reveal the vibration characteristics of the ambulance with the HIS.
Technical Paper

Lateral Dynamics and Suspension Tuning for a Two-Axle Bus Fitted with Roll-Resistant Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension

2018-04-03
2018-01-0831
In this paper, a new roll-plane hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system is proposed to enhance the roll and lateral dynamics of a two-axle bus. It is well-known that the suspension tuning is of great importance in the design process and has also been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for suspension tuning for the newly proposed HIS system especially considering lateral stability. This study aims to explore lateral dynamics and suspension tuning of a two-axle bus with HIS system, which could also provide valuable information for roll dynamics analysis. Based on a ten-DOFs lumped-mass full-car model of a bus either integrating transient mechanical-hydraulic model for HIS or the traditional suspension components, three newly promoted parameters of HIS system are defined and analyzed-namely the total roll stiffness (TRS), roll stiffness distribution ratio (RSDR) and roll-plane damping (RPD).
Technical Paper

Research on Temperature Stability of an Independent Energy Supply Device with Organic Rankine Cycles Based on Hydraulic Retarder

2017-09-22
2017-01-7003
Hydraulic retarder, as an auxiliary braking device, is widely used in commercial vehicles. Nowadays, the hydraulic retarder’s internal oil is mainly cooled by the coolant circuit directly. It not only aggravates the load of engine cooling system, but also makes the abundant heat energy not be recycled properly. In this study, an independent energy supply device with organic Rankine cycles is applied to solve the problems above. In the structure of this energy supply device, the evaporator’s inlet and outlet is connected in parallel with the oil outlet and inlet of the retarder respectively. A part of oil enters the evaporator to transfer heat with the organic fluid, and the rest of oil enters the oil-water heat exchanger to be cooled by the coolant circuit. According to the different braking conditions of the retarder, the oil temperature in the inlet of the hydraulic retarder can be kept within the proper range through adjusting the oil flow rate into the evaporator properly.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Influence of an Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension (HIS) on Steady-State Cornering

2017-03-28
2017-01-0430
This paper introduces a vehicle model in CarSim, and replaces a portion of its standard suspension system with an HIS model built in an external software to implement co-simulations. The maneuver we employ to characterize the HIS vehicle is a constant radius method, i.e. observing the vehicle’s steering wheel angle by fixing its cornering radius and gradually increasing its longitudinal speed. The principles of the influence of HIS systems on cornering mainly focus on two factors: lateral load transfer and roll steer effect. The concept of the front lateral load transfer occupancy ratio (FLTOR) is proposed to evaluate the proportions of lateral load transfer at front and rear axles. The relationship between toe and suspension compression is dismissed firstly to demonstrate the effects of lateral load transfer and then introduced to illustrate the effects of roll motion on cornering.
Technical Paper

Reliability Optimal Design of B-pillar in Side Impact

2016-04-05
2016-01-1523
The traditional deterministic optimal design is mostly based on meeting regulatory requirements specified in impact standards, without taking the randomness of the impact velocity and angle at the real world situation into consideration. This often leads to the optimization results that converge to the boundary constraints, thus cannot meet the reliability requirements of the product design. Structure members of B-pillar (e.g. inner panel, outer panel, and the reinforcing plate) play a major role in the side impact safety performance. This paper dealt with optimization of B-pillar by considering its dimensions and materials as the design variables, and the impact velocity and angle from real-world traffic accident conditions as the random variable inputs. Using a combination of design of experiment, response surface models, reliability theory and the reliability of design optimization method, a B-pillar was constructed based on the product quality engineering.
Journal Article

A Semi-Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanism of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) and Diesel Blends for Combustion Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0583
With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. To seek for an optimized volumetric ratio for ABE-diesel blends, the previous work in our team has experimentally investigated and analyzed the combustion features of ABE-diesel blends with different volumetric ratio (A: B: E: 6:3:1; 3:6:1; 0:10:0, vol. %) in a constant volume chamber. It was found that an increased amount of acetone would lead to a significant advancement of combustion phasing whereas butanol would compensate the advancing effect. Both spray dynamic and chemistry reaction dynamic are of great importance in explaining the unique combustion characteristic of ABE-diesel blend. In this study, a semi-detailed chemical mechanism is constructed and used to model ABE-diesel spray combustion in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Atkinson Cycle Converted from Conventional Otto Cycle Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0680
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are considered as the most commercial prospects new energy vehicles. Most HEVs have adopted Atkinson cycle engine as the main drive power. Atkinson cycle engine uses late intake valve closing (LIVC) to reduce pumping losses and compression work in part load operation. It can transform more heat energy to mechanical energy, improve engine thermal efficiency and decrease fuel consumption. In this paper, the investigations of Atkinson cycle converted from conventional Otto cycle gasoline engine have been carried out. First of all, high geometry compression ratio (CR) has been optimized through piston redesign from 10.5 to 13 in order to overcome the intrinsic drawback of Atkinson cycle in that combustion performance deteriorates due to the decline in the effective CR. Then, both intake and exhaust cam profile have been redesigned to meet the requirements of Atkinson cycle engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Soot Mechanism of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) with Various Oxygen Concentrations

2015-04-14
2015-01-0389
A multi-step acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) phenomenological soot model was proposed and implemented into KIVA-3V Release 2 code. Experiments were conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber to investigate the combustion and soot emission characteristics under the conditions of 1000 K initial temperature with various oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 11%). Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in conjunction under the same operation conditions. The predicted soot mass traces showed good agreement with experimental data. As ambient oxygen decreased from 21% to 11%, ignition delay retarded and the distribution of temperature became more homogenous. Compared to 21% ambient oxygen, the peak value of total soot mass at 16% oxygen concentration was higher due to the suppressed soot oxidation mechanism.
Technical Paper

A Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanism of Toluene Reference Fuel (toluene/n-heptane) for Diesel Engine Combustion Simulations

2015-04-14
2015-01-0387
In the present study, we developed a reduced chemical reaction mechanism consisted of n-heptane and toluene as surrogate fuel species for diesel engine combustion simulation. The LLNL detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane was chosen as the base mechanism. A multi-technique reduction methodology was applied, which included directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA), non-essential reaction elimination, reaction pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, and reaction rate adjustment. In a similar fashion, a reduced toluene mechanism was also developed. The reduced n-heptane and toluene mechanisms were then combined to form a diesel surrogate mechanism, which consisted of 158 species and 468 reactions. Extensive validations were conducted for the present mechanism with experimental ignition delay in shock tubes and laminar flame speeds under various pressures, temperatures and equivalence ratios related to engine conditions.
Journal Article

Vehicle Parameter Estimation Based on Full-Car Dynamic Testing

2015-04-14
2015-01-0636
Effectively obtaining physical parameters for vehicle dynamic model is the key to successfully performing any computer-based dynamic analysis, control strategy development or optimization. For a spring and lump mass vehicle model, which is a type of vehicle model widely used, its physical parameters include sprung mass, unsprung mass, inertial properties of the sprung mass, stiffness and damping coefficient of suspension and tire, etc. To minimize error, the paper proposes a method to estimate these parameters from vehicle modal parameters which are in turn obtained through full-car dynamic testing. To verify its effectiveness, a visual vehicle with a set of given parameters, build in the Adams(Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems)/Car environment, is used to perform the dynamic testing and provide the testing data for the parameter estimation.
Technical Paper

Research on Three Main Lightweight Approaches for Automotive Body Engineering Considering Materials, Structural Performances and Costs

2015-04-14
2015-01-0580
Lightweight automotive body can be obtained by developing new body constructions, using lightweight materials and structural optimizations, etc. Usually, lighter materials and structural optimizations are main aspects considered in lightweight automotive body engineering. In fact, material costs and manufacturability play more important roles than others in lightweight design. Three lightweight design approaches are considered. The first approach of lightweight design is to replace steels with lighter materials using equal rigidity design method. The second approach is a single objective optimization of mass reduction with materials selection and cost penalty. The third approach is a multi-objective optimization of mass reduction and cost reduction using multi-material concept. These three approaches are applied to an automotive body design problem considering the side impact. Different optimization methods are used to obtain different results.
Technical Paper

Design and Dynamic Analysis of Bounce and Pitch Plane Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension for Mining Vehicle to Improve Ride Comfort and Pitching Stiffness

2015-04-14
2015-01-0617
This paper demonstrates time response analysis of the mining vehicle with bounce and pitch plane hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system. Since the mining vehicles working in harsh conditions inducing obvious pitch motion and the hard stiffness of suspensions leading to the acute vibration, the passive hydraulically interconnected system is proposed to provide better ride comfort. Furthermore, the hydraulic system also increases the suspension stiffness in the pitch mode to prevent vehicle from large pitch motions. According to the hydraulic and mechanical coupled characteristic of the mining vehicles, a 7degrees of freedom (7-DOFS) mathematical model is employed and the state space method is used to establish the mechanical and hydraulic coupled dynamic equations. In this paper, the vehicles are subjected to straight line braking input, triangle block bump input applied to the wheels and random road tests.
Technical Paper

Implementation and Experimental Study of a Novel Air Spring Combined with Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension to Enhance Roll Stiffness on Buses

2015-04-14
2015-01-0652
Air spring due to its superior ride comfort performance has been widely used in distance passenger transporting vehicles. Since the requirements for ride comfort and handling performance are contradict to each other, handling performance and even roll stability are sacrificed to some extent to obtain good ride comfort. Due to the complex terrain and limited manufacturing level, in the past several years, bus rollover accidents with serious casualties have been reported frequently and bus safety has attracted more and more attention from bus manufacturers in China. On one hand the bus standards have to be raised, and on the other hand, novel solutions which can effectively improve the roll stability of air spring bus are needed to replace the inadequacy of anti-roll bars.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Interconnected Hydraulic Suspensions with Different Configurations to Soften Warp Mode for Improving Off-Road Vehicle Trafficability

2015-04-14
2015-01-0658
Hydraulic suspension systems with different interconnected configurations can decouple suspension mode and improve performance of a particular mode. In this paper, two types of interconnected suspensions are compared for off-road vehicle trafficability. Traditionally, anti-roll bar, a mechanically interconnected suspension system, connecting left and right suspension, decouples roll mode from the bounce mode and results in a stiff roll mode and a soft bounce mode, which is desired. However, anti-roll bars fail to connect the front wheel motions with the rear wheels', thus the wheels' motions in the warp mode are affected by anti-roll bars and it results an undesired stiffened warp mode. A stiffened warp mode limits the wheel-ground contact and may cause one wheel lift up especially during off-road drive. In contrast with anti-roll bars, two types of hydraulic suspensions which interconnect four wheels (for two-axis vehicles) can further decouple articulation mode from other modes.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Model Analysis of a Full-Car Fitted with an Anti-Pitch Anti-Roll Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension

2014-04-01
2014-01-0849
In this paper, a passive anti-pitch anti-roll hydraulically interconnected suspension is proposed for compromising the control between the pitch and roll mode of the sprung mass. It has the advantage in improving the directional stability and handling quality of vehicles during steering and braking manoeuvres. Frequency domain analysis of a 7-DOF full-car model with the proposed system is presented. The modeling of mechanical subsystem is established based on the Newton's second law. Then the mechanical-hydraulic system boundary conditions are developed by incorporating the hydraulic strut forces into the mechanical subsystem as externally applied forces. The hydraulic subsystem is modelled by using the impedance method, and each circuit are determined by the transfer matrix method. And then the modal analysis method is employed to perform the vibration analysis between the vehicle with the conventional suspension and the proposed HIS.
Journal Article

A New Control Strategy for Electric Power Steering on Low Friction Roads

2014-04-01
2014-01-0083
In vehicles equipped with conventional Electric Power Steering (EPS) systems, the steering effort felt by the driver can be unreasonably low when driving on slippery roads. This may lead inexperienced drivers to steer more than what is required in a turn and risk losing control of the vehicle. Thus, it is sensible for tire-road friction to be accounted for in the design of future EPS systems. This paper describes the design of an auxiliary EPS controller that manipulates torque delivery of current EPS systems by supplying its motor with a compensation current controlled by a fuzzy logic algorithm that considers tire-road friction among other factors. Moreover, a steering system model, a nonlinear vehicle dynamics model and a Dugoff tire model are developed in MATLAB/Simulink. Physical testing is conducted to validate the virtual model and confirm that steering torque decreases considerably on low friction roads.
Journal Article

Handling Analysis of a Vehicle Fitted with Roll-Plane Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension Using Motion-Mode Energy Method

2014-04-01
2014-01-0110
This paper employs the motion-mode energy method (MEM) to investigate the effects of a roll-plane hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system on vehicle body-wheel motion-mode energy distribution. A roll-plane HIS system can directly provide stiffness and damping to vehicle roll motion-mode, in addition to spring and shock absorbers in each wheel station. A four degree-of-freedom (DOF) roll-plane half-car model is employed for this study, which contains four body-wheel motion-modes, including body bounce mode, body roll mode, wheel bounce mode and wheel roll mode. For a half-car model, its dynamic energy contained in the relative motions between its body and wheels is a sum of the energy of these four motion-modes. Numerical examples and full-car experiments are used to illustrate the concept of the effects of HIS on motion-mode energy distribution.
Technical Paper

Handling Stability Optimization of Mining Dump Truck Based on Parameter Identification

2013-04-08
2013-01-0702
Good handling stability becomes very important for heavily-laden electric wheel dump trucks that are operated on rough roads. To improve handling stability of mining dump trucks, nonlinear stiffness and nonlinear damping of the hydro-pneumatic suspension were considered as optimization variables. In this paper, based on the Daubechies wavelet's compactness and regularization and least-square method, the nonlinear stiffness and damping are identified. In order to verify the results of the parameter identification, the multi-body system dynamic model of the truck was built in ADAMS/view. By comparing the simulated results and tested ones, we find acceleration-history and power spectral density of acceleration are very close. And then, based on the approximate model method, the optimization model was built in ISIGHT. The nitrogen column and the orifice diameter were defined as the design variables. Finally, the handling stability was optimized by applying the genetic algorithms method.
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