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Technical Paper

Particle Number Emission Reduction for GDI Engines with Gasoline Particulate Filters

In order to meet the challenging CO2 targets beyond 2020 despite keeping high performance engines, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology usually combined with charged aspiration is expanding in the automotive industry. While providing more efficient powertrains to reduce fuel consumption one side effect of GDI is the increased particle formation during the combustion process. For the first time for GDI from September 2014 there is a Particle Number (PN) limit in EU of 6x10 sup 12 #/km, which will be further reduced by one order of magnitude to 6x10 sup 11 #/km effective from September 2017 to be the same level as applied to Diesel engines. In addition to the PN limit of the certification cycle NEDC further certification of Real Driving Emissions (RDE) including portable PN measurements are under discussion by the European Commission. RDE test procedure requires stable and low emissions in a wide range of engine operations and durable over a distance of 160 000 km.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Hydrothermally Aged Vanadia SCR on High-Porosity Substrate

Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is adapted for a variety of applications to control nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel engine exhaust. The most commonly used catalyst for SCR in established markets is Cu-Zeolite (CuZ) due to excellent NOx conversion and thermal durability. However, most applications in emerging markets and certain applications in established markets utilize vanadia SCR. The operating temperature is typically maintained below 550°C to avoid vanadium sublimation due to active regeneration of the diesel particulate filter (DPF), or some OEMs may eliminate the DPF because they can achieve particulate matter (PM) standard with engine tuning. Further improvement of vanadia SCR durability and NOx conversion at low exhaust gas temperatures will be required in consideration of future emission standards.
Technical Paper

Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

Diesel engines are widely used to reduce CO2 emission due to its higher thermal efficiency over gasoline engines. Considering long term CO2 targets, as well as tighter gas emission, especially NOx, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between CO2 and NOx and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by a catalytic converter, such as a SCR catalyst. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher engine out NOx emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, close-coupled a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with integration of SCR catalyst technology is preferred. For SCR catalyst activity, it is known that the catalyst loading amount has an influence on NOx performance, so a high SCR catalyst loading will be required.
Technical Paper

Next Generation of Ceramic Wall Flow Gasoline Particulate Filter with Integrated Three Way Catalyst

A Particle Number (PN) limit for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) vehicles was introduced in Europe from September 2014 (Euro 6b). In addition, further certification to Real Driving Emissions (RDE) is planned [1] [2], which requires low and stable emissions in a wide range of engine operation, which must be durable for at least 160,000 km. To achieve such stringent targets, a ceramic wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) is one potential emission control device. This paper focuses on a catalyzed GPF, combining particle trapping and catalytic conversion into a single device. The main parameters to be considered when introducing this technology are filtration efficiency, pressure drop and catalytic conversion. This paper portrays a detailed study starting from the choice of material recipe, design optimization, engine bench evaluation, and final validation inside a standard vehicle from the market during an extensive field test up to 160,000 km on public roads.
Journal Article

Development of New High Porosity Diesel Particulate Filter for Integrated SCR Technology/Catalyst

Since the implementation of Euro 6 in September 2014, diesel engines are facing another drastic reduction of NOx emission limits from 180 to only 80 mg/km during NEDC and real driving emissions (RDE) are going to be monitored until limit values are enforced from September 2017. Considering also long term CO2 targets of 95 g/km beyond 2020, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between NOx and CO2 and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by additional devices such as EGR or a catalytic converter. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher NOx engine out emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, new aftertreatment systems will incorporate close-coupled DeNOx systems.
Technical Paper

High Porosity DPF Design for Integrated SCR Functions

Diesel engines are more fuel efficient due to their high thermal efficiency, compared to gasoline engines and therefore, have a higher potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Since diesel engines emit higher amounts of Particulate Matter (PM), DPF systems have been introduced. Today, DPF systems have become a standard technology. Nevertheless, with more stringent NOx emission limits and CO2 targets, additional NOx emission control is needed. For high NOx conversion efficiency, SCR catalysts technology shows high potential. Due to higher temperature at the close coupled position and space restrictions, an integrated SCR concept on the DPFs is preferred. A high SCR catalyst loading will be required to have high conversion efficiency over a wide range of engine operations which causes high pressure for conventional DPF materials.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Concepts: Part 2

The development of diesel powered passenger cars is driven by the enhanced emission legislation. To fulfill the future emission limits there is a need for advanced aftertreatment devices. A comprehensive study was carried out focusing on the improvement of the DOC as one part of these systems, concerning high HC/CO conversion rates, low temperature light-off behaviour and high temperature aging stability, respectively. The first part of this study was published in [1]. Further evaluations using a high temperature DPF aging were carried out for the introduced systems. Again the substrate geometry and the catalytic coating were varied. The results from engine as well as vehicle tests show advantages in a highly systematic context by changing either geometrical or chemical factors. These results enable further improvement for the design of the exhaust system to pass the demanding emission legislation for high performance diesel powered passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Performance of Catalyzed Particulate Filters without Upstream Oxidation Catalyst

The possibility to employ a single-brick system with a catalyzed filter (CDPF) for the after-treatment of diesel engines is potentially a promising and cost-effective solution. In the first part of this paper, the effectiveness of a single brick CDPF system towards reducing the gaseous CO and HC emissions is investigated experimentally and computationally. The second part of the paper deals with the behavior of single brick catalyzed filters compared with two brick systems comprising an upstream oxidation catalyst. The main differences of the two systems are highlighted in terms of regeneration efficiency and thermal loading, based on simulation results. The modeling work is based on a 3-dimensional model of the catalyzed filter and an axi-symmetric model of the oxidation catalyst. Model validations are presented based on engine bench testing.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Experimental Study of Uncontrolled Regenerations in SiC Filters with Fuel Borne Catalyst

The objective of this paper is to study the parameters affecting the evolution of “uncontrolled” regeneration in diesel particulate filters with fuel-borne catalyst (FBC) support with emphasis on the development of thermal stresses critical for filter durability. The study is based on experiments performed on engine dynamometer, corresponding to “worst-case” scenario, as well as on advanced, multi-dimensional mathematical modeling. A new 2-dimensional mathematical model is presented which introduces an additional dimension across the soot layer and wall. With this dimension it is possible to take into account the variability of catalyst/soot ratio in the layer and to compute intra-layer composition gradients. The latter are important since they induce interesting O2 diffusion phenomena, which affect the regeneration evolution.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst Formulations on Ceramic Ultra Thin Wall Substrates for Future Legislation

The LEV II and SULEV/PZEV emission standards legislated by the US EPA and the Californian ARB will require continuous reduction in the vehicles' emission over the next several years. Similar requirements are under discussion in the European Union (EU) in the EU Stage V program. These future emission standards will require a more efficient after treatment device that exhibits high activity and excellent durabilty over an extended lifetime. The present study summarizes the findings of a joint development program targeting such demanding future emission challenges, which can only be met by a close and intensive co-operation of the individual expert teams. The use of active systems, e.g. HC-adsorber or electrically heated light-off catalysts, was not considered in this study. The following parameters were investigated in detail: The development of a high-tech three-way catalyst technology is described being tailored for applications on ultra thin wall ceramic substrates (UTWS).
Technical Paper

Application of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst Technologies on High Cell Density Ultra Thin-Wall Ceramic Substrates for Future Emission Legislations

The future emission limits for gasoline fuelled passenger cars require more and more efficient exhaust gas aftertreatment devices - the catalytic converter being one essential part of the complex system design. The present paper summarizes the results of several basic research programs putting major emphasis on the application of highly sophisticated three-way catalyst technologies being taylored for the utilization on ultra thin-wall ceramic substrates. In the first part of the investigation the following effects were examined in detail: Different washcoat loadings at constant PGM-loadings Different volumes of catalysts for constant amounts of PGM and washcoat Similar washcoat technologies at different ratios of WC-loading to precious metal concentration in the washcoat.
Technical Paper

The Development of a BMW Catalyst Concept for LEV/EU3 Legislation for a 8 Cylinder Engine by Using Thin Wall Ceramic Substrates

For the BMW V8 engine, a new LEV/EU3 emission concept has been developed by improvements to the previous engine management and secondary air supply and a complete new exhaust system. Beside the emission limits, also high engine output targets and high operating reliability were targeted. In addition the new exhaust system had to meet low cost targets. Based on these requirements an exhaust concept with separate pre catalyst and main catalyst was chosen. To reduce the heat mass and to optimize the pressure drop, 4.3mil/400cpsi thin wall ceramic substrates were used for the pre and main catalyst.
Technical Paper

The Impact of High Cell Density Ceramic Substrates and Washcoat Properties on the Catalytic Activity of Three Way Catalysts

The present paper describes the results of a joint development program focussing on a system approach to meet the EURO IV emission standards for an upper class passenger car equipped with a newly developed high displacement gasoline engine. Based on the well known catalyst systems of recent V6- and V8-engines for the EURO III emission standards with a combination of close coupled catalysts and underfloor catalysts, the specific boundary conditions of an engine with an even larger engine displacement had to be considered. These boundary conditions consist of the space requirements in the engine compartment, the power/torque requirements and the cost requirements for the complete aftertreatment system. Theoretical studies and computer modeling showed essential improvements in catalyst performance by introducing thin wall substrates with low thermal inertia as well as high cell densities with increased geometric surface area.