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Technical Paper

Machine Learning Based Technology for Reducing Engine Starting Vibration of Hybrid Vehicles

2019-06-05
2019-01-1450
Engine starting vibration of hybrid vehicle with Toyota hybrid system has variations even in the same vehicle, and a large vibration that occurs rarely may cause stress to the passengers. The contribution analysis based on the vibration theory and statistical analysis has been done, but the primary factor of the rare large vibration has not been clarified because the number of factors is enormous. From this background, we apply machine learning that can reproduce multivariate and complicated relationships to analysis of variation factors of engine starting vibration. Variations in magnitude of the exciting force such as motor torque for starting the engine and in-cylinder pressure of the engine and timing of these forces are considered as factors of the variations. In addition, there are also nonlinear factors such as backlash of gears as a factor of variations.
Technical Paper

Effects of the Feature Extraction from Road Surface Image for Road Induced Noise Prediction Using Artificial Intelligence

2019-06-05
2019-01-1565
Next generation vehicles driven by motor such as electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles have no engine noise. Therefore the balance of interior noise is different from the vehicles driven by conventional combustion engine. In particular, road induced noise tends to be conspicuous in the low to middle vehicle speed range, therefore, technological development to reduce it is important task. The purpose of this research is to predict the road induced noise from the signals of sensors adopted for automatic driving for utilizing the prediction result as a reference signal to reduce road induced noise by active noise control (ANC). Using the monocular camera which is one of the simplest image sensors, the road induced noise is predicted from the road surface image ahead of the vehicle by machine learning.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1023
Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions.
Technical Paper

Color and Height Characteristics of Surrogate Grass for the Evaluation of Vehicle Road Departure Mitigation Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1026
In recent years Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS) is introduced to the market for avoiding roadway departure collisions. To support the performance testing of the RDMS, the most commonly seen road edge, grass, is studied in this paper for the development of standard surrogate grass. This paper proposes a method for defining the resembling grass color and height features due to significant variations of grass appearances in different seasons, temperatures and environments. Randomly selected Google Street View images with grass road edges are gathered and analyzed. Image processing techniques are deployed to obtain the grass color distributions. The height of the grass is determined by referencing the gathered images with measured grass heights. The representative colors and heights of grass are derived as the specifications of surrogate grass for the standard evaluation of RDMS.
Technical Paper

Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

2019-04-02
2019-01-1012
Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions with Reliability Analysis Using a Stochastic Reactor Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-1173
The introduction of a physics-based zero-dimensional stochastic reactor model combined with tabulated chemistry enables the simulation-supported development of future compression-ignited engines. The stochastic reactor model mimics mixture and temperature inhomogeneities induced by turbulence, direct injection and heat transfer. Thus, it is possible to improve the prediction of NOx emissions compared to common mean-value models. To reduce the number of designs to be evaluated during the simulation-based multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithms are proven to be an effective tool. Based on an initial set of designs, the algorithm aims to evolve the designs to find the best parameters for the given constraints and objectives. The extension by response surface models improves the prediction of the best possible Pareto Front, while the time of optimization is kept low.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy NOx Sensor

2019-04-02
2019-01-0749
This paper presents an improvement in the accuracy of NOx sensors at high NOx concentration regions by optimizing the manufacturing process, sensor electrode materials and structure, in order to suppress the deterioration mechanism of sensor electrodes. Though NOx sensors generally consist of Pt/Au alloy based oxygen pump electrodes and Pt/Rh alloy based sensor electrodes, detailed experimental analysis of aged NOx sensors showed changes in the surface composition and morphology of the sensor electrode. The surface of the sensor electrode was covered with Au, which is not originally contained in the electrode, resulting in a diminished active site for NOx detection on the sensor electrode and a decrease in sensor output. Theoretical analysis using CAE with molecular dynamics supported that Au tends to be concentrated on the surface of the sensor electrode.
Journal Article

Development of Fuel Cell (FC) System for New Generation FC Bus

2019-04-02
2019-01-0372
Toyota Motor Corporation has been actively pursuing the development of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to respond to global environmental concerns and demands for clean energy. Toyota developed the first fuel cell (FC) bus to receive vehicle type certification in Japan. Subsequently, a new FC bus has been developed, which adopts two FC systems and four high-voltage batteries to achieve the required high power performance and durability. For enhanced durability, the FC system is controlled to maximize usage of the high-voltage batteries and to reduce the number of electric potential changes of the fuel cell. To accomplish this, the voltage of the FC stack must be kept high and FC power must be kept low. The high-voltage batteries were used to actively minimize FC power during acceleration.
Technical Paper

48V Mild-Hybrid Architecture Types, Fuels and Power Levels Needed to Achieve 75g CO2/km

2019-04-02
2019-01-0366
48V mild hybrid powertrains are promising technologies for cost-effective compliance with future CO2 emissions standards. Current 48V powertrains with integrated belt starter generators (P0) with downsized engines achieve CO2 emissions of 95 g/km in the NEDC. However, to reach 75 g/km, it may be necessary to combine new 48V powertrain architectures with alternative fuels. Therefore, this paper compares CO2 emissions from different 48V powertrain architectures (P0, P1, P2, P3) with different electric power levels under various driving cycles (NEDC, WLTC, and RTS95). A numerical model of a compact class passenger car with a 48V powertrain was created and experimental fuel consumption maps for engines running on different fuels (gasoline, Diesel, E85, CNG) were used to simulate its CO2 emissions. The simulation results were analysed to determine why specific powertrain combinations were more efficient under certain driving conditions.
Journal Article

Water Injection Benefits in a 3-Cylinder Downsized SI-Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0034
With progressing electrification of automotive powertrains and demands to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, a combination of an electric motor and downsized turbocharged spark-ignited engine has been recognized as a viable solution. The SI engine must be optimized, and preferentially downsized, to reduce tailpipe CO2 and other emissions. However, drives to increase BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and compression ratio/thermal efficiency increase propensities of knocking (auto-ignition of residual unburnt charge before the propagating flame reaches it) in downsized engines. Currently, knock is mitigated by retarding the ignition timing, but this has several limitations. Another option identified in the last decade (following trials of similar technology in aircraft combustion engines) is water injection, which suppresses knocking largely by reducing local in-cylinder mixture temperatures due to its latent heat of vaporization.
Technical Paper

Modelling of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrains - Factors That Impact Accuracy of CO₂ Emissions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0080
Modelling is widely used for the development of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain technologies, since it can provide accurate prediction of fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions, for a fraction of the resources required in experiments. For comparison of different technologies or powertrain parameters, the results should be accurate relative to each other, since powertrains are simulated under identical model details and simulation parameters. However, when CO₂ emissions of a vehicle model are simulated under a driving cycle, significant deviances may occur between actual tests and simulation results, compromising the integrity of simulations. Therefore, this paper investigates the effects of certain modelling and simulation parameters on CO₂ emission results, for a parallel HEV under three driving cycles (NEDC, WLTC and RTS95 to simulate real driving emissions (RDE)).
Technical Paper

Comparison of Long-Chain Alcohol Blends, HVO and Diesel on Spray Characteristics, Ignition and Soot Formation

2019-01-15
2019-01-0018
Spray characteristics of fossil Diesel fuel, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and two oxygenated fuel blends were studied to elucidate the combustion process. The fuels were studied in an optically accessible high-pressure/high-temperature chamber under non-combusting (623 K, 4.69 MPa) and combusting (823 K, 6.04 MPa) conditions. The fuel blends contained the long-chain alcohol 2-ethylhexanol (EH), HVO and either 20 vol.% Diesel or 7 vol.% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and were designed to have a Diesel-like cetane number (CN). Injection pressures were set to 120 MPa and 180 MPa and the gas density was held constant at 26 kg/m3. Under non-combusting conditions, shadow imaging revealed the penetration length of the liquid and vapor phase of the spray. Under combusting conditions, the lift-off length and soot volume fraction were measured by simultaneously recording time-resolved two-dimensional laser extinction, flame luminosity and OH* chemiluminescence images.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics of Spray Characteristics and Soot Volume Fractions of n-Butanol, n-Octanol, Diesel, and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Blends in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

2019-01-15
2019-01-0019
The effects of using n-butanol, n-octanol, fossil Diesel, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), and blends of these fuels on spray penetration, flame and soot characteristics were investigated in a high-pressure high-temperature constant volume combustion chamber designed to mimic a heavy duty Diesel engine. Backlight illumination was used to capture liquid and vapor phase spray images with a high-speed camera. The flame lift-off length (LOL) and ignition delay were determined by analyzing OH* chemiluminescence images. Laser extinction diagnostics were used to measure the spatially and temporally resolved soot volume fraction. The spray experiments were performed by injecting fuels under non-combusting (623 K) and combusting (823 K) conditions at a fixed ambient air density of 26 kg/m3. A Scania 0.19 mm single straight hole injector and Scania XPI common rail fuel supply system were used to produce injection pressures of 120 MPa and 180 MPa.
Technical Paper

Spray Characterization of Gasoline Direct Injection Sprays Under Fuel Injection Pressures up to 150 MPa with Different Nozzle Geometries

2019-01-15
2019-01-0063
Maximum fuel injection pressures for GDI engines is expected to increase due to positive effects on emissions and engine-efficiency. Current GDI injectors have maximum operating pressures of 35 MPa, but higher injection pressures have yielded promising reductions in particle number (PN) and improved combustion stability. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, and there have been few studies on fuel sprays formed at high injection pressures. This paper summarizes experimental studies on the properties of sprays formed at high injection pressures. The results of these experiments can be used as inputs for CFD simulations and studies on combustion behavior, emissions formation, and combustion system design. The experiments were conducted using an injection rate meter and optical methods in a constant volume spray chamber. Injection rate measurements were performed to determine the injectors’ flow characteristics.
Technical Paper

Methane Direct Injection in an Optical SI Engine - Comparison between Different Combustion Modes

2019-01-15
2019-01-0083
Natural gas, biogas, and biomethane are attractive fuels for compressed natural gas (CNG) engines because of their beneficial physical and chemical characteristics. This paper examines three combustion modes - homogeneous stoichiometric, homogeneous lean burn, and stratified combustion - in an optical single cylinder engine with a gas direct injection system operating with an injection pressure of 18 bar. The combustion process in each mode was characterized by indicated parameters, recording combustion images, and analysing combustion chemiluminescence emission spectra. Pure methane, which is the main component of CNG (up to 98%) or biomethane (> 98 %), was used as the fuel. Chemiluminescence emission spectrum analysis showed that OH* and CN* peaks appeared at their characteristic wavelengths in all three combustion modes. The peak of OH* and broadband CO2* intensities were strongly dependent on the air/fuel ratio conditions in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Application of Models of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions to Spark Ignition Simulation

2018-09-10
2018-01-1727
This report describes the implementation of the spark channel short circuit and blow-out submodels, which were described in the previous report, into a spark ignition model. The spark channel which is modeled by a particle series is elongated by moving individual spark particles along local gas flows. The equation of the spark channel resistance developed by Kim et al. is modified in order to describe the behavior of the current and the voltage in high flow velocity conditions and implemented into the electrical circuit model of the electrical inductive system of the spark plug. Input parameters of the circuit model are the following: initial discharge energy, inductance, internal resistance and capacitance of the spark plug, and the spark channel length obtained by the spark channel model. The instantaneous discharge current and the voltage are obtained as outputs of the circuit model.
Technical Paper

A Method to Evaluate the Compression Ratio in IC Engines with Porous Thermal Barrier Coatings

2018-09-10
2018-01-1778
The compression ratio is an important engine design parameter. It determines to a large extend engine properties like the achievable efficiency, the heat losses from the combustion chamber and the exhaust losses. The same properties are affected by insulation of the combustion chamber. It is therefore especially important to know the compression ratio when doing experiments with thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In case of porous TBCs, the standard methods to measure the compression ratio can give wrong results. When measuring the compression ratio by volume, using a liquid, it is uncertain if the liquid fills the total porous volume of the coating. And for a thermodynamic compression ratio estimation, a model for the heat losses is needed, which is not available when doing experiments with insulation. The subject of this paper is the evaluation of an alternative method to assess the compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Supervisory Controller for a Light Duty Diesel Engine with an LNT-SCR After-Treatment System

2018-09-10
2018-01-1767
Look ahead information can be used to improve the powertrain’s fuel consumption while efficiently controlling exhaust emissions. A passenger car propelled by a Euro 6d capable diesel engine is studied. In the conventional approach, the diesel powertrain subsystem control is rule based. It uses no information of future load requests but is operated with the objective of low engine out exhaust emission species until the Exhaust After-Treatment System (EATS) light off has occurred, even if fuel economy is compromised greatly. Upon EATS light off, the engine is operated more fuel efficiently since the EATS system is able to treat emissions effectively. This paper presents a supervisory control structure with the intended purpose to operate the complete powertrain using a minimum of fuel while improving the robustness of exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Lean Combustion in a 2lt Gasoline Direct Injected Engine with an Enhanced Turbo Charging System

2018-09-10
2018-01-1670
In the quest for a highly efficient, low emission and affordable source of passenger car propulsion system, meeting future demands for sustainable mobility, the concept of homogeneous lean combustion (HLC) in a spark ignited (SI) multi-cylinder engine has been investigated. An attempt has been made to utilize the concept of HLC in a downsized multi-cylinder production engine producing up to 22 bar BMEP in load. The focus was to cover as much as possible of the real driving operational region, to improve fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions. A standard Volvo two litre four-cylinder gasoline direct injected engine operating on commercial 95 RON gasoline fuel was equipped with an advanced two stage turbo charger system, consisting of a variable nozzle turbine turbo high-pressure stage and a wastegate turbo low-pressure stage. The turbo system was specifically designed to meet the high demands on air mass flow when running lean on higher load and speeds.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Constituents and Fuel Composition on DISI Engine Knock: An Experimental and Modeling Study

2018-09-10
2018-01-1677
The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition engines has been shown to have a number of beneficial effects under specific operating conditions. These include reducing pumping work under part load conditions, reducing NOx emissions and heat losses by lowering peak combustion temperatures, and by reducing the tendency for engine knock (caused by end-gas autoignition) under certain operating regimes. In this study, the effects of EGR addition on knocking combustion are investigated through a combined experimental and modeling approach. The problem is investigated by considering the effects of individual EGR constituents, such as CO2, N2, and H2O, on knock, both individually and combined, and with and without traces species, such as unburned hydrocarbons and NOx. The effects of engine compression ratio and fuel composition on the effectiveness of knock suppression with EGR addition were also investigated.
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