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Technical Paper

Development of TLP-AI Technology to realize high temperature operation of power module

2019-04-02
2019-01-0607
SiC power devices are promising components for the power module assembled in the automobile power control unit due to their low-power loss operation. Also they have high thermostable characteristics which are expected to tolerate high temperature operation, widening the range that the conventional Si device has limited. While, the packaging technology is also needed to improve the thermo-stability to derive the full potential of SiC power device, especially the device bonding which is directly related to the device thermally and physically. TLP bonding is one of the promising technologies for the high temperature operation because its bonding layer has high melting point. But there is a problem that characteristic of TLP bonding layer causes the damage to the power device.
Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalysts Enhanced NOx Purifying Activity

2018-04-03
2018-01-0942
Growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. One of the key technologies is a new OSC material that has low surface area (SA) and high OSC performance. We enhanced the pyrochlore- ceria/zirconia (CZ) which has a very small SA. In order to enhance the heat resistance and promote the OSC reaction, we selected and optimized the additive element. This material showed high OSC performance especially in the temperature range of 400 degrees or less. Another key technology is washcoat structure that has high gas diffusivity by making connected pore in the washcoat (New pore forming technology).
Technical Paper

Optimizing Transmission Loss for Lightweight Body Structures

2017-06-05
2017-01-1812
In an effort to reduce mass, future automotive bodies will feature lower gage steel or lighter weight materials such as aluminum. An unfortunate side effect of lighter weight bodies is a reduction in sound transmission loss (TL). For barrier based systems, as the total system mass (including the sheet metal, decoupler, and barrier) goes down the transmission loss is reduced. If the reduced surface density from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, however, performance can be restored (though, of course, this eliminates the mass savings). In fact, if all of the saved mass from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, the TL performance may be improved over the original system. This is because the optimum performance for a barrier based system is achieved when the sheet metal and the barrier have equal surface densities. That is not the case for standard steel constructions where the surface density of the sheet metal is higher than the barrier.
Journal Article

Development of a New Ceramic Substrate with Gas Flow Control Functionality

2017-03-28
2017-01-0919
Emission regulations in many countries and regions around the world are becoming stricter in reaction to the increasing awareness of environment protections, and it has now become necessary to improve the performance of catalytic converters to achieve these goals. A catalytic converter is composed of a catalytically active material coated onto a ceramic honeycomb-structured substrate. Honeycomb substrates play the role of ensuring intimate contact between the exhaust gas and the catalyst within the substrate’s flow channels. In recent years, high-load test cycles have been introduced which require increased robustness to maintain low emissions during the wide range of load changes. Therefore, it is extremely important to increase the probability of contact between the exhaust gas and catalyst. To achieve this contact, several measures were considered such as increasing active sites or geometrical surface areas by utilizing substrates with higher cell densities or larger volumes.
Technical Paper

Friction Reduction Technology for Low Viscosity Engine Oil Compatible with LSPI Prevention Performance

2016-10-17
2016-01-2276
Increasing numbers of vehicles equipped with downsized, turbocharged engines have been introduced seeking for better fuel economy. LSPI (low speed pre-ignition), which can damage engine hardware, is a potential risk of the engines. We reported that engine oil formulation affects frequency of LSPI events, and formulating magnesium detergents into oil is a promising option to prevent LSPI events. From the viewpoint of achieving better fuel economy by engine oil, lowering viscosity is being required. However, it causes reduced oil film thickness and will expand boundary lubrication condition regions in some engine parts. Hence, a technology to reduce friction under boundary lubrication becomes important.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Laser Screw Welds in Automotive Structures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0394
This paper describes the development of a fatigue life prediction method for Laser Screw Welding (LSW). Fatigue life prediction is used to assess the durability of automotive structures in the early design stages in order to shorten the vehicle development time. The LSW technology is a spot-type joining method similar to resistance spot welding (RSW), and has been developed and applied to body-inwhite structures in recent years. LSW can join metal panels even when a clearance exists between the panels. However, as a result of this favorable clearance-allowance feature of LSW, a concave shape may occur at the nugget part of the joint. These LSW geometric features, the concavity of nuggets and the clearance between panels, are thought to affect the local stiffness behavior of the joint. Therefore, while assessing the fatigue life of LSW, it is essential to estimate the influence of these factors adequately for the representation of the local stiffness behavior of the joint.
Technical Paper

Solar Module Laminated Constitution for Automobiles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0351
Replacing the metal car roof with conventional solar modules results in the increase of total car weight and change of center of mass, which is not preferable for car designing. Therefore, weight reduction is required for solar modules to be equipped on vehicles. Exchanging glass to plastic for the cover plate of solar module is one of the major approaches to reduce weight; however, load bearing property, impact resistance, thermal deformation, and weatherability become new challenges. In this paper a new solar module structure that weighs as light as conventional steel car roofs, resolving these challenges is proposed.
Journal Article

Analysis of Influence of Snow Melting Agents and Soil Components on Corrosion of Decorative Chrome Plating

2016-04-05
2016-01-0539
The dissolution and exfoliation of chromium plating specific to Russia was studied. Investigation and analysis of organic compounds in Russian soil revealed contents of highly concentrated fulvic acid. Additionally, it was found that fulvic acid, together with CaCl2 (a deicing agent), causes chromium plating corrosion. The fulvic acid generates a compound that prevents reformation of a passivation film and deteriorates the sacrificial corrosion effectiveness of nickel.
Journal Article

Development of a Highly Anti-Corrosive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Paint

2016-04-05
2016-01-0540
A highly anti-corrosive organic-inorganic hybrid paint for automotive steel parts has been developed. The inorganic component included in the paint is silicon dioxide (SiO2), which has the capability to passivate zinc. By application of the paint on a trivalent chromatetreated zinc-plated steel sheet or a trivalent chromate-treated zinc-nickel-plated steel sheet, high anti-corrosion protection can be provided to steel materials. Particularly in the case of application over a zinc-nickel-plated steel sheet, 0 mm corrosion depth after a cyclic corrosion test (CCT) of 450 cycles was demonstrated.
Journal Article

Reaction Mechanism Analysis of Di-Air-Contributions of Hydrocarbons and Intermediates

2012-09-10
2012-01-1744
The details of Di-Air, a new NOx reduction system using continuous short pulse injections of hydrocarbons (HC) in front of a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst, have already been reported. This paper describes further studies into the deNOx mechanism, mainly from the standpoint of the contribution of HC and intermediates. In the process of a preliminary survey regarding HC oxidation behavior at the moment of injection, it was found that HC have unique advantages as a reductant. The addition of HC lead to the reduction or metallization of platinum group metals (PGM) while keeping the overall gas atmosphere in a lean state due to adsorbed HC. This causes local O₂ inhibition and generates reductive intermediate species such as R-NCO. Therefore, the specific benefits of HC were analyzed from the viewpoints of 1) the impact on the PGM state, 2) the characterization of intermediate species, and 3) Di-Air performance compared to other reductants.
Technical Paper

Examination of Crack Growth Behavior in Induction Hardened Material under Torsional Fatigue

2011-04-12
2011-01-0198
Since wear resistance and fatigue strength are key requirements for chassis components, induction hardening is widely used to apply compressive stress for controlling crack growth. Therefore, it is crucial that the influence of defects is examined with compressive residual stress applied to parts. In this report, the relationship between crack depth and compressive residual stress is evaluated using a cylindrical specimen and a torsional fatigue test. The test results were found to be consistent with CAE simulations performed in advance. In the future, it will be necessary to make this method applicable to product design to further improve vehicle safety performance.
Technical Paper

Development of High-Strength Aluminum Piston Material

2010-04-12
2010-01-0220
Mass reduction of parts is growing in importance as a means for reducing CO2 emissions from vehicles.The aim of the present research was to contribute to further mass reduction of pistons by developing a new aluminum casting material with highest level of fatigue strength. This goal was achieved using a development concept of creating a homogeneous structure in which Ti was added to create a fine structure and appropriate quantities of Fe and Mn were added to form a compound that is stable at high temperatures. Stand-alone tests of prototype pistons fabricated using the developed material show that the material is 14% stronger than the conventional material, thereby enabling increases in power and mass reduction.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Three-Way-Catalyst Technology to Lower NOx Emission

2009-04-20
2009-01-1398
One primary result of the reduction of platinum group metals (PGM) within a catalytic converter is the decline in NOx conversion efficiency. This paper hypothesizes that the primary factor of this decline to be hydrocarbon (HC) poisoning. To maintain high NOx conversion efficiency as the PGM reduces, Rh activation improvement becomes significant to overcome the HC poisoning. Analysis of the Rh deterioration mechanism found that it is effective to separately arrange Rh and CeO2 on the converter, avoiding the Rh deactivation. By this improvement, we improved the catalyst activity at less than 25% of the original Rh loading.
Journal Article

Development of Bio-Based Plastics for Injection Molding

2009-04-20
2009-01-0019
Technological development of materials derived from plants (e.g., polylactic acid (PLA), and the like) is required to break dependence on fossil fuels and reduce CO2. PLA has inferior hydrolysis resistance, impact resistance, and molding ability than polypropylene (PP), and in order to overcome these disadvantages, a novel PP/PLA alloy has been conceived where PLA is incorporated into a PP matrix. By optimizing compatibilizer and elastomer addition, PLA has been successfully dispersed into a PP matrix at a sub-micron order, and interior parts have been successfully developed that fulfill the performance, appearance, and mass-production capability requirements for practical application.
Journal Article

Narrow-Band Omnidirectional Structural Color

2008-04-14
2008-01-1049
Automotive pigments consist of absorptive materials which absorb most of the wavelengths of light in the visible range (400-800 nm) except one particular range which gets reflected and seen as color. This coloring mechanism based on light absorption due to their molecular structure generally reflects a broader range of wavelength with a moderate reflectivity (50-60%). However in nature we find many magnificent colors in insects, butterflies, birds and fishes. These colors in nature are not based on the abortive pigments, but on the nanoscopic regular structures that interfere light reflected from those periodic sites. Since animals contain no solid metals, to produce metallic-like reflections they also rely on interference of light.[1] Most common and well-known form of animal reflector is the multilayer type where alternating high and low refractive index layers are formed. Such nanostructure assembly can reflect light up to 100%.
Journal Article

Study of Alternative Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalyst for Pt Based on Transition Metal Chalcogenides

2008-04-14
2008-01-1265
The development of an alternative oxygen reduction electrocatalyst to platinum based electrocatalysts is critical for practical use of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Transition metal sulfide chalcogenides have recently been reported as a possible candidate for Pt replacement. Our work focused on chalcogenides composed of ruthenium, molybdenum, and sulfur (RuMoS). We elucidate the factors affecting electrocatalytic activity of carbon supported RuXMoY SZ catalyst. This was demonstrated through a correlation of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of the catalysts with structural changes resulting from designed changes in sulfur composition in the catalysts.
Journal Article

Measurement of Oil Film Pressure in the Main Bearings of an Operating Engine Using Thin-Film Sensors

2008-04-14
2008-01-0438
We developed a technique to measure oil film pressure distribution in engine main bearings using thin-film pressure sensors. The sensor is 7μm in thickness, and is processed on the surface of an aluminum alloy bearing. In order to increase the durability of the sensor, a layer of MoS2 and polyamide-imide was coated on thin-film sensors. This technique was applied to a 1.4L common-rail diesel engine operated at a maximum speed of 4,500r/min with a 100Nm full load, and the oil film pressure was monitored while the engine was operating. The measured pressure was compared with calculations based on hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) theory.
Technical Paper

Development of Sealing Material Used in the Body Welding Shop

2007-04-16
2007-01-0418
1 The principal characteristics required of sealing materials used in the body shop have focused on their adhesion to oily steel sheets and quick curing performance. Means for attaining these characteristics have been narrowed down to a basic resin system and a curing system. Various techniques have been studied to ensure proper anti-corrosion performance at the sealer application boundaries and thin application areas. They include the addition of anti-corrosion fillers, the provision of conductivity (through electro-deposition), and the application of a micro foam film over the application boundaries. Thus, prospects for attaining the same level of anti-corrosion performance as existing materials have been achieved.
Technical Paper

Study of Plastic Plating Using Highly Concentrated Ozonized Water Pretreatment

2005-04-11
2005-01-0618
In order to achieve good adhesive properties, typical decorative plastic plating technology uses a chromic acid process that creates an anchor effect. Due to environmental concerns with hexavalent chromium, there is a need to find alternative processes. Pretreatment using highly concentrated ozonized water was investigated as a novel approach to achieving this goal. In the conventional chromic acid process, strong adhesion between plating membranes is achieved by roughing the ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) resin surface by approximately 1 um. On the other hand, the highly concentrated ozonized water process achieves good adhesion with a smooth resin by changing the resin from ABS to ASA (acrylate-styrene-acrylonitrile). It was discovered that the difference in this strength of adhesion was the difference in resin surface strength (existence of deterioration or otherwise).
Technical Paper

Application of Structural Color Technology for Automotive Paint

2005-04-11
2005-01-0617
Currently, to achieve the desired design in automotive paint, absorption pigments, such as organic pigments, are used in combination with brilliant pigments (ex. aluminum or mica etc.). However, many beautiful colors exist in the world, especially in the natural world. Until now, automotive paints have not been able to replicate those colors. In this project, by first analyzing the coloring principles of the natural world, we have focused on the development of a previously non-existent coloring technology (structural color). By combining this with nanostructure control technology, we have established a radically new coloring process enabling the design of hues, chromaticity and reflection intensity. This technology has tangible results, as new pigments are available for paint formulations.
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