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Training / Education

Introduction to Car Hacking with CANbus

2019-12-19
Vehicle cybersecurity vulnerabilities could impact a vehicle's safe operation. Therefore, engineers should ensure that systems are designed free of unreasonable risks to motor vehicle safety, including those that may result due to existence of potential cybersecurity vulnerabilities. The automotive industry is making vehicle cybersecurity an organizational priority.
Technical Paper

Industry 4.0 in Agriculture

2019-11-21
2019-28-2442
In recent times, there has been an enormous shift towards automation in Auto as well as Agriculture Industry. Farming is playing an important role in the survival of world. Currently, agricultural industry is facing several challenges. These challenges can be reduced or removed by using automation in the agricultural tools and techniques. Industry 4.0 is the industrial fourth revolution which focused on automations in manufacturing technologies such as cyber physical systems, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and cloud and cognitive computing. The development and improvement of the connectivity between agricultural tools is leading to significant progress in the agricultural practices. Advancement and automation of the technologies with Internet of Things (IoT), replacing traditional agricultural methodologies which causes wide range of improvements in the fields.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Noise Emitted by vehicle on an External Pass-By Noise Track and Indoor Anechoic Chamber

2019-11-21
2019-28-2425
Ikshit Shrivastava1, Kiranpreet Singh2 1,2 International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT), Gurugram, India Introduction: Pass By Noise emitted by the vehicle is one of the most critical tests for certification is vehicle worldwide. There are a number of national and international regulations to define test procedure. Though the available tracks are constructed to meet the requirements of these test standards, but there are other external parameters viz. ambient temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and its direction, affecting the measurements. These parameters are beyond the control of human and this contamination of test data results in longer test time to monitor atmospheric/ambient conditions and perform the test. Indoor pass-by noise testing is a comparatively new method of testing, which is yet to be evaluated for repeatability/correlation with conventional exterior pass-by noise testing.
Technical Paper

Inspection and Maintenance of In-Use Motor Vehicles – Mitigating Environmental impact

2019-11-21
2019-28-2427
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings.
Technical Paper

Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

2019-11-21
2019-28-2504
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas aftertreatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost-efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented or simulated vehicle concepts for light duty gasoline and diesel powertrains.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2549
Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS Remesan CB, Sanjay Aurora, Vasundhara V Arde, Vishal Kumar, Om Prakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan Eicher Engines (A unit of TAFE Motors & Tractors Ltd.) Abstract Development trend in diesel engine is to achieve more power from same size of engine. With increase in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the peak firing pressure will also increase. The methodology to control the peak firing pressure on higher BMEP is the major challenge. We achieved better SFC with CPCB II emission targets on a constant speed engine. This study involves a systematic approach to optimize combustion parameters with a cost effective and robust inline Fuel Injection System. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for achieving the power density of 25kW/lit with Inline FIP by keeping lower Peak firing pressure.
Technical Paper

Development of high power density diesel engine for constant speed application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2566
Engine up gradation for higher power rating involves challenges that require hardware changes which not only increase cost but also demand higher space. This paper focuses on the up gradation of a 4 cylinder 4.9l CRDi engine from 24.03 kW/L to 30.75 kW/L by adjustment of various parameters to meet both emission and performance targets. Various challenges like higher exhaust temperature, increased peak firing pressure etc. were met using the proper calibration strategy. To meet SFC targets and keep peak firing pressures, exhaust temperatures within desired limits, different operating points for EGR, main injection timing, rail pressure have been optimized. The operating points for optimization were determined by conducting various drive trials on different type of load conditions in test bench. Calibration strategy involved the safe limits of NOx, soot, CO emissions, fuel consumption.pfp, and exhaust temperature.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization and In-cylinder NOx and PM Reduction by using EGR and Split Injection Technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2560
Nowadays, the major most challenge in the diesel engine is the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) trade-off, with minimal reduction in Power and BSFC. Modern day engines also rely on expensive after-treatment devices, which may decrease the performance and increase the BSFC. In this paper, combustion optimization and in-cylinder emission control by introducing the Split injection technique along with EGR is carried out by 1-D (GT-POWER) simulation. Experiments were conducted on a 3.5 kW Single-cylinder naturally aspirated CRDI engine at the different load conditions. The Simulation model incorporates detailed pressure (Burn rate) analysis for different cases and various aspects of ignition delay, premixed and mixing controlled combustion rate, the injection rate affecting oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigations on CO2 recovery from petrol engine exhaust using adsorption technology

2019-11-21
2019-28-2577
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

Low Voltage Powertrain in Light Electric Vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2467
Engineering objective Light Electric Vehicles (LEV) with Li-ion batteries suffer from short battery life and poor efficiency, due to low grade electronics. Battery management systems (BMS) cannot always keep the pack in balance, and after cell voltages drift, capacity of the pack diminishes and some cells may destruct, causing a fire. The paper describes a novel approach to LEV powertrains using parallel connected battery cells & control methodology that keep cells in balance naturally, thereby eliminating BMS and hence safer to use. Li-Ion cells with different chemistries can be used and superior thermal management reduces temperature rise, resulting in longer battery life. Methodology Based on the original invention by the author, the system circuit schematics was designed and simulated using OrCAD PSpice. After obtaining results from the simulation, the first prototype device was constructed and tested in laboratory.
Training / Education

Fuel Systems Material Selection and Compatibility with Alternative Fuels

2019-11-19
This course will introduce the participants to the factors governing fuel-material compatibility and methods to predict and empirically determine compatibility for new alternative fuel chemistries.  By understanding the mechanisms and factors associated with chemically-induced degradation, participants will be able to assess the impact of fuel chemistry to infrastructure components, including those associated with vehicle fuel systems.  This course is unique in that it looks at compatibility from a fuel chemistry perspective, especially new fuel types such as alcohols and other biofuels. 
Training / Education

Designing On-Board Diagnostics for Light and Medium Duty Emissions Control Systems

2019-11-11
On-board diagnosis of engine and transmission systems has been mandated by government regulation for light and medium vehicles since the 1996 model year. The regulations specify many of the detailed features that on-board diagnostics must exhibit. In addition, the penalties for not meeting the requirements or providing in-field remedies can be very expensive. This course is designed to provide a fundamental understanding of how and why OBD systems function and the technical features that a diagnostic should have in order to ensure compliant and successful implementation.
Training / Education

Introduction to Rubber Science and Technology

2019-10-15
Rubber – a loosely cross-linked network of polymer chains that when strained to high levels will forcibly return to at or near it original dimensions. This course is designed to provide the participant with a thorough understanding of rubber’s engineering characteristics. This class will introduce the various sources of rubber, both natural and synthetic. The class will contrast the differences between rubber and plastics; including thermoplastic rubber. Detailed discussions on how to select the correct rubber polymer for the application, highlighting the pros and cons of each major rubber type.
Technical Paper

Emission and noise optimization of CRDe engine with pilot injection strategies

2019-10-11
2019-28-0019
he combustion strategies play a key role in emission improvisation and noise reduction on diesel engines equipped for higher emission norms. This paper clearly discussed on the selection of various operating points for optimization and employing of proper calibration strategies like pilot strategy, Main injection timing, EGR type and rail pressure variation for best emission and noise output. Various optimization techniques have been implemented in our study. Since the pilot injection quantity as well as timing are varied in our paper, careful matrix formulation is required to determine the best optimum point. Around 340 points were obtained on varying pilot quantity and pilot separation sweep chosen at single engine speed and load for both the pilots. Out of the above points, 5 sensitive points were selected ensuring the sensitivity of the emissions and noise.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector cone angle and NTP on performance and emissions of CRDe engine for BS6 compliance

2019-10-11
2019-28-0108
The quality of combustion is affected by factors like engine components design, combustion chamber design, EGR, after treatments systems, engine operating parameters etc. The role of fuel injector is crucial on achieving the desired engine performance and emissions. Efficient combustion depends on the quantity of fuel injected, penetration, atomization and optimum injection timing. The nozzle through flow, cone angle, no of sprays and nozzle tip penetration are the factors which decide the selection of perfect injector for an engine. This paper focuses on the selection of the best fit injector suiting the BS6 application on evaluating the performance and emission characteristics. Injectors used were with varying cone angles and NTP which was varied by changing the sealing washer thickness. With all the above injector configuration, the performance and emission were thoroughly analysed at each level.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Areca and Tamarind fiber reinforced hybrid polymer composites for structural applications

2019-10-11
2019-28-0168
In recent years, natural fibers reinforced composites are used in various engineering arenas owing to its specific rewards like biodegradable, low cost, readily available, easy processing, less toxic and eco-friendly physiognomies. However, the commonly used E-glass fiber polymer composite was just inverse to the properties of the reported natural fibers. Therefore, in the present work discarded areca and tamarind fibers was collected, extracted, fabricated and evaluated for its overall performance and to implement it as an alternative for synthetic fiber composites. Composite specimens are fabricated with different proportions of fiber/matrix and investigated for their potentiality by exploring its mechanical, physical, chemical, water absorption and thermal properties as per standard test procedures. Moreover, the obtained areca and tamarind hybrid composite results are better than their individual based composites and in par with the existing synthetic fiber products.
Technical Paper

Design of light weight Hydraulic Connecting Rod for Agricultural Tractor

2019-10-11
2019-28-0016
Hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induce extreme range of loads on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Hydraulic connecting rod is critical component of hydraulic power train assembly. Standards like IS12224, IS4468 governs the design of hydraulic power train components which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of the tractor. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design a hydraulic connecting rod to meet the requirements. The hydraulic connecting rod basically functions as a short column, which is subjected to the operating hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic lifting mechanism. The current circular connecting rod is higher in weight and cost.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on EGR technique and fuel antioxidant additive in CI engine fuelled with plastic oil blend for emission reduction

2019-10-11
2019-28-0079
Experimental investigation on EGR technique and fuel antioxidant (p-Phenylenediamine) additive in plastic oil + diesel blend as test fuel in diesel engine is reported in this paper. The plastic oil is produced by waste plastics by the pyrolysis method. This plastic oil gives twin advantage of plastic waste management and also as alternate fuel for possible diesel fuel replacement. The plastic oil blend performance and emissions were nearer to neat diesel fuel. To reduce the NO emissions first EGR is fitted and tested. NO emission reduced by 18% compared to without EGR. Then antioxidant is added in (100 ppm level) with blended test fuel and found the NO emission reduction to be 15%. Performance, combustion and emission analysis were done in a single cylinder, four stroke, 5.2 kW diesel engine. Investigation results showed that the combined effect of EGR and antioxidant additive drastically reduces the NO emissions by 28%.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Prediction of the Pressure Drop Reduction of Catalytic Converter under Various Mass Flow Rate of Exhaust Gas for a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine

2019-10-11
2019-28-0030
Nowadays, Diesel emission control strategies are stricter across the globe which caused the rise in need of diesel after treat treatment devices that are more reliable and efficient. The optimized design of the catalytic converter aids in the durability of the product as well as the improvement in efficient operation of the Indian driving cycle. By changing the convergent and divergent cone angles of the catalytic converter, the consequential decrease in pressure drop leads to efficient flow of exhaust gases. The purpose of this study is to design, test, and analyse the catalytic converter in order to reduce the pressure drop in the exhaust system of a naturally aspirated diesel engine using both experimental and CFD techniques. In this study, a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Catalytic Converter is investigated. For numerical analysis, ANSYS Fluent is used.
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