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Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Underbody Pressure Distribution of a Series Vehicle on the Road and in the Wind Tunnel

Underbody aerodynamics has become increasingly important over the last three decades because of its vital contribution to improving a vehicle's overall performance. This was the motivation for the research conducted by BMW Aerodynamics, concerning the determination of the overall pressure distribution on the underbody of a series-production vehicle. Static pressure measurements have been taken under various test conditions. Real on-road tests were carried out as well as wind tunnel experiments under application of different road simulation techniques. The analyzed vehicle configurations include wheel rim-tire and body modifications. The results presented include surface pressure data, drag and lift coefficients, ride heights, pitch and roll angles. The acquired data is used to examine the underbody flow topology and determine how the diverse attempts to represent the real on-road conditions affect its pressure distribution.
Technical Paper

Psychoacoustic Modelling of Sound Attributes

This study inquired into perceived attributes of car interior noise and correlating psychoacoustic parameters. Auditory assessments of a total of 29 vehicles were performed during cruise and acceleration in two independent road tests. Four perceptual dimensions were found to determine the sound evaluations: comfort/loudness, sportiness, harshness, and timbre. A regression model was used to predict comfort/loudness from sound level, roughness, sharpness and speech intelligibility (SVI). Instrumental assessments of engine roughness demonstrated to predict harshness to a large extent. Sportiness was substantially correlated with the increase of engine sound level due to load change. The latter finding was further examined in a third experiment, using sound synthesis in a test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Engine Models

Engine management systems in modern motor vehicles are becoming increasingly extensive and complex. The functionality of the control units which are the central components of such systems is determined by the hardware and software. They are the result of a lengthy development and production process. Road testing of control units, together with testing them on the engine test bench, is very time consuming and costly. An alternative is to test control units away from their actual environment, in a virtual context. This involves operating the control unit on a Hardware-in-the-Loop test bench. The control unit's large number of individual and interlinked functions necessitates a structured, reproducible test procedure. These tests can, however, only be conducted once an engine prototype has been completed, as the parameters for the existing conventional models are determined from the data measured on the test bench.