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Technical Paper

Application of Dynamic Mode Decomposition to Influence the Driving Stability of Road Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0653
The recent growth of available computational resources has enabled the automotive industry to utilize unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their product development on a regular basis. Over the past years, it has been confirmed that unsteady CFD can accurately simulate the transient flow field around complex geometries. Concerning the aerodynamic properties of road vehicles, the detailed analysis of the transient flow field can help to improve the driving stability. Until now, however, there haven’t been many investigations that successfully identified a specific transient phenomenon from a simulated flow field corresponding to driving stability. This is because the unsteady flow field around a vehicle consists of various time and length scales and is therefore too complex to be analyzed with the same strategies as for steady state results.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and Its Impact on Emissions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0039
Over the past years, the question as to what may be the powertrain of the future has become ever more apparent. Aiming to improve upon a given technology, the internal combustion engine still offers a number of development paths in order to maintain its position in public and private mobility. In this study, an innovative combustion process is investigated with the goal to further approximate the ideal Otto cycle. Thus far, similar approaches such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) shared the same objective yet were unable to be operated under high load conditions. Highly increased control efforts and excessive mechanical stress on the components are but a few examples of the drawbacks associated with HCCI. The approach employed in this work is the so-called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) in combination with a pre-chamber spark plug, enabling short combustion durations even at high dilution levels.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Scalable Powertrain, Modular Energy Storage and an Alternative Cooling System on a Student Concept Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1185
The Deep Orange program immerses automotive engineering students into the world of an OEM as part of their 2-year graduate education. In support of developing the program’s seventh vehicle concept, the students studied the sponsoring brand essence, conducted market research, and made a heuristic assessment of competitor vehicles. The upfront research lead to the definition of target customers and setting vehicle level targets that were broken down into requirements to develop various vehicle sub-systems. The powertrain team was challenged to develop a scalable propulsion concept enabled by a common vehicle architecture that allowed future customers to select (at the point of purchase) among various levels of electrification best suiting their needs and personal desires. Four different configurations were identified and developed: all-electric, two plug-in hybrid electric configurations, and an internal combustion engine only.
Technical Paper

Motion Cueing Algorithm for a 9 DoF Driving Simulator: MPC with Linearized Actuator Constraints

2018-04-03
2018-01-0570
In times when automated driving is becoming increasingly relevant, dynamic simulators present an appropriate simulation environment to faithfully reproduce driving scenarios. A realistic replication of driving dynamics is an important criterion to immerse persons in the virtual environments provided by the simulator. Motion Cueing Algorithms (MCAs) compute the simulator’s control input, based on the motions of the simulated vehicle. The technical restrictions of the simulator’s actuators form the main limitation in the execution of these input commands. Typical dynamic simulators consist of a hexapod with six degrees of freedom (DoF) to reproduce the vehicle motion in all dimensions. Since its workspace dimensions are limited, significant improvements in motion capabilities can be achieved by expanding the simulator with redundant DoF by means of additional actuators.
Technical Paper

Method to Derive Monetarily Effective Parameters for ADAS at Parking and Maneuvering

2018-04-03
2018-01-0605
The effectiveness of ADAS addressing property damage has an increasing impact on car manufacturers, insurers and customers, as accident avoidance or mitigation can lead to loss reduction. In order to obtain benefits, it is essential that ADAS primarily address monetarily relevant accident scenarios. Furthermore, sensor technologies and algorithms have to be configured in a way that relevant accident situations can be sufficiently avoided at reasonable system costs. A new methodology is developed to identify and configure monetarily effective parameters for ADAS during parking and maneuvering. ADAS parameters e.g. relevant accident scenarios, required crash avoidance speeds and different sensor layouts are analyzed and evaluated using a real-world in-depth accident database of insurance claims provided by Allianz Center for Technology and Allianz Automotive Innovation Center. For this purpose, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify most monetarily effective accident scenarios.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Test Methodology for Combustion Engine Testing: Methods for Increasing Measurement Quality and Validity at the Engine Test Bench

2017-03-28
2017-01-0604
Improving fuel efficiency while meeting relevant emission limits set by emissions legislation is among the main objectives of engine development. Simultaneously the development costs and development time have to be steadily reduced. For these reasons, the high demands in terms of quality and validity of measurements at the engine test bench are continuously rising. This paper will present a new methodology for efficient testing of an industrial combustion engine in order to improve the process of decision making for combustion-relevant component setups. The methodology includes various modules for increasing measurement quality and validity. Modules like stationary point detection to determine steady state engine behavior, signal quality checks to monitor the signal quality of chosen measurement signals and plausibility checks to evaluate physical relations between several measurement signals ensure a high measurement quality over all measurements.
Journal Article

Timing Analysis for Hypervisor-based I/O Virtualization in Safety-Related Automotive Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-1621
The increasing complexity of automotive functions which are necessary for improved driving assistance systems and automated driving require a change of common vehicle architectures. This includes new concepts for E/E architectures such as a domain-oriented vehicle network based on powerful Domain Control Units (DCUs). These highly integrated controllers consolidate several applications on different safety levels on the same ECU. Hence, the functions depend on a strictly separated and isolated implementation to guarantee a correct behavior. This requires middleware layers which guarantee task isolation and Quality of Service (QoS) communication have to provide several new features, depending on the domain the corresponding control unit is used for. In a first step we identify requirements for a middleware in automotive DCUs. Our goal is to reuse legacy AUTOSAR based code in a multicore domain controller.
Technical Paper

Designing Sound for Quiet Cars

2016-06-15
2016-01-1839
The quiet nature of hybrid and electric vehicles has triggered developments in research, vehicle manufacturing and legal requirements. Currently, three countries require fitting an Approaching Vehicle Alerting System (AVAS) to every new car capable of driving without a combustion engine. Various other geographical areas and groups are in the process of specifying new legal requirements. In this paper, the design challenges in the on-going process of designing the sound for quiet cars are discussed. A proposal is issued on how to achieve the optimum combination of safety, environmental noise, subjective sound character and technical realisation in an iterative sound design process. The proposed sound consists of two layers: the first layer contains tonal components with their pitch rising along with vehicle speed in order to ensure recognisability and an indication of speed.
Technical Paper

Automotive Design Quantification: Parameters Defining Exterior Proportions According to Car Segment

2014-04-01
2014-01-0357
Among the issues affecting the design process of a vehicle, there is the lack of multidisciplinary knowledge among the different teams involved. This often leads to the risk of loosing important key points from the initial concept idea of designers to the final vehicle package definition made by engineers. Therefore, this study builds up a method based on parameters defining exterior aesthetic priorities according to car segment to support engineers involved in the automotive design process. In particular, during the early design-engineering phase, this method should help them to understand better vehicle proportions defined by designers. This work is currently used in the course of design and simulation of road vehicles (Chair of Automotive Technology, TUM) to explain fundamentals of automotive design.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation of Dampening Dynamic Profiles for the Application in Transient Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0642
As computational methodologies become more integrated into industrial vehicle pre-development processes the potential for high transient vehicle thermal simulations is evident. This can also been seen in conjunction with the strong rise in computing power, which ultimately has supported many automotive manufactures in attempting non-steady simulation conditions. The following investigation aims at exploring an efficient means of utilizing the new rise in computing resources by resolving high time-dependent boundary conditions through a series of averaging methodologies. Through understanding the sensitivities associated with dynamic component temperature changes, optimised boundary conditions can be implemented to dampen irrelevant input frequencies whilst maintaining thermally critical velocity gradients.
Journal Article

An Innovative Approach to Race Track Simulations for Vehicle Thermal Management

2013-11-20
2013-01-9121
Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle validation process, the role of computational simulation is becoming increasingly prominent in efforts to ensure thermal safety. This gain in popularity has resulted from the cost and time advantages that simulation has compared to experimental testing. Additionally many of these early concepts cannot be validated through experimental means due to the lack of hardware, and must be evaluated via numerical methods. The Race Track Simulation (RTS) can be considered as the final frontier for vehicle thermal management techniques, and to date no coherent method has been published which provides an efficient means of numerically modeling the temperature behavior of components without the dependency on statistical experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Combined Computational-Experimental Approach for Modelling of Coupled Vibro-Acoustic Problems

2013-05-13
2013-01-1997
Over the past 30 years, the computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools have been applied extensively in the automotive industry. In order to accelerate time-to-market while coping with legal limits that have become increasingly restrictive over the last decades, CAE has become an indispensable tool covering all major fields in a modern automotive product design process. However, when tackling complex real-life engineering problems, the computational models might become rather involved and thus less efficient. Therefore, the overall trend in the automotive industry is currently heading towards combined approaches, which allow the best of the both worlds, namely the experimental measurement and numerical simulation, to be merged into one integrated scheme. In this paper, the so-called patch transfer function (PTF) approach is adopted to solve coupled vibro-acoustic problems. In the PTF scheme, the interfaces between fluid and structure are discretised in terms of patches.
Journal Article

Psychoacoustic Requirements for Warning Sounds of Quiet Cars

2012-06-13
2012-01-1522
According to upcoming legislative regulations in certain countries, electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will have to be equipped with devices to compensate for the lack of engine noise needed to warn pedestrians against the vehicles. This leads to the question of appropriate sound design which has to meet specific psychoacoustic requirements. The present paper focuses on auditory features of warning sounds to enhance pedestrians' safety with a major focus on the detectability of the exterior noise of the vehicle in an ambient noise. For the evaluation of detectability, the psychoacoustic model developed by Kerber and Fastl will be introduced allowing for the prediction of masked thresholds of the approaching vehicle. The instrumental assessment yields estimates of the distance of an approaching vehicle at the point it becomes audible to the pedestrians.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Assessment of BMW Validation Models using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0297
Aerodynamic performance assessment of automotive shapes is typically performed in wind tunnels. However, with the rapid progress in computer hardware technology and the maturity and accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software packages, evaluation of the production-level automotive shapes using a digital process has become a reality. As the time to market shrinks, automakers are adopting a digital design process for vehicle development. This has elevated the accuracy requirements on the flow simulation software, so that it can be used effectively in the production environment. Evaluation of aerodynamic performance covers prediction of the aerodynamic coefficients such as drag, lift, side force and also lift balance between the front and rear axle. Drag prediction accuracy is important for meeting fuel efficiency targets, prediction of front and rear lifts as well as side force and yawing moment are crucial for high speed handling.
Technical Paper

Measuring Near Zero Automotive Exhaust Emissions - Zero Is a Very Small Precise Number

2010-04-12
2010-01-1301
In the environmentally conscious world we live in, auto manufacturers are under extreme pressure to reduce tailpipe emissions from cars and trucks. The manufacturers have responded by creating clean-burning engines and exhaust treatments that mainly produce CO2 and water vapor along with trace emissions of pollutants such as CO, THC, NOx, and CH4. The trace emissions are regulated by law, and testing must be performed to show that they are below a certain level for the vehicle to be classified as road legal. Modern engine and pollution control technology has moved so quickly toward zero pollutant emissions that the testing technology is no longer able to accurately measure the trace levels of pollutants. Negative emission values are often measured for some pollutants, as shown by results from eight laboratories independently testing the same SULEV automobile.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations for Analysis of Temperature Rise on the Traction Contact Surface of Toroidal Cvts

2009-06-10
2009-01-1661
Temperature rise in traction contact areas is one important factor that influences traction coefficient. For examining the influence of temperature rise on the traction coefficient, it is necessary to first clarify temperature rise in the traction contact area. In this article, temperature rise in the traction contact areas is discussed in three major parts. First, measured temperature distributions on the traction contact surface under conditions of high rolling speed and minute amounts of sliding and spinning, such as those which are found in a toroidal CVT, using a twin-disc test machine and thin-film platinum sensors are shown. Second, the above experimental results are compared with results from a traction analysis program (REIB99). Characteristics of calculated results were qualitatively in good agreement with measured results.
Technical Paper

Virtual Validation of Assembly Processes with Digital Human Models — Optimizing the Human-Computer Interaction

2008-06-17
2008-01-1901
Today digital 3D human models are widely used to support the development of future products and in planning and designing production systems. However, these virtual models are generally not sufficiently intuitive and configuring accurate and real body postures is very time consuming. Furthermore, additionally using a human model to virtually examine manual assembly operations of a vehicle is currently synonymous with increased user inputs. In most cases, the user is required to have in-depth expertise in the deployed simulation system. In view of the problems described, in terms of human-computer interaction, it is essential to research and identify the requirements for simulation with digital human models. To this end, experienced staff members gathered the requirements which were then evaluated and weighted by the potential user community. Weaknesses of the simulation software will also be detected, permitting optimisation recommendations to be identified.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Navigation Systems with Quality Controlled Traffic Data

2008-04-14
2008-01-0200
As the popularity of vehicle navigation systems rises, incorporating Real Time Traffic Information (RTTI) has been shown to enhance the systems' value by helping drivers avoid traffic delays. As an innovative premium automaker, BMW has developed a testing process to acquire and analyze RTTI data in order to ensure delivery of a high quality service and to enhance the customer experience compared to audible broadcast services. With a methodology to obtain valid and repeatable RTTI data quality measurements, BMW and its service partner, Clear Channel's Total Traffic Network (TTN), can improve its offered service over time, implement corrective measures when appropriate, and confidently ensure the service meets its premium objectives. BMW has partnered with TTN and SoftSolutions GmbH to implement a traffic data quality process and software tools.
Technical Paper

Contemporary Crash Analysis as a Building Block in Holistic Multidisciplinary Structural Analysis

2008-04-14
2008-01-1127
The trend in the previous years showed that an ideal product is not obtained as a sum of development results of several separated disciplines but rather as a result of a holistic multidisciplinary CAE approach. In the course of the whole component development process it is necessary to consider all functions of an individual component equivalent to their importance in the system as a whole, in order to achieve both a technical and a financial optimum. The predictability and the accuracy of an individual computational method have to be regarded against the background of the entire simulation process. A continuative CAE-standard and a harmonious interaction between the different computational disciplines promise more success than focusing specifically on individual topics and thereby neglecting the “bigger picture”. This awareness provided the basis for a decision to change the entire crash simulation software to ABAQUS.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Underbody Pressure Distribution of a Series Vehicle on the Road and in the Wind Tunnel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0802
Underbody aerodynamics has become increasingly important over the last three decades because of its vital contribution to improving a vehicle's overall performance. This was the motivation for the research conducted by BMW Aerodynamics, concerning the determination of the overall pressure distribution on the underbody of a series-production vehicle. Static pressure measurements have been taken under various test conditions. Real on-road tests were carried out as well as wind tunnel experiments under application of different road simulation techniques. The analyzed vehicle configurations include wheel rim-tire and body modifications. The results presented include surface pressure data, drag and lift coefficients, ride heights, pitch and roll angles. The acquired data is used to examine the underbody flow topology and determine how the diverse attempts to represent the real on-road conditions affect its pressure distribution.
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