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Technical Paper

Multi-Domain Optimization for Fuel Economy Improvement of HD Trucks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0312
Fuel usage negatively impacts the environment and is a significant portion of operational costs of moving freight globally. Reducing fuel consumption is key to lessening environmental impacts and maximizing freight efficiency, thereby increasing the profit margin of logistic operators. In this paper, fuel economy improvements of a cab-over style 49T heavy duty Foton truck powered by a Cummins 12-liter engine are studied and systematically applied for the China market. Most fuel efficiency improvements are found within the vehicle design when compared to opportunities available at the engine level. Vehicle design (improved aerodynamics), component selection/matching (low rolling resistance tires), and powertrain electronic features integration (shift schedule/electronic trim) offer the largest opportunities for lowering fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology to Quantify and Analyze Energy Consumption of Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0116
A new generation of vehicle dynamics and powertrain control technologies are being developed to leverage information streams enabled via vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) connectivity [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. While algorithms that use these connected information streams to enable improvements in energy efficiency are being studied in detail, methodologies to quantify and analyze these improvements on a vehicle have not yet been explored fully. A procedure to test and accurately measure energy-consumption benefits of a connected and automated vehicle (CAV) is presented. The first part of the test methodology enables testing in a controlled environment. A traffic simulator is built to model traffic flow in Fort Worth, Texas with sufficient accuracy. The benefits of a traffic simulator are two-fold: (1) generation of repeatable traffic scenarios and (2) evaluation of the robustness of control algorithms by introducing disturbances.
Technical Paper

The Thermodynamic Design, Analysis and Test of Cummins’ Supertruck 2 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Engine System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0247
Current production heavy duty diesel engines have a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) between 43-46% [1]. In partnership with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Supertruck 2 program, Cummins has undertaken a research program to develop a new heavy-duty diesel engine designed to deliver greater than 50% BTE without the use of waste heat recovery. A system level optimization focused on: increased compression ratio, higher injection rate, carefully matched highly efficient turbocharging, variable lube oil pump, variable cooling components, and low restriction after treatment designed to deliver 50% BTE at a target development point. This work will also illustrate the system level planning and understanding of interactions required to allow that same 50% BTE heavy duty diesel engine to be integrated with a waste heat recovery (WHR) system to deliver system level efficiency of 55% BTE at a single point.
Technical Paper

EGR Cooler Field Return Rate Evaluation Based on Product and Application Variation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0915
The automotive industry drives some of the most stringent product requirements to ensure long product life and customer satisfaction. To demonstrate compliance with these requirements new and more accurate evaluation methods are needed. Thermal fatigue life in EGR coolers for heavy duty diesel applications have historically been a critical focus for engine OEMs. Being able to accurately evaluate product return rates due to thermal fatigue failures gives the OEM confidence that all end users will be satisfied, and allows program management to properly make fiscal decisions. Additionally, weight and cost optimization can be conducted with greater confidence. This is accomplished by accounting for product variation and application variation in thermal fatigue life evaluations. Including these variations requires a simplified numerical method to calculate product life, as tens of thousands of samples will be run through the analysis to represent real life random variation.
Technical Paper

Particle Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection Engines during Engine Start-Up (Cranking)

2019-04-02
2019-01-1182
Engine start-up (cranking) can be an important source of particle emissions from vehicles. With the penetration of GDI vehicles in the global vehicle fleet, it is important to analyze and understand the contribution of start-up particle emissions from GDI vehicles, and the potential effects of fuel properties on that process. In this work, chassis dynamometer based investigation on the effect of several gasoline fuels (commercial and blended) on both, naturally aspirated and turbocharged GDI vehicles were conducted to understand the importance of engine start up, in particular, cranking. 10 commercially available gasoline fuels were tested on a naturally aspirated 2010 model year GDI vehicle, 3 among these commercially available fuels were tested on another 2009 model year turbocharged GDI vehicle, and 8 blended gasoline fuels were tested on 12 other GDI vehicles (7 turbocharged and 5 naturally aspirated) ranging in model years 2011-2015.
Technical Paper

Review of the Computer Science and Engineering Solutions for Model Sharing and Model Co-Simulation

2019-03-19
2019-01-1352
The process of developing, parameterizing, validating, and maintaining models occurs within a wide variety of tools, and requires significant time and resources. To maximize model utilization, models are often shared between various toolsets and experts. One common example is sharing aircraft engine models with airframers. The functionality of a given model may be utilized and shared with a secondary model, or multiple models may run collaboratively through co-simulation. There are many technical challenges associated with model sharing and co-simulation. For example, data communication between models and tools must be accurate and reliable, and the model usage must be well-documented and perspicuous for a user. This requires clear communication and understanding between computer scientists and engineers. Most often, models are developed by engineers, whereas the tools used to share the models are developed by computer scientists.
Journal Article

Model-Based Approaches in Developing an Advanced Aftertreatment System: An Overview

2019-01-15
2019-01-0026
Cummins has recently launched next-generation aftertreatment technology, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system, for medium-duty and heavy-duty engines used in on-highway and off-highway applications. Besides meeting EPA 2010+ and Euro VI regulations, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system offers 60% volume and 40% weight reductions compared to current aftertreatment systems. In this work, we present model-based approaches that were systematically adopted in the design and development of the Cummins Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system. Particularly, a variety of analytical and experimental component-level and system-level validation tools have been used to optimize DOC, DPF, SCR/ASC, as well as the DEF decomposition device.
Technical Paper

Effect of Lubricant Oil on Particle Emissions from a Gasoline Direct Injection Light-Duty Vehicle

2018-09-10
2018-01-1708
Gasoline direction injection (GDI) engines have been widely used by light-duty vehicle manufacturers in recent years to meet stringent fuel economy and emissions standards. Particulate Matter (PM) mass emissions from current GDI engines are primarily composed of soot particles or black carbon with a small fraction (15% to 20%) of semi-volatile hydrocarbons generated from unburned/partially burned fuel and lubricating oil. Between 2017 and 2025, PM mass emissions regulations in the USA are expected to become progressively more stringent going down from current level of 6 mg/mile to 1 mg/mile in 2025. As PM emissions are reduced through soot reduction, lubricating oil derived semi-volatile PM is expected to become a bigger fraction of total PM mass emissions.
Technical Paper

Combined Fuel and Lubricant Effects on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

2018-09-10
2018-01-1669
Many studies on low speed pre-ignition have been published to investigate the impact of fuel properties and of lubricant properties. Fuels with high aromatic content or higher distillation temperatures have been shown to increase LSPI activity. The results have also shown that oil additives such as calcium sulfonate tend to increase the occurrence of LSPI while others such as magnesium sulfonate tend to decrease the occurrence. Very few studies have varied the fuel and oil properties at the same time. This approach is useful in isolating only the impact of the oil or the fuel, but both fluids impact the LSPI behavior of the engine simultaneously. To understand how the lubricant and fuel impacts on LSPI interact, a series of LSPI tests were performed with a matrix which combined fuels and lubricants with a range of LSPI activity. This study was intended to determine if a low activity lubricant could suppress the increased LSPI from a high activity fuel, and vice versa.
Technical Paper

Development of a Standardized Test to Evaluate the Effect of Gasoline Engine Oil on the Occurrence of Low Speed Pre-Ignition - The Sequence IX Test

2018-09-10
2018-01-1808
The study described in this paper covers the development of the Sequence IX Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) test for the new engine oil category, ILSAC GF-6. The purpose of the Sequence IX test is to evaluate a lubricant’s ability to protect against LSPI events which are prevalent when operating a highly boosted/downsized gasoline direct-injected engine. LSPI is characterized as a combustion event that starts before ignition spark, typically followed by excessive in-cylinder pressures and heavy knock, which can cause severe engine damage and failure. Industry research has shown that oil formulation can contribute to the frequency of LSPI activity. The Sequence IX test was developed using a turbocharged gasoline direct-injected 2.0 liter Ford Ecoboost engine with dual independent variable cam timing. The engine was modified with in-cylinder pressure sensors and a high-resolution crank angle encoder to characterize individual engine combustion cycles and identify potential LSPI events.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Lubricant and Coolant Pumps for Parasitic Loss Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0980
As fuel economy becomes increasingly important in all markets, complete engine system optimization is required to meet future standards. In many applications, it is difficult to realize the optimum coolant or lubricant pump without first evaluating different sets of engine hardware and iterating on the flow and pressure requirements. For this study, a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine was run in a dynamometer test cell with full variability of the production coolant and lubricant pumps. Two test stands were developed to allow the engine coolant and lubricant pumps to be fully mapped during engine operation. The pumps were removed from the engine and powered by electric motors with inline torque meters. Each fluid circuit was instrumented with volume flow meters and pressure measurements at multiple locations. After development of the pump stands, research efforts were focused on hardware changes to reduce coolant and lubricant flow requirements of the HDD engine.
Technical Paper

Reactor System with Diesel Injection Capability for DOC Evaluations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0647
Plug flow reactors, simulating engine exhaust gas, are widely used in emissions control research to gain insight into the reaction mechanisms and engineering aspects that controls activity, selectivity, and durability of catalyst components. The choice of relevant hydrocarbon (HC) species is one of the most challenging factor in such laboratory studies, given the variety of compositions that can be encountered in different application scenarios. Furthermore, this challenge is amplified by the experimental difficulties related to introducing heavier and multi-component HCs and analyzing the reaction products.
Technical Paper

Sustained Low Temperature NOx Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0341
Sustained NOx reduction at low temperatures, especially in the 150-200 °C range, shares some similarities with the more commonly discussed cold-start challenge, however, poses a number of additional and distinct technical problems. In this project, we set a bold target of achieving and maintaining 90% NOx conversion at the SCR catalyst inlet temperature of 150 °C. This project is intended to push the boundaries of the existing technologies, while staying within the realm of realistic future practical implementation. In order to meet the resulting challenges at the levels of catalyst fundamentals, system components, and system integration, Cummins has partnered with the DOE, Johnson Matthey, and Pacific Northwest National Lab and initiated the Sustained Low-Temperature NOx Reduction program at the beginning of 2015 and completed in 2017.
Technical Paper

Durability Test Suite Optimization Based on Physics of Failure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0792
Dynamometer (dyno) durability testing plays a significant role in reliability and durability assessment of commercial engines. Frequently, durability test procedures are based on warranty history and corresponding component failure modes. Evolution of engine designs, operating conditions, electronic control features, and diagnostic limits have created challenges to historical-based testing approaches. A physics-based methodology, known as Load Matrix, is described to counteract these challenges. The technique, developed by AVL, is based on damage factor models for subsystem and component failure modes (e.g. fatigue, wear, degradation, deposits) and knowledge of customer duty cycles. By correlating dyno test to field conditions in quantifiable terms, such as customer equivalent miles, more effective and efficient durability test suites and test procedures can be utilized. To this end, application of Load Matrix to a heavy-duty diesel engine is presented.
Technical Paper

Dilute Measurement of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2393
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) are a group of compounds in engine exhaust that either form during combustion or are part of the fuel and lubricating oil. Since these compounds occur at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust, the methods for sampling, handling, and analyzing these compounds are critical to obtaining good results. An improved dilute exhaust sampling method was used for sampling and analyzing SVOC in engine exhaust, and this method was performed during transient engine operation. A total of 22 different SVOC were measured using a 2012 medium-duty diesel engine. This engine was equipped with a stock diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in series. Exhaust concentrations for SVOC were compared both with and without exhaust aftertreatment. Concentrations for the engine-out SVOC were significantly higher than with the aftertreatment present.
Technical Paper

Future Challenges for Engine Manufacturers in View of Future Emissions Legislation

2017-05-10
2017-01-1923
Countries around the world are expected to continue to adopt more stringent emissions standards for heavy-duty markets for both oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and greenhouse gases (GHG). While there is uncertainty about the timing and extent of these regulations, it is clear that significant reductions will be required to address urban air pollution and climate change concerns. The rate and pace of technology evolution and how it will affect the energy pathways for commercial transportation and industrial use are dependent on multiple variables such as national energy and environmental policies and public-private partnerships. Although it adds complexity, the engine system has great potential to evolve as it continues to be highly integrated into the super system for which it is producing power. This paper examines the potential opportunities and challenges for engine manufacturers to continue to be the supplier of power to vehicles and equipment of the future.
Technical Paper

Axial NO2 Utilization Measurements within a Partial Flow Filter during Passive Regeneration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0988
Measuring axial exhaust species concentration distributions within a wall-flow aftertreatment device provides unique and significant insights regarding the performance of complex devices like the SCR-on-filter. In this particular study, a less complex aftertreatment configuration which includes a DOC followed by two uncoated partial flow filters (PFF) was used to demonstrate the potential and challenges. The PFF design in this study was a particulate filter with alternating open and plugged channels. A SpaciMS [1] instrument was used to measure the axial NO2 profiles within adjacent open and plugged channels of each filter element during an extended passive regeneration event using a full-scale engine and catalyst system. By estimating the mass flow through the open and plugged channels, the axial soot load profile history could be assessed.
Journal Article

Engine Oil Fuel Economy Testing - A Tale of Two Tests

2017-03-28
2017-01-0882
Fuel economy is not an absolute attribute, but is highly dependent on the method used to evaluate it. In this work, two test methods are used to evaluate the differences in fuel economy brought about by changes in engine oil viscosity grade and additive chemistry. The two test methods include a chassis dynamometer vehicle test and an engine dynamometer test. The vehicle testing was conducted using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing protocol while the engine dynamometer test uses the proposed American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Sequence VIE fuel economy improvement 1 (FEI1) testing methodology. In an effort to improve agreement between the two testing methods, the same model engine was used in both test methods, the General Motors (GM) 3.6 L V6 (used in the 2012 model year Chevrolet™ Malibu™ engine). Within the lubricant industry, this choice of engine is reinforced because it has been selected for use in the proposed Sequence VIE fuel economy test.
Journal Article

The Impact of Lubricant Volatility, Viscosity and Detergent Chemistry on Low Speed Pre-Ignition Behavior

2017-03-28
2017-01-0685
The impact of additive and oil chemistry on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) was evaluated. An additive metals matrix varied the levels of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), calcium sulfonate, and molybdenum within the range of commercially available engine lubricants. A separate test matrix varied the detergent chemistry (calcium vs. magnesium), lubricant volatility, and base stock chemistry. All lubricants were evaluated on a LSPI test cycle developed by Southwest Research Institute within its Pre-Ignition Prevention Program (P3) using a GM LHU 2.0 L turbocharged GDI engine. It was observed that increasing the concentration of calcium leads to an increase in the LSPI rate. At low calcium levels, near-zero LSPI rates were observed. The addition of zinc and molybdenum additives had a negative effect on the LSPI rate; however, this was only seen at higher calcium concentrations.
Journal Article

Design and Implementation of a D-EGR® Mixer for Improved Dilution and Reformate Distribution

2017-03-28
2017-01-0647
The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine has shown improved efficiency and emissions while minimizing the challenges of traditional cooled EGR. The concept combines the benefits of cooled EGR with additional improvements resulting from in-cylinder fuel reformation. The fuel reformation takes place in the dedicated cylinder, which is also responsible for producing the diluents for the engine (EGR). The D-EGR system does present its own set of challenges. Because only one out of four cylinders is providing all of the dilution and reformate for the engine, there are three “missing” EGR pulses and problems with EGR distribution to all 4 cylinders exist. In testing, distribution problems were realized which led to poor engine operation. To address these spatial and temporal mixing challenges, a distribution mixer was developed and tested which improved cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variation of EGR rate through improved EGR distribution.
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