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Technical Paper

Downhill Safety Assistant Driving System for Battery Electric Vehicles on Mountain Roads

2019-09-15
2019-01-2129
When driving in mountainous areas, vehicles often encounter downhill conditions. To ensure safe driving, it is necessary to control the speed of vehicles. For internal combustion engine vehicles, auxiliary brake such as engine brake can be used to alleviate the thermal load caused by the continuous braking of the friction brake. For battery electric vehicles (BEVs), regenerative braking can be used as auxiliary braking to improve brake safety. And through regenerative braking, energy can be partly converted into electrical energy and stored in accumulators (such as power batteries and supercapacitors), thus extending the mileage. However, the driver's line of sight in the mountains is limited, resulting in a certain degree of blindness in driving, so it is impossible to fully guarantee the safety and energy saving of downhill driving.
Technical Paper

Lifetime Prediction Modeling of Automotive Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

2019-04-02
2019-01-0385
Knowledge about the health conditions and expected lifetime of an operating fuel cell stack is essential to system control and maintenance of a fuel cell vehicle. To quickly and accurately estimate a stack’s lifetime, a data-driven prediction model for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is proposed in this study. In this model, the voltage output of the fuel cell stack is taken as the lifetime evaluation index. Two methods are used to establish the lifetime decay evaluation criteria of the PEMFC stack, i.e., (1) Least Squares Fitting (LSF) method that establishes the standard for stack voltage degradation behavior, and (2) Back Propagation (BP) neural network that learns the stack’s voltage decay characteristics and establishes the standard for the stack’s voltage degradation behavior. The Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) time series model is then employed to learn part of the known decay behavior of stack voltage so as to predict future stack decay.
Technical Paper

A Non-Contact Overload Identification Method Based on Vehicle Dynamics

2019-04-02
2019-01-0490
The vehicle overload seriously jeopardizes traffic safety and affects traffic efficiency. At present, the static weighing station and weigh-in-motion station are both relatively fixed, so the detection efficiency is not high and the traffic efficiency is affected; the on-board dynamic weighing equipment is difficult to be popularized because of the problem of being deliberately damaged or not accepted by the purchaser. This paper proposes an efficient, accurate, non-contact vehicle overload identification method which can keep the road unimpeded. The method can detect the vehicle overload by the relative distance (as the characteristic distance) between the dynamic vehicle's marking line and the road surface. First, the dynamics model of the vehicle suspension is set up. Then, the dynamic characteristic distance of the traffic vehicle is detected from the image acquired by the calibrated camera based on computer vision and image recognition technology.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption Optimization for the Electric Vehicle Air Conditioning Using the Condensate Water

2019-04-02
2019-01-0148
In summer, the relatively low temperature water condenses in the evaporator when the vehicle air-conditioning (AC) is running. At present, the vehicle AC condensate water without well utilization is directly wasted. The condenser’s thermal transfer performance has a great influence on the AC performance, and to increase the convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) is the key to its design. In this paper, a method of using atomized condensate water (CW) to enhance the condenser’s thermal transfer performance is proposed, which can make the most of the CW's cold energy. It achieves the reuse of CW and increases the condenser’s CHTC. First, the CW flow calculation model in the evaporator and the calculation model of the condenser enhanced thermal transfer using atomized CW are both set up. The influence of the evaporation degree of atomized CW particles in the air on the enhancement effect is comprehensively considered.
Technical Paper

Robust Model Predictive Control for Path Tracking of Autonomous Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0693
Path tracking is one of the critical technologies in the autonomous vehicle. Its performance may be seriously affected by disturbance resulting from unpredictable environment like changes in road friction coefficient and parameter uncertainty such as cornering stiffness and mass caused by errors of measurement. Besides, since the vehicle system consisting of many systems is an extremely complex nonlinear system, it is almost impossible for us to establish a precise model of a vehicle especially when it is moving. These inevitable factors influence the control accuracy and even threaten the stability and safety of the vehicle system. This paper proposed a promising solution to this problem, robust MPC (Model Predictive Control) combined with the optimal preview controller for path tracking problems of an autonomous vehicle. The state space model in tracking error variables of a passenger vehicle used for path tracking application is established.
Technical Paper

Calibration and Stitching Methods of Around View Monitor System of Articulated Multi-Carriage Road Vehicle for Intelligent Transportation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0873
The around view monitor (AVM) system for the long-body road vehicle with multiple articulated carriages usually suffers from the incomplete distortion rectification of fisheye cameras and the irregular image stitching area caused by the change of relative position of the cameras on different carriages while the vehicle is in motion. In response to these problems, a set of calibration and stitching methods of AVM are proposed. First, a radial-distortion-based rectification method is adopted and improved. This method establishes two lost functions and solves the model parameters with the two-step optimization method. Then, AVM system calibration is conducted, and the perspective transformation matrix is calculated. After that, a static basic look-up table is generated based on the distortion rectification model and perspective transformation matrix.
Technical Paper

Development and Research of Laser Ranging Vehicle Driving Deviation Test System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0926
Before the new car rolls from the line, due to assembly errors, inaccurate four-wheel positioning, etc., the vehicle will run off on a flat road, which will affect the driving comfort and safety. At present, most automobile manufacturers choose to perform the deviation test in the process of vehicle rolls from the line. Compared with other detection methods, the online deviation test system is developed with high precision of laser ranging, fast response and good reliability, which can realize fast and high-precision detection of vehicle deviation. In this paper, test system software is developed based on the LABVIEW, a variety of communication methods to build the communication system, using information check and queue task processing to control, to meet the test needs. Firstly, the calculation model of the deviation of the test system is established.
Technical Paper

Passenger Cabin’s Parking Cooling System Based on TEC and Air Conditioning Condensate Water

2019-04-02
2019-01-1066
In the passenger cabin of the parking under the summer sun, the air’s average temperature will reach about 60°C. Such temperature can cause discomfort to the person who has just entered the passenger cabin, also can damage components of the passenger cabin. The reason for this phenomenon is because it is not convective with the outside air. Some vehicles use the electric power to drive the blower in order to ventilate, but the air’s temperature of cabin is so high that the blower’s effect of ventilation is limited. The system proposes to use solar energy to drive the automobile blower and the thermoelectric cooler(TEC) in order to cool the cabin’s air, and use the air-conditioning condensate water collected during the driving process to cool the TEC’s hot end to improve the cooling efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of Parametrically Integrated Software Platform for Passenger Car Brake System

2019-04-02
2019-01-1231
The hydraulic servo brake system for passenger car plays a central role in occupant protection, which directly affects the automotive active safety and road handling. In this paper, an integrated parameterized software platform of hydraulic servo brake systems is proposed to realize fast and efficient braking system development. At first, according to the structure and working principle of the hydraulic servo brake system, the relationship among amount of fluid required for brake caliper, pedal feel and performance of the brake system is analyzed. Then, based on kinematics and dynamics of the hydraulic servo brake system, a simulation model for analyze pedal feel and amount of fluid required for brake caliper is built in AMESim, which is composed of brake pedal, vacuum booster, brake master cylinder, brake hoses and brake calipers, etc.
Technical Paper

Differential Speed Steering Control for Four-Wheel Distributed Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-1235
In order to perform differential control instead of the mechanical differential and improve the steering performance of distributed electric vehicles, a two-level differential speed steering control strategy is proposed. Firstly, an upper-layer controller to track the yaw rate is designed based on PID feedback and 3-D lookup table model, which could shorten the response time and reduce the impact of model parameters mismatch. Then, in order to improve the robustness to external disturbances and parameter uncertainties, a lower-layer controller to track the wheel speed is proposed based on integral sliding mode control. Moreover, three simulations are conducted to validate the proposed strategy. The first simulation results indicate that the driving torques of the inner and outer wheels are distributed properly to avoid wheel slip. In the second simulation, when the conventional steering system fails, the proposed control strategy could avoid vehicle losing steering function.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Passive Low Power Phase Change Heat Dissipation Method for Electric Vehicle Motor

2019-04-02
2019-01-1256
The electric vehicle motor is developing toward high power density, at the same time brings serious temperature rise problem, which affect the driving motor performance, efficiency, and useful life. Liquid cooling is usually used to solve the problem, but its energy consumption is large and the reliability is poor. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a heat dissipation method to improve the reliability and energy efficiency of the driving motor heat dissipation system. The method uses heat pipes heat transfer, and the heat pipes cold end are cooled by vehicle facing the wind. By establishing the motor temperature rise model, heat transfer model and vehicle dynamics model, this paper analyzes the maximum temperature region and reliability of the driving motor heat dissipation system, calculates and analyzes the efficiency of the driving motor under different driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Circumferential Magnetic Field on Braking Performance of a Direct Vane Magnetorheological Fluid Retarder

2019-04-02
2019-01-0342
The hydraulic retarder used in commercial vehicles can provide hydraulic damping to generate braking torque, reducing the pressure of the braking system on the slope section and increasing the safety. In this paper, the magnetorheological fluid with fast magnetic field reflection characteristics is used to increase the response speed of the hydraulic retarder, which can effectively reduce the response time of the hydraulic retarder. In this paper, the influence of the change of circumferential magnetic field on the braking torque of the magnetorheological fluid retarder is studied.
Technical Paper

Road Sign Recognition System Based on Wavelet Transform and OPSA Point Set Distance

2018-08-07
2018-01-1609
Signage recognition is one of the hot topics in recent years. It has important applications in intelligent traffic and autonomous driving of smart cars. This paper designs a road marking recognition method combining OPSA point set distance and wavelet transform. The method consists of three main phases: 1) image denoising, restoration, 2) feature extraction, and 3) image recognition. First, a Gaussian-smoothing filter used to attenuate or remove irrelevant information in the image, enhance related information in the image, and achieve image denoising. In the feature extraction stage, the feature extraction and recognition method based on wavelet transform adopted to overcome the deficiency of the traditional Fourier feature extraction method, ensure that high frequency information is not lost, and low frequency information is not lost. Finally, the OSPA point set used to identify distance markers.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of an Ambulance with Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0815
The vibration and instability experienced in an ambulance can lead to secondary injury to a patient and discourage a paramedic from emergency care. This paper presents a hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system which can achieve enhanced cooperative control of roll, pitch and bounce motion modes to improve the ambulance's ride comfort and handling performance. A lumped-mass model integrated with a mechanical and hydraulic coupled system is developed by using free-body diagram and transfer matrix methods. The mechanical-fluid boundary condition in the double-acting cylinders is modelled as an external force on the mechanical system and a moving boundary on the fluid system. A special modal analysis method is employed to reveal the vibration characteristics of the ambulance with the HIS.
Technical Paper

Parallel Thermal Management System of the Water Medium Retarder

2018-04-03
2018-01-0777
The thermal management system of the water medium retarder using engine coolant (water and ethylene glycol) as transmission medium, omits oil-water heat exchanger in the structure. When the hydraulic retarder is operated, the valve is connected with the retarder and water pump, and then the engine coolant enters the working chamber. The kinetic energy of the vehicle is converted into internal energy of the coolant, and the heat is discharged to the external environment through the engine thermal management system. The braking torque of the water medium hydraulic retarder is determined by the water medium flow rate in the working chamber. The smaller the valve opening degree, the greater the braking torque and the faster the heating transmission fluid. Small valve opening is not conducive to the loss of heat. It will affect the normal working of the engine and hydraulic retarder.
Technical Paper

Simulation Research of a Hydraulic Interconnected Suspension Based on a Hydraulic Energy Regenerative Shock Absorber

2018-04-03
2018-01-0582
The current paper proposes a hydraulic interconnected suspension system (HIS) based on a hydraulic energy-regenerative shock absorber (HESA) comparatively with the passive suspensions. The structure and working principles of the HIS system are introduced in order to investigate the damping performance and energy regeneration characteristics of the proposed system. Then, the dynamic characteristics of the HIS-HESA system have been investigated based on a 4-DOF longitudinal half vehicle model. In the simulation, two different road inputs were used in the dynamic characterization of the HIS-HESA; the warp sinusoidal excitation, and the random road signal. In addition, a comparative analysis was provided for the dynamic responses of the half vehicle model for both the HIS-HESA and the conventional suspension. Furthermore, a parametric analysis of the HIS-HESA has been carried out highlining the key parameters that have a remarkable effect on the HIS-HESA performance.
Technical Paper

Energy-Harvesting Potential and Vehicle Dynamics Conflict Analysis under Harmonic and Random Road Excitations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0568
Energy has the worldwide concern since the World War. Recently, the energy harvesting technology has got more attraction in different fields and applications. Hence, in a world where energy becomes rare and expensive, even the small quantities are worth to be harvested where it can be exploited in different applications. Vehicle suspension is one of the vibration power dissipation sources in which the undesired vibration is dissipated into heat waste. Accordingly, the principal motivation of this study is exploitation the conflict between the potentially harvested power and vehicle dynamics in automotive suspension system induced by road irregularity. Therefore, in terms of RMS conflict diagrams, the conflict between the potential power and vehicle dynamics are sufficiently and comprehensively defined considering a vehicle speed of 20 m/s.
Technical Paper

Lateral Dynamics and Suspension Tuning for a Two-Axle Bus Fitted with Roll-Resistant Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension

2018-04-03
2018-01-0831
In this paper, a new roll-plane hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system is proposed to enhance the roll and lateral dynamics of a two-axle bus. It is well-known that the suspension tuning is of great importance in the design process and has also been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for suspension tuning for the newly proposed HIS system especially considering lateral stability. This study aims to explore lateral dynamics and suspension tuning of a two-axle bus with HIS system, which could also provide valuable information for roll dynamics analysis. Based on a ten-DOFs lumped-mass full-car model of a bus either integrating transient mechanical-hydraulic model for HIS or the traditional suspension components, three newly promoted parameters of HIS system are defined and analyzed-namely the total roll stiffness (TRS), roll stiffness distribution ratio (RSDR) and roll-plane damping (RPD).
Technical Paper

Study on the Key Preload Performance Parameters of an Active Reversible Preload Seatbelt (ARPS)

2018-04-03
2018-01-1175
In order to provide an improved countermeasure for occupant protection, a new type of active reversible preload seatbelt (ARPS) is presented in this paper. The ARPS is capable of protecting occupants by reducing injuries during frontal collisions. ARPS retracts seatbelt webbing by activating an electric motor attached to the seatbelt retractor. FCW (Forward Collision Warning) and LDW (Lane Departure Warning) provide signals as a trigger to activate the electric motor to retract the seatbelt webbing, thus making the occupant restraint system work more effectively in a crash. It also helps reduce occupant’s forward movement during impact process via braking. Four important factors such as preload force, preload velocity and the length and timing of webbing retraction play influential roles in performance of the ARPS. This paper focuses on studying preload performance of ARPS under various test conditions to investigate effects of the aforementioned factors.
Technical Paper

An SVM-Based Method Combining AEB and Airbag Systems to Reduce Injury of Unbelted Occupants

2018-04-03
2018-01-1171
An autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system can detect emergency conditions using sensors (e.g., radar and camera) to automatically activate the braking actuator without driver input. However, during the hard braking phase, crash conditions for the restraint system can easily change (e.g., vehicle velocity and occupant position), causing an out-of-position (OOP) phenomenon, especially for unbelted occupants entering the airbag deployment range, which may lead to more severe injuries than in a normal position. A critical step in reducing the injury of unbelted occupants would be to design an AEB system while considering the effect of deployed airbags on the occupants. Thus far, few studies have paid attention to the compatibility between AEB and airbag systems for unbelted occupants. This study aims to provide a method that combines AEB and airbag systems to explore the potential injury reduction capabilities for unbelted occupants.
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