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Technical Paper

A Trend Line Analysis of the Insertion Loss Test Data and Application to Sound Transmission Loss Simulation

2022-06-15
2022-01-0959
In this paper, an application process is studied at which insertion loss (IL) test data of sound barrier assemblies are utilized for the sound transmission loss (STL) simulation of the trimmed dash structure. The considered sound barrier assemblies were composed of a felt layer, a mass layer, and a decoupler layer. Flat samples of sound barrier assemblies with several different thicknesses were prepared, and ILs of them were measured by using a sound transmission loss facility. Flat samples were assumed to have mass-spring resonance frequencies. The mass was set as the area mass of the sound barrier layer of the felt layer and the mass layer. The spring constant of the decoupler layer was assumed as the multiplication of that of an air spring and a spring correction factor. At the beginning, the spring correction factor was assumed to be 1, and the measured IL data vs frequencies are converted to IL data vs frequency ratios, frequency f over the resonance frequency fres.
Technical Paper

Using Analytical Techniques to Understand the Impacts Intelligent Thermal Management Has on Piston NVH

2022-06-15
2022-01-0930
In order to align with net-zero CO2 ambitions, automotive OEMs have been developing increasingly sophisticated strategies to minimise the impact that combustion engines have on the environment. Intelligent thermal management systems have a positive impact on friction generated in the power cylinder by improving the warmup rate of cylinder liners and heads. This increase in temperature results in an improved frictional performance and cycle averaged fuel consumption, but also increases the dynamic piston to liner clearance and therefore the propensity for piston slap. In low temperatures this piston slap can substantially decrease the NVH quality to unacceptable levels. Using analytical techniques, it is possible to model the thermo-structural and NVH response of the power cylinder with different warm up strategies.
Technical Paper

High-bandwidth Mechanical Hardware-in-the-Loop Emulation of Structural Dynamics for More Efficient NVH Development and Testing

2022-06-15
2022-01-0953
Numerical simulations offer a wide range of benefits. Therefore, they are widely used in research and development. One of the biggest benefits is the possibility of automated parameter variation. This allows testing different scenarios in a very short period of time. Nevertheless, physical experiments in the laboratory or on a test rig are still necessary and will still be necessary in the future. The physical experiments offer benefits e.g. for very complex and/or nonlinear systems and are needed for the validation of numerical models. In order to enhance the quality of experimental NVH investigations and to make use of the benefits numerical simulation during experimental investigations at the same time, numerical models can be integrated into physical test rigs by means of the mechanical hardware-in-the-loop (mHIL) method (also referred to as real-time dynamic substructuring, hybrid testing or active control of impedance).
Technical Paper

A Conceptual Analysis in the Early Design Stage for the Road-Noise Reduction using FRF-Based Substructuring

2022-03-29
2022-01-0312
NVH analysis based on numerical simulations before actual test vehicle is available becomes common process in the automotive industry. Furthermore, the latest work scope is extending even to conceptual study in the very early design stage, beyond traditional numerical simulations simply using 3-D CAD data. In case when reasonable information is provided at this very early vehicle development stage, a better decision on the design concept would be possible, and subsequent design process can be carried out in more efficient manner. The core of this trend is that it allows us to predict vehicle performance at the conceptual design stage without 3-D CAD data, and then, with this prediction, to suggest meaningful design directions for next stage. From this point of view, FRF-Based Substructuring (FBS) methodology has potential to be used as an appropriate tool for this purpose.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Improvement of EV One-Pedal Driving System Interface and Cost Reduction

2022-03-29
2022-01-0645
In this study it will show, big data analysis and user survey of driving records were conducted to investigate frequency of use and ease of operation of the regen paddle to control one-pedal driving system in electric vehicle. According to 3.8 million driving record big data analysis result, it was found that the driver manipulates 3.31 times on average during a single trip, mainly during the early stages of driving. According to user observation research result in 41.8% of participants did not used or used less than 5 time of regen paddle during one single trip. Also 336 participants, which occupy 83%, responded that the regen paddle manipulation for one-pedal driving was inconvenient. In conclusion, because of the use frequency of the regen paddle is low and the operation of regen paddle is inconvenient. It seems necessary to change the design of the regen paddle.
Technical Paper

A Development of SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) Model and Its Applications

2022-03-29
2022-01-0557
A physics-based model for SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was developed based on five independent SGB (Synthetic Gas Bench) tests. There are NH3 adsorption & desorption test, NO oxidation test, NH3 oxidation test, SCR reaction (NOx & NH3) test and SV (Space Velocity) test. To validate the accuracy of SCR model’s prediction, transient reactor tests were conducted at four different input conditions. A newly developed SCR model showed more than 90% prediction accuracy in transient test conditions in view of cumulative NOx. Validation of SCR model was conducted on 1.6L light duty diesel vehicle in the WLTC (Worldwide Harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle). Based upon this SCR model, vehicle level SCR calibrations used for urea dosing control were made and validated in the emission test cycles like WLTC.
Technical Paper

Development of a Prediction Model for Tire Tread Pattern Noise Based on Convolutional Neural Network with RMSProp Algorithm

2022-03-29
2022-01-0884
Tire tread pattern noise is a major source of road noise generated by motor vehicles. Recently, noise control technology has been developing, and low-noise motor vehicles, such as electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles, have been commercialized. The importance of low-noise tires has increased since regulations R117 for tire noise and R51.03 for motor vehicle noise have been strengthened. To evaluate the tire noise in the development stage of motor vehicles, finished products of tires are required; hence, financial and time costs should be invested. Therefore, it is highly useful to predict tire noise levels in the early stages. Recently, a technology to predict the tire pattern noise using a supervised training method of artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed. The tire tread depth is estimated using the shading of the full image of the actual tire, and the leading edge of the contact patch is calculated using tire contact patch images.
Technical Paper

A Study to Reduce the Minimum Distance of the Vehicle Sensor’s Detecting Range Using a Prior Estimation Method

2022-03-29
2022-01-0072
As autonomous driving vehicles are developed, automotive makers start focusing on implementing new door types, such as a falcon wing door or a B-pillarless dual sliding door, which could be one of the best-selling points. To make these doors electrically operate, applying advanced sensors like a RADAR or an Ultrasonic sensor is almost mandatory. Without these sensors, the door could be easily damaged or the customers could be seriously injured. Due to physical limitation, however, every sensor has a noise in nearby area and has a specification of the minimum detection range, which causes us not to be able to precisely detect the object in close area. If the controller cannot detect the precise distance of the object, the door could malfunction, since it could misidentify the obstacles. In this paper, we propose a method to reduce the minimum detection range by applying a prior estimation scheme.
Technical Paper

Lateral Control of a Commercial Vehicle Using Feedback Augmented Disturbance Observer

2022-03-29
2022-01-0097
In the path following problem, a commercial vehicle has a delay of a hydraulic steering actuator and slow steering response accordingly. In addition, there are disturbances due to the harsh driving conditions of commercial vehicles. These disturbances may include uncertainties about actuator dynamic delay, modeling error and steering angle sensor offset. Designing a lateral controller with good performance that can overcome this problem is the key to successfully carrying out autonomous driving of commercial vehicles. Usually, it is difficult to consider disturbances with uncertainties in the geometric based control methods. Therefore, this paper proposed a lateral controller using feedback augmented disturbance observer for the commercial vehicle. First, a dynamics was modeled which can describe delay of the hydraulic actuator of the commercial vehicle. After that, a lateral controller was designed based on this dynamics model.
Technical Paper

Development of the Frontal Crash Performance of Vehicle by Simplified Crash Model

2022-03-29
2022-01-0871
This study presents a design methodology to predict the crash behavior of mid-size sedan with a simplified crash model. Without detailed conventional finite element, the simplified crash model can be adopted in the early stage of the vehicle design. Designing vehicle structure to satisfy crash performance target is highly complex problem in the early design stage, because of the nonlinear mechanical behavior, high number of degrees-of-freedom, lack of information and boundary conditions changing over the following development process. In this study, the front structure of the vehicle is divided into load-carrying members and the rigid element through the analysis of load-carrying mechanism, and its physical property (force-displacement relation) is parameterized as the property of the non-linear discrete beam element of the LS-DYNA. The effectiveness of the proposed research is shown by the example of the mid-size sedan.
Technical Paper

A Development of Spindle Drive Power Trunk Lid System with Optimizing Operation Noise

2022-03-29
2022-01-0759
The power trunk lid system is a device that automatically opens and closes the trunk lid by motor, for the purpose to improve user’s convenience. This technology was applied only to high-end large cars such as Equus and Genesis. But as preference for high convenience features increases, the scope of application is gradually expanding to semi-large and mid-sized cars. Therefore, the necessity of securing profitability through cost reduction was emerged, and it made us to develop the power trunk lid system by spindle drives. Compared to the conventional swing arm drive type, the spindle drive type may achieve cost savings, lightness and easy of assembly by optimizing the required motor specifications. However, since it uses a planetary gear with high gear ratio and the high rotation speed of the motor, operating noise is relatively large.
Technical Paper

Development of a Built-In Type Dashboard Camera with Reliability and Usability

2022-03-29
2022-01-0111
Dashcam, which is considered essential parts of vehicles in Korea, are installed in most vehicles for proofs of accidents or threatened driving of other vehicles, and insurance premiums. Also global market is growing continuously. Aftermarket dashcams have been developed with many improvements such as higher resolution camera and a LCD, however still have technical limitations in usability and durability. The First limitation is that the dashcam which mounted on windshield can be separated and injure at an accident due to a collision impact, and the device obstructs the driver's vision. In addition, the connection of the power supply may cause a vehicle damages such as a fire due to a worker's mistake or a product defect. Secondly, in order to replay the recorded video, it is not easy to remove the SD card and check it on the computer. Moreover, since the LCD is so small, it is difficult to search and replay the wanted video from the list in many files.
Technical Paper

Customer Complaints Analysis Using Textmining Method

2022-03-29
2022-01-0130
In recent years, the automobile industry has been making efforts to develop vehicles that satisfy customers' emotions rather than malfunctions. The Vehicle Dependability Study(VDS) has been strengthened emotion items since the introduction of the new evaluation system VDS3 from 2015. The ratio of emotion items increased from 11% to 25%. In order to clarify the problem and cause of emotion items, we analyzed verbatim which is the customers' complaint data provided by J.D power every year, but it was difficult to extract customers' intention because the number of verbatim is small and expressed in terms of customer’s term rather than engineer’s term. To solve the problem, we are additionally colleting big data such as internet, warranty, online survey. Since the amount of data is very large, we developed textmining techniques such as dictionary, topic, Support Vector Machine(SVM), n-gram to improve process.
Technical Paper

Development of Vehicle Thermal Management Model for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Electric Vehicle

2022-03-29
2022-01-0201
Recently, automobile manufacturers are interested in the development of battery electric vehicle (BEV) having a longer mileage to satisfy customer needs. The BEV with high efficiency depends on the temperature of the electric components. Hence it is important to study the effect of the cooling system in electric vehicle in order to optimize efficiency and performance. In this study, we present a 1-D vehicle thermal management (VTM) simulation model. The individual vehicle subsystems were modeled including cooling, power electric (PE), mechanical, and control components. Each component was integrated into a single VTM model and it would be used to calculate energy transfer among electrical, thermal, and mechanical energy. As a result, this simulation model predicts a plenty of information including the state of each component such as temperature, energy consumption, and operating point about electric vehicle depending on driving cycles and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

3rd Generation Genesis Seat Development

2022-03-29
2022-01-0811
Based on the success of the second-generation Genesis G80 model, Hyundai Motor has declared the independence of Genesis as a luxury car brand in 2015. The third-generation G80 is the representative model of the Genesis brand and has a unique identity of Genesis that can surpass its competitors. In addition, it was necessary to develop seats that were considered not only for ICE but also for the scalability of electric vehicles. A newly formed Genesis organization established the Genesis design philosophy of its own. Four key elements of the design philosophy were comfort, aesthetics, usability and safety. The third-generation Genesis seats incorporate its design philosophy of seat design and new technologies based on comfort, aesthetics, usability, and safety. This paper describes the seat development of the Ergo Motion seat, Rear Seat Relaxtion(Relax + Position), Seat Syling, AVN switch display and PSS(pre-active safety seat )system, which are representative technologies.
Technical Paper

Body Cross-Sectional Stiffness Criteria for the Optimal Development of the BIW Weight and Torsional Stiffness

2021-04-06
2021-01-0797
Body-in-white plays a key role in protecting passengers in the event of collision between vehicles, and also endures external forces during cornering in a vehicle. Stiffness of body-in-white is the basic characteristic of a car body, and it is closely related to the full-vehicle-level performance such as body durability, ride and handling, etc. There have been many attempts to correlate body stiffness to full-vehicle-level performance, and studying the relationship between torsional body stiffness and durability has been the popular topic among others. In general, it is believed to be true that bodies with high torsional stiffness exhibit good durability performance, and in many cases this assumption seems to be verified. However, not all cases are true to this assumption. In this paper, relationship between torsional body stiffness and body durability has been closely studied.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Driver IC in LED Rear Combination Lamp for Circuit Standardization

2021-04-06
2021-01-0849
Today, many automakers are using LED lamp sources in exterior lamps to establish brand awareness and introduce specialized lamp designs. These eye-catching LED lamp source solutions require many control functions as the lamp functions are diversified and advanced, and accordingly the requirements for standardization and optimization of controllers are increasing. In particular, our LED rear combination lamps have a variety of LED loads according to the design of the lamp model, the installation position, and the diagnostic regulations, so that the design complexity and the number of specifications of the controller are increased [4]. In recent years, more and more aesthetic designs and new technologies are used by various automakers to optimize their controllers in cooperation with global partners to optimize costs [1].
Technical Paper

Robust Control of Commercial Vehicle’s Speed Using Disturbance Observer

2021-04-06
2021-01-0965
This paper proposes a speed controller using a disturbance observer to regulate the speed of a commercial vehicles, and presents vehicle test results to evaluate the performance of the proposed controller. Most ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) and automated driving systems need to reliably regulate the vehicle's speed under any circumstances. A conventional PID controller is commonly used to control the vehicle speed, but performance of it varies depending on changes in external conditions. Commercial vehicles are even more susceptible to these changes than passenger cars and more difficult to obtain an accurate plant model. Considering these features, a speed controller using a disturbance observer is designed for commercial vehicles. The proposed controller treats changes in external conditions as disturbances. The modeling uncertainty is also treated as a disturbance.
Journal Article

On the Aerodynamics of the Notchback Open Cooling DrivAer: A Detailed Investigation of Wind Tunnel Data for Improved Correlation and Reference

2021-04-06
2021-01-0958
Since the introduction of the DrivAer in 2012 this model has become the standard generic aerodynamic benchmark and aerodynamic research model used by automotive OEMs, software vendors and researchers. In 2017, the relevance of the DrivAer has been furthered by the inclusion of a simplified engine bay. Whilst the DrivAer has become the popular standard, the availability of detailed wind tunnel test data, a key enabler for more sophisticated aerodynamic benchmarking and research, remains limited. This paper presents a comprehensive set of wind tunnel test data of the notchback version of the Ford Open Cooling DrivAer, including aerodynamic force measurements, detailed surface pressure measurements and flow field measurements at 3 cross-sections in the vicinity of the model. In addition, the paper will discuss the sensitivity of the experimental data to wind tunnel repeatability and facility-to-facility variations.
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