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Technical Paper

The Dynamic Stability Index Calculator for Agricultural Tractors Equipped with Front End Loader

2019-11-21
2019-28-2420
The study aims to evaluate the lateral stability of tractor-front end loader system in consideration with difficult work conditions based on various loader bucket lifting heights from ground while driving a system on transversal slopes. In the proposed method the centre of gravity of tractor-front end loader system was calculated and analysed to evaluate the transversal overturning of the system. This overturning of the system was analysed by applying mathematical equations presented in past studies and compared with the newly developed prediction model for 3 test tractors of 25 HP. The excel spreadsheet comprised of mathematical equations used to calculate the Tractor Stability Index (TSI) on transverse slope with respect to loader bucket height and payload in dynamic condition. A criterion has been defined to categorize the Tractor Stability Index (TSI) poor to excellent on a scale of 0 to 4 where <0 being the very poor, 0-2 Poor, 2-4 Good and >4 being the excellent.
Technical Paper

Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2397
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement.
Technical Paper

SMART HONKING

2019-11-21
2019-28-2463
Smart Honking Keywords-Safety, Connectivity, GPS M. Priyanka, Mahindra&Mahindra, India Sai Himaja Nadimpalli, Mahindra&Mahindra,India Keywords-Honking , Infotainment , GPS Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: In India unnecessary vehicular honking is the main reason for noise pollution. The problem is worst at traffic signals where drivers start honking without waiting for the signal to turn green or for traffic to move. Drivers show no respect to the law that prohibits the use of horn at traffic signals and other silent zones such as areas near hospitals, schools, religious places and residential areas. Vehicular honking in cities has reached at an alarming level and contributes approximately 70% of the noise pollution in our environment.The unwanted sound can affect human health and behavior, causing annoyance, depression, hypertension, stress, hearing loss, memory loss and panic attacks.
Technical Paper

Occupant Controlled Ventilation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2461
Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter.
Technical Paper

Systematic work flow for fatigue life prediction of Automotive components

2019-10-11
2019-28-0021
Fatigue life estimation of automotive components is a critical requirement for product design and development. Automotive companies are under tremendous pressure to launch new vehicles within short duration because of customer’s changing preferences. There is a necessity to have a comprehensive virtual simulation and robust validation process to evaluate durability of vehicle as per customer usage. Test track and field test, are two of the most time-consuming activities, so there is a need of simulation process to substitute these requirements. This paper summarizes the overall process of Accelerated Durability Test with measured road loads. Based on category of vehicle, type road profiles and the customer usage pattern, the wheel forces, strains and acceleration are measured which is used to derive the equivalent duty cycles on proving ground. The wheel force transducers (WFT) are used to derive loads for fatigue life estimation.
Technical Paper

Fuel efficiency improvement in automatic Transmissions by Lock-up clutch slip control methodology.

2019-10-11
2019-28-0029
Introduction :- Nowdays, Automatic transmissions (AT) have taken over more in the automotive market. Because of traffic, frequently clutch pedal pressing and shift lever operation becomes annoyance in manual transmission.Automatic Transmissions (AT) has better driving comfort, simple operation, but a lower transmission efficiency, higher fuel consumption, can't be competed with manual transmissions. Fuel economy of Automatic Transmissions is poor especially in city drive (Because of driving @ low engine speeds where Torque Converter(TC) is opened). Objective :- The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for torque converter clutches (TCC) to enable clutch slip control at low engine speeds in torque converter without adversely affecting noise and vibration (N&V) performance and increasing fuel economy. The effect of gear state, torque converter slip and power delivered to the driveline on fuel economy are to be discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Methodology to Determine Toe Geometry of any Vehicle at its Early Design Stage for Optimum Tyre Life

2019-10-11
2019-28-0105
Toe setting, or the Vehicle geometry is one of the major wheel alignment parameters which directly effects handling of a vehicle. Correct toe setting ensures desired dynamic behavior of an automobile like straight line stability, cornering behavior, handling and tire durability. Incorrect setting of toe during design stage significantly deteriorates tire durability and leads to uneven tire wear. Within the current scenario in the Automotive Industry, the toe setting is majorly an iterative or a trial and error process which is both time consuming and involves higher development cost as there may be instances where 2 to 3 sets of iterations are needed before specification is finalized for production. Therefore, determining optimum toe setting at an early stage of a product development will not only save significant development time but it will also benefit in reducing product validation time and cost.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modelling of Door Shut-line Definition in CATIA

2019-10-11
2019-28-0107
Door shut-line definition is the first vital step in car body door engineering and depends on the hinge position, hinge shape, manufacturing capabilities and other parameters. In the design process, once the hinge axis definition is finalized door shut-line is defined which should satisfy two major requirements. The requirements are clearance between the door outer surface with its surrounding components (like hinges, fender, other door etc.) and assembly feasibility. The above conditions must be checked on different locations of the door as well as w.r.t different openings of the door. The paper presents a mathematical model to determine the door shut-line position with great computational efficiency. This method propounds closure engineer with parameters to define the shut-line rather than cumbersome manual iterative process. Instead of following an iterative approach to determine a limit for the shut-line, paper presents a mathematical formulation with an implicit equation.
Technical Paper

Parametric Modelling and High Fidelity Algorithms for Vehicle Weight Estimation for Optimized Concept Vehicle Architecture

2019-10-11
2019-28-0036
PARAMETRIC MODELLING & HIGH FIDELITY ALGORITHMS FOR VEHICLE WEIGHT ESTIMATION FOR OPTIMIZED CONCEPT VEHICLE ARCHITECTURE The conceptualization phase of vehicle development focuses on the architecture definition and optimization based on different constraints/requirements. With the focus on Sustainability, the architecture optimization process must include "Light-weighting" as an optimization criterion. With only concept vehicle architecture available, the vehicle weight estimation becomes judgmental & inaccurate. This paper aims to address this deficiency with a new analytical approach for vehicle weight estimation. The new approach for vehicle weight estimation is a "bottom-up" approach using parametric models for each system weight with the inputs being the relevant vehicle specifications driving the system engineering. For size/shape-driven (rather than functional) systems, the models are content-based & segment-based.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Stick Slip Behavior of Plastics and Target Setting: An OEM Perspective

2019-06-05
2019-01-1465
Automotive OEMs are aggressively using different materials for interiors due to value proposition and variety of options available for customers in market. Excessive usage of different grade plastics with zero gap philosophy can cause stick slip effect leading to squeak noise. Even though systems and subsystems are designed using best practices of structural design and manufacturing tolerances, extreme environmental conditions can induce contacts leading to squeak noise. Appropriate selection of interface material pairs can minimize the possibilities of squeak conditions. Stick-slip behavior of different plastics is discussed in the present study, along with critical parameters during material compatibility testing in a tribological test stand. Friction coefficient of different material pairs for a defined normal load and sliding velocity are analyzed for patterns to recognize squeaks versus time.
Technical Paper

A Study on Door Clips and Their Influence on BSR Performance

2019-06-05
2019-01-1468
Squeak and rattle concerns account for approximately 10% of overall vehicle Things Gone Wrong (TGW) and are major quality concern for automotive OEM’s. Objectionable door noises are one of the top 10 IQS concerns under any OEM nameplate. Door trim significantly contributes to overall BSR quality perception. Door trim is mounted on door in white using small plastic clips with variable properties that can significantly influence BSR performance. In this paper, the performance of various door clips is evaluated through objective parameters like interface dynamic stiffness and system damping. The methodology involves a simple dynamic system for the evaluation of the performance of a clip design. Transmissibility is calculated from the dynamic response of a mass supported by clip. Parameters such as interface stiffness and system damping are extracted for each clip design. Variation of inner panel thickness is also considered when comparing clip performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Standalone Application in MATLAB to Generate Brake Performance Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0513
Predicting the brake performance and characteristics is a crucial task in the vehicle development activity. Performance prediction is a challenge because of the involvement of various parts in the brake assembly like booster, master cylinder, calipers, disc and drum brakes. Determination of these characteristics through vehicle level tests requires a lot of time and money. This performance prediction is achieved by theoretical calculations involving vehicle dynamics. The final output must satisfy the regulations. This project involves the creation of a standalone application using MATLAB to predict the various brake performances such as: booster characteristics, adhesion curves, deceleration and pedal effort curves, behavior of brakes during brake and booster failed conditions and braking force diagrams based on the given user inputs. Previously, MS Excel and an application developed in the TK Solver environment was used to predict the brake performance curves.
Technical Paper

Study of Energy Absorbing Front Cabin Mount, Its Stiffness Balance with Chassis and Test Correlation in Frontal Impact of Commercial Vehicle Cabin

2019-04-02
2019-01-1034
During design and development of a cabin for any commercial vehicle, meeting the strength requirements of front impact as per Indian regulation (AIS-029) is a very critical milestone. AIS-029 regulation consists of three destructive tests, i.e. Front Impact Test (Test A), Roof Strength (Test B) and Rear Wall Strength (Test C). Study of energy absorbing front cabin mount, its stiffness balance with chassis and CAE correlation with physical test is demonstrated in this study. [1]
Technical Paper

Durability of Customer Perceived Quality of Molded-in-Color Car Bumper

2019-01-09
2019-26-0319
Customer perceived quality (CPQ) of the car is the impression of excellence that a customer experiences the brand through sight, sound, touch, and scent. Molded-in-color (MIC) bumper’s aesthetic appeal contributes significantly to the CPQ of the car. Typical parameters used to define CPQ are color, gloss, grain definition, grain depth, geometry and draft. In this work the durability of the color and gloss post ageing is understood by using analytical and characterization tools. Using the results of ageing characterization, an attempt has been made to understand the retained newness of MIC bumper.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Determine Optimum Suspension Hard Points at an Early Design Stage for Achieving Steering Returnability in Any Vehicle

2019-01-09
2019-26-0074
Steering returnability while driving is one of the most important parameter which affects the drive pleasure and handling of a vehicle. Steering returnability refers to the automatic returning response of the steering wheel after taking a full turn while vehicle is being steered during driving. Evaluating steering response characteristics of any vehicle in a virtual environment at early stage of a product development saves significant development time and cost. Through this paper an attempt has been made to develop a methodology for selection of suspension hard points which influences steering returnability characteristics of a vehicle at an early product design stage. Conventionally, suspension kinematic parameters such as Caster angle, Steering axis inclination (SAI), etc. are iterated during vehicle design stage to achieve desired Steering returnability.
Technical Paper

Alternate Manufacturing Process for Automotive Input Shafts

2017-10-13
2017-01-5013
The input shafts are conventionally developed through Hot forging route. Considering upcoming new technologies the same part was developed through cold forging route which resulting in better Mechanical properties than existing hot forging process. It has added benefit of cost as well as environmental friendly. Generally, the part like Input shaft which having gear teeth, splines etc., will be manufactured through Hot forging process due to degree of deformation, availability of press capacity, diameter variations etc., This process consumes more energy in terms of electricity for heating the bar and also creates pollution to the atmosphere. Automotive input shaft design modified to accommodate cold forging process route to develop the shaft with press capacity of 2500T which gives considerable benefit in terms of mechanical and metallurgical Properties, close dimensional tolerances, less machining time, higher material yield when compared to hot forging and metal cutting operation.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Analysis of a Tractor Muffler

2017-06-05
2017-01-1791
Parametric model of a production hybrid (made up of reactive and dissipative elements) muffler for tractor engine is developed to compute the acoustic Transmission Loss (TL). The objective is to simplify complex muffler acoustic simulations without any loss of accuracy, robustness and usability so that it is accessible to all product development engineers and designers. The parametric model is a 3D Finite Element Method (FEM) based built in COMSOL model builder which is then converted into a user-friendly application (App) using COMSOL App builder. The uniqueness of the App lies in its ability to handle not only wide range of parametric variations but also variations in the physics and boundary conditions. This enables designers to explore various design options in the early design phase without the need to have deep expertise in a specific simulation tool nor in numerical acoustic modeling.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Hub Load on Power Steering Pump Using Dynamic Simulation and Experimental Measurement

2017-03-28
2017-01-0416
New trend in steering system such as EPS is coming up, but still hydraulic power steering system is more prevalent in today’s vehicles. Power steering pump is a vital component of hydraulic power steering system. Failure of steering pump can lead to loss of power assistance. Prediction of hub load on pump shaft is an important design input for pump manufacturer. Higher hub loads than the actual designed load of pump bearing may lead to seizure of pump. Pump manufacturer has safe limits for hub load. Simulations can assist for optimization of belt layout and placement of accessories to reduce the hub load. Lower hub load can have direct effect on improvement of pump durability. This paper deals with dynamic simulation of belt drive system in MSC.ADAMS as well as vehicle level measurement of hub load on power steering pump.
Technical Paper

Driver Reference Generation and Integrated Vehicle Lateral Dynamics Control

2017-01-10
2017-26-0355
With the increase in number of vehicles and amount of traffic, safety has come out to be a big concern in vehicle’s dynamic stability. There are certain system’s limits beyond which if a vehicle is pushed it may become unstable. One of the major areas of research in vehicle dynamics control has been lateral velocity and yaw rate control. With this, situations like vehicle spinning, oversteer, understeer etc. can be addressed. The challenge for the next generations of vehicle control is the integration of the available actuators into a unique holistic control concept. This paper presents the driver reference generator developed for the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control concept. The driver reference generator processes the driver inputs to determine the target vehicle behavior. The generation of reference behavior is a key factor for the integrated control design. The driver reference generation is validated on a real vehicle.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Strain based Fatigue Life Obtained from Uni-Axial and Multi-Axial Loading of an Automotive Twist Beam

2017-01-10
2017-26-0312
Twist beam is a type of suspension system that is based on an H or C shaped member typically used as a rear suspension system in small and medium sized cars. The front of the H member is connected to the body through rubber bushings and the rear portion carries the stub axle assembly. Suspension systems are usually subjected to multi-axial loads in service viz. vertical, longitudinal and lateral in the descending order of magnitude. Lab tests primarily include the roll durability of the twist beam wherein both the trailing arms are in out of phase and a lateral load test. Other tests involve testing the twist beam at the vehicle level either in multi-channel road simulators or driving the vehicle on the test tracks. This is highly time consuming and requires a full vehicle and longer product development time. Limited information is available in the fatigue life comparison of multi-axial loading vs pure roll or lateral load tests.
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