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Technical Paper

Cold Start HD FTP Test Results on Multi-Cylinder Opposed-Piston Engine Demonstrating Rapid Exhaust Enthalpy Rise to Achieve Ultra Low NOx

2018-04-03
2018-01-1378
The 2010 emission standards for heavy-duty diesel engines in the U.S. have established a limit for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr., a 90% reduction from the previous emission standards. However, it has been projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with the 2010 emission standards, the upcoming National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and ozone will not be achieved in California without further significant reductions in NOx emissions from the heavy-duty vehicle fleet. Given this, there is potential of further reduction in NOx emissions limit standards for heavy duty engines in the US. Recently there have been extensive studies and publications focusing on ultra-low NOx after treatment technologies that help achieve up to 0.02g/bhp-hr. at tailpipe [1].
Technical Paper

Achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOx Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engine Equipped with Three-Way Catalyst

2017-03-28
2017-01-0957
It is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards of 0.20 g/bhp-hr, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirements for ambient ozone will not be met. It is expected that further reductions in NOX emissions from the heavy-duty fleet will be required to achieve compliance with the ambient ozone requirement. To study the feasibility of further reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to demonstrate the potential to reach 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details the work executed to achieve this goal on the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with a heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst. A Cummins ISX-12G natural gas engine was modified and coupled with an advanced catalyst system.
Journal Article

Achieving Ultra Low NOX Emissions Levels with a 2017 Heavy-Duty On-Highway TC Diesel Engine - Comparison of Advanced Technology Approaches

2017-03-28
2017-01-0956
The 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, the California Air Resource Board (ARB) projects that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter (PM) and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOX emissions. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions.
Journal Article

Achieving Ultra Low NOX Emissions Levels with a 2017 Heavy-Duty On-Highway TC Diesel Engine and an Advanced Technology Emissions System - NOX Management Strategies

2017-03-28
2017-01-0958
Recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, CARB has projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOX emissions. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details engine and aftertreatment NOX management requirements and model based control considerations for achieving Ultra-Low NOX (ULN) levels with a heavy-duty diesel engine. Data are presented for several Advanced Technology aftertreatment solutions and the integration of these solutions with the engine calibration.
Journal Article

Achieving Ultra Low NOX Emissions Levels with a 2017 Heavy-Duty On-Highway TC Diesel Engine and an Advanced Technology Emissions System - Thermal Management Strategies

2017-03-28
2017-01-0954
The most recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a tailpipe limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, it is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOX emissions. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions.
Technical Paper

Low Cost Bharat Stage 3 and 4 Heavy Duty Diesel Technology

2011-01-19
2011-26-0078
This paper reviews the technologies available for Bharat Stage 3 and 4 Heavy Duty on-highway emissions standards. Benchmarking data from several existing engines is used to explore the trade-offs between engine/vehicle cost and fuel consumption. Other implications of the available technologies, such as durability / reliability requirements, are also addressed. The paper provides recommendations for low cost approaches to meeting Bharat Stage 3 and 4 standards with good fuel consumption and reliability/ durability characteristics. A brief look ahead to future Bharat Stage 5 requirements is also provided.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converter Design from Mat Material Coupon Fragility Data

2004-03-08
2004-01-1760
Automotive catalytic converters must provide a very high level of mechanical and thermal durability to maintain performance during their 100,000 to 150,000 mile life expectancy. The work reported herein characterizes the converter as a base (can) excited spring (mat material) supported mass (substrate). A mat material coupon test apparatus was developed for the purpose of providing parameter data for the converter model in the form of stiffness and material loss factor data as a function of shear deflection across the mat. An intumescent mat material was chosen and its dynamic properties evaluated for a range of converter operating parameters. The mat material response properties were placed into a mat material database as a function of gap bulk density, substrate temperature, and temperature gradient across the mat.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Environmental Aging on Intumescent Mat Material Durability at Low Temperatures

2002-03-04
2002-01-1099
Mat material durability data in the form of fragility curves were generated in a critical temperature region for three intumescent mat materials considered for low temperature converter applications. The mat materials were tested in a tourniquet wrap converter configuration employing a cylindrical ceramic substrate. Prior to developing durability data for these mat materials, the test items were subjected to various environmental thermal and/or vibration aging conditions. Mat material fragility data were generated in terms of the dynamic force required to impose prescribed differential motion between the can and substrate, thereby, subjecting the mat material to a dynamic shearing like that expected during resonant excitation. As expected, it was found that the mat material capacity to resist shearing deformation decreased when the test samples were subjected to 36 hours of low temperature thermal cyclic aging.
Technical Paper

The ASTM Test Monitoring Center - Evolving in a Changing Industry

2000-10-16
2000-01-2946
This paper traces the evolution of the ASTM Test Monitoring Center (TMC) from its modest beginnings in 1976 to the present. Formed as an unbiased and non-aligned group within ASTM Subcommittee D02.B, the TMC operates a reference oil based calibration system that serves both the producers and users of automotive lubricants. Governed by the ASTM Test Monitoring Board, the center's primary mission is to calibrate engine dynamometer test stands used to conduct various ASTM test methods for evaluating lubricant performance. The core services of the TMC have remained the same over its nearly 25 year history. The center stores and distributes ASTM reference oils and is responsible for assuring, through the use of analytical testing, the quality and consistency of the oils. The number of reference oils handled by the TMC has steadily increased over time such that today the center inventories some 100 different formulations having a total volume of 65,000 gallons.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converter Mat Material Durability Measurement Under Controlled Thermal and Vibration Environments

2000-03-06
2000-01-0221
To aid in the catalytic converter design and development process, a test apparatus was designed and built which will allow comparative evaluation of the durability of candidate mat materials under highly controlled thermal and vibration environments. The apparatus directly controls relative shear deflection between the substrate and can to impose known levels of mat material strain while recording the transmitted shear force across the mat material. Substrate and can temperatures are controlled at constant levels using a resistive thermal exposure (RTE) technique. Mat material fatigue after several million cycles is evident by a substantial decrease in the transmitted force. A fragility test was found to be an excellent method to quickly compare candidate materials to be used for a specific application. Examples of test results from several materials are given to show the utility of the mat material evaluation technique.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Instantaneous Distribution of Momentum in Diesel Injection Nozzle Fuel Jets

1996-10-01
962004
Because of its dominant role in diesel engine performance and emissions, the fuel injection process has become an area of very active research and development. It is now clear that location, shape, rate of development, and mass flow distribution within each fuel jet are all important in controlling fuel air mixing, wall interactions, combustion rate, and the resulting levels of emissions. The objective of this project was to develop an instrument for measurement of the instantaneous fuel mass and momentum distribution in the jets issuing from diesel injection nozzles. The goal was to develop an instrument concept that can be used in the laboratory for fundamental measurements, as well as a quality control system for use in manufacture of the injection nozzles. The concept of the instrument is based on the measurement of the instantaneous momentum of the fuel jet as it impacts on a surface equipped with pressure sensitive elements.
Technical Paper

Design Improvements of an Automatic Tire Inflation System for Long Haul Trucks

1995-11-01
952591
An Automatic Tire Inflation System (ATIS), specifically designed for use on commercial long haul trailers underwent complete testing and evaluation in 1993/1994.1 Testing and evaluation included a field test of a prototype system and a controlled laboratory evaluation of the Rotary Union which is the only component subject to wear. The testing of the prototype system indicated that design improvements were necessary before the system could be installed in fleet operations. The design improvements were completed and field installation of production ATIS began. The design improvements were intended to improve overall system durability, decrease installation time, to have less effect on the axle structure than the original design, implement the use of SAE or DOT Approved pressure components and increase overall dependability of the system. ATIS systems have now been developed and tested for most domestic trailer axle configurations.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Lubricity

1995-02-01
950248
The United States and Europe are mandating increasingly severe diesel fuel specifications, particularly with respect to sulfur content, and in some areas, aromatics content. This trend is directed towards reducing vehicle exhaust emissions and is generally beneficial to fuel quality, ignition ratings, and stability. However, laboratory studies, as well as recent field experience in Sweden and the United States, indicate a possible reduction in the ability of fuels to lubricate sliding components within the fuel injection system. These factors, combined with the trend toward increasing injection pressure in modern engine design, are likely to result in reduced durability and failure of the equipment to meet long-term emissions compliance. The U.S. Army Belvoir Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility (BFLRF) located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) developed an accelerated wear test that predicts the effects of fuel lubricity on injection system durability.
Technical Paper

Qualification of an Automatic Tire Inflation System for Long Haul Trucks

1994-11-01
942249
An Automatic Tire Inflation System (ATIS), specifically designed for use on commercial long haul trailers, requires modification of the axles to direct air to the tires. The ATIS requires a drilled hole through the axle tube for the installation of a pneumatic fitting. The trucking industry expressed concern about the modification and its impact upon the axle structure, and the general durability of the system over a long period. A three-phase test program was developed and conducted to satisfy the concerns of the industry.
Technical Paper

Intricacies of SAE #2 Computerized Clutch Friction Durability Testing

1993-10-01
932847
This paper discusses the implications of computerizing the SAE #2 clutch friction durability tests that General Motors Corporation and Ford Motor Company require for automatic transmission fluid certification. There are three reasons for this paper. 1) Friction durability testing is a significant part of a much larger battery of tests needed to qualify a fluid. 2)There have been recent modifications concerning computerization of both the Ford and GM tests. 3) Because there are only two OEM qualified testing facilities, the details of certain testing intricacies in the areas of data acquisition, reduction and reporting may not be as understood as well as in other areas of automotive-based standardized testing. Formulators of automatic transmission fluid need to be aware of all details surrounding the collection and evaluation of the data that will result in the final test report.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in the Off-Highway Vehicle: Part IV Electronic Design for EMC

1993-09-01
932429
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design considerations have a vital role in the proper functioning of the electronic circuits and systems of a modern off-highway vehicle (OHV). Careful planning is needed in developing the electronic systems that operate the various functions and tasks on these vehicles. Incorporation of EMC in a system design gives that system the quality of reliability; that is, the system will have reduced emissions and be less susceptible to radiated and conducted electromagnetic energy. This paper provides ideas, concepts, and guidelines that the designer of OHV control circuitry can use for incorporation of EMC at the beginning of a design project.
Technical Paper

Army Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Estimate Selected Properties of Compression Ignition Fuels

1993-03-01
930734
The U.S. Army has long identified the need for rapid, reliable methods for analysis of fuels and lubricants on or near the battlefield. The analysis of fuels and lubricants under battlefield or near-battlefield conditions requires that the equipment be small, portable, rugged, quick, and easy to use. Over the past 15 to 20 years, several test kits and portable laboratories have been developed in response to this need. One instrumental technique that has been identified as a likely candidate to meet this need is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). To evaluate NIR as a candidate, a set of 280 fuel samples was used. This sample set contained samples of diesel fuel grades 1 and 2, Jet A-l, JP-5, and JP-8. Inspection data were collected on all the fuels as sample size permitted. Each sample was then scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Data analysis, model building, and calibration were conducted using a software package supplied with the instrument.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas Converter Performance and Durability

1993-03-01
930222
Natural gas-fueled vehicles impose unique requirements on exhaust aftertreatment systems. Methane conversion, which is very difficult for conventional automotive catalysts, may be required, depending on future regulatory directions. Three-way converter operating windows for simultaneous conversion of HC, CO, and NOx are considerably more narrow with gas engine exhaust. While several studies have demonstrated acceptable fresh converter performance, aged performance remains a concern. This paper presents the results of a durability study of eight catalytic converters specifically developed for natural gas engines. The converters were aged for 300 hours on a natural gas-fueled 7.0L Chevrolet engine operated at net stoichiometry. Catalyst performance was evaluated using both air/fuel traverse engine tests and FTP vehicle tests. Durability cycle severity and a comparison of results for engine and vehicle tests are discussed.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Compatibility in the Off-Highway Vehicle Part II: Electromagnetic Immunity (EMI)

1992-09-01
921653
Electromagnetic immunity (EMI) for off-highway vehicles (OHV) is a vehicle's ability to resist radiated and conducted electromagnetic interference. Interference can originate within the OHV from the various systems designed to control its operational functions; external sources can also cause serious disruption of the electronic control mechanisms. Knowledge of how and where interferences originate gives the electronic designer insight into how to avoid the pitfalls which can cause malfunctions. Verification of designs through testing will ensure that safety and reliability are built into every OHV produced. This paper discusses the mechanisms that cause susceptibility of electronic circuits to electromagnetic interference, and presents test methods to help the designer improve circuit design and verify the immunity of the complete vehicle. This is the second in a series of papers on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in the off-highway vehicle.
Technical Paper

On-Line Oil Consumption Measurement and Characterization of an Automotive Gasoline Engine by SO2 Method

1992-02-01
920652
An on-line oil consumption measurement system using the SO2 tracer method has characterized automotive gasoline engine oil consumption under various engine operating conditions, including a 200-hour durability test. An oil consumption map of total engine, individual cylinder, and valve train was produced for various speed and load ranges under both steady-state and step-transient operating conditions. The effect of spark timing as an additional engine parameter on the oil consumption was also investigated. Oil consumption maps have enlightened the conventional understanding of oil consumption characteristics and broadened the areas of concern for control technologies. This paper reports the benefit of the on-line oil consumption measurement system, the result of oil consumption history over the durability test, discrete measurement of oil consumption contribution within the engine, and various oil consumption characteristics affected by engine operating conditions.
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