Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Comprehensive CFD-FEA Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis for Diesel and Gasoline Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0212
As the efforts to push capabilities of current engine hardware to their durability limits increases, more accurate and reliable analysis is necessary to ensure that designs are robust. This paper evaluates a method of Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) analysis for a gasoline and a diesel engine that combines combustion Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), engine Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and cooling jacket CFD with the goal of obtaining more accurate temperature distribution and heat loss predictions in an engine compared to standard de-coupled CFD and FEA analysis methods. This novel CHT technique was successfully applied to a 2.5 liter GM LHU gasoline engine at 3000 rpm and a 15.0 liter Cummins ISX heavy duty diesel engine operating at 1250 rpm. Combustion CFD simulations results for the gasoline and diesel engines are validated with the experimental data for cylinder pressure and heat release rate.
Technical Paper

Effects of Dual Port Injection and Direct-Injection Technology on Combustion Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0999
Dual injection fuel systems combine the knock and fuel economy benefits of gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology with the lower particulate emissions of port fuel injection (PFI) systems. For many years, this technology was limited to smaller-volume, high-end, vehicle models, but these technologies are now becoming main stream. The combination of two fuel injection systems has an impact on the combustion emission composition as well as the consistency of control strategy and emissions. Understanding the impact of these changes is essential for fuel and fuel additive companies, automotive companies, and aftertreatment developers. This paper describes the effects of dual injection technology on both regulated and non-regulated combustion emissions from a 2018 Toyota Camry during several cold-start, 4-bag United States Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle.
Technical Paper

Particle Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection Engines during Engine Start-Up (Cranking)

2019-04-02
2019-01-1182
Engine start-up (cranking) can be an important source of particle emissions from vehicles. With the penetration of GDI vehicles in the global vehicle fleet, it is important to analyze and understand the contribution of start-up particle emissions from GDI vehicles, and the potential effects of fuel properties on that process. In this work, chassis dynamometer based investigation on the effect of several gasoline fuels (commercial and blended) on both, naturally aspirated and turbocharged GDI vehicles were conducted to understand the importance of engine start up, in particular, cranking. 10 commercially available gasoline fuels were tested on a naturally aspirated 2010 model year GDI vehicle, 3 among these commercially available fuels were tested on another 2009 model year turbocharged GDI vehicle, and 8 blended gasoline fuels were tested on 12 other GDI vehicles (7 turbocharged and 5 naturally aspirated) ranging in model years 2011-2015.
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR

2019-04-02
2019-01-0249
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry A25A-FKS 4-cylinder, 2.5-liter, naturally aspirated, Atkinson Cycle engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) was benchmarked. The engine was tested on an engine dynamometer with and without its 8-speed automatic transmission, and with the engine wiring harness tethered to a complete vehicle parked outside of the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, onboard diagnostics (OBD) data, and Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded. This paper documents the test results under idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation. Motoring torque, wide open throttle (WOT) torque and fuel consumption are measured during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology to Quantify and Analyze Energy Consumption of Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0116
A new generation of vehicle dynamics and powertrain control technologies are being developed to leverage information streams enabled via vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) connectivity [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. While algorithms that use these connected information streams to enable improvements in energy efficiency are being studied in detail, methodologies to quantify and analyze these improvements on a vehicle have not yet been explored fully. A procedure to test and accurately measure energy-consumption benefits of a connected and automated vehicle (CAV) is presented. The first part of the test methodology enables testing in a controlled environment. A traffic simulator is built to model traffic flow in Fort Worth, Texas with sufficient accuracy. The benefits of a traffic simulator are two-fold: (1) generation of repeatable traffic scenarios and (2) evaluation of the robustness of control algorithms by introducing disturbances.
Technical Paper

Review of the Computer Science and Engineering Solutions for Model Sharing and Model Co-Simulation

2019-03-19
2019-01-1352
The process of developing, parameterizing, validating, and maintaining models occurs within a wide variety of tools, and requires significant time and resources. To maximize model utilization, models are often shared between various toolsets and experts. One common example is sharing aircraft engine models with airframers. The functionality of a given model may be utilized and shared with a secondary model, or multiple models may run collaboratively through co-simulation. There are many technical challenges associated with model sharing and co-simulation. For example, data communication between models and tools must be accurate and reliable, and the model usage must be well-documented and perspicuous for a user. This requires clear communication and understanding between computer scientists and engineers. Most often, models are developed by engineers, whereas the tools used to share the models are developed by computer scientists.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an Advanced Combustion System for Stoichiometric Diesel to Reduce Soot Emissions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0023
Diesel engines are facing increased competition from gasoline engines in the light-duty and small non-road segments, primarily due to the high relative cost of emissions control systems for lean-burn diesel engines. Advancements in gasoline engine technology have decreased the operating cost advantage of diesels and the relatively high initial-cost disadvantage is now too large to sustain a strong business position. SwRI has focused several years of research efforts toward enabling diesel engine combustion systems to operate at stoichiometric conditions, which allows the application of a low-cost three-way catalyst emission control system which has been well developed for gasoline spark-ignited engines. One of the main barriers of this combustion concept is the result of high smoke emissions from poor fuel/air mixing.
Technical Paper

On-Road Monitoring of Low Speed Pre-Ignition

2018-09-10
2018-01-1676
To meet increasingly stringent emissions and fuel economy regulations, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have recently developed and deployed small, high power density engines. Turbocharging, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) has enabled a rapid engine downsizing trend. While these turbocharged GDI (TGDI) engines have indeed allowed for better fuel economy in many light duty vehicles, TGDI technology has also led to some unintended consequences. The most notable of these is an abnormal combustion phenomenon known as low speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI is an uncontrolled combustion event that takes place prior to spark ignition, often resulting in knock, and has been known to cause catastrophic engine damage. LSPI propensity depends on a number of factors including engine design, calibration, fuel properties and engine oil formulation. Several engine tests have been developed within the industry to better understand the phenomenon of LSPI.
Technical Paper

Selective Interrupt and Control: An Open ECU Alternative

2018-04-03
2018-01-0127
To enable the evaluation of off-calibration powertrain operation, a selective interrupt and control (SIC) test capability was developed as part of an EPA evaluation of a 1.6 L EcoBoost® engine. A control and data acquisition device sits between the stock powertrain controller and the engine; the device selectively passes through or modifies control signals while also simulating feedback signals. This paper describes the development process of SIC that enabled a test engineer to command off-calibration setpoints for intake and exhaust cam phasing as well as ignition timing without the need for an open ECU duplicating the stock calibration. Results are presented demonstrating the impact of ignition timing and cam phasing on engine efficiency. When coupled with combustion analysis and crank-domain data acquisition, this test configuration provides a complete picture of powertrain performance.
Journal Article

Design and Implementation of a D-EGR® Mixer for Improved Dilution and Reformate Distribution

2017-03-28
2017-01-0647
The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine has shown improved efficiency and emissions while minimizing the challenges of traditional cooled EGR. The concept combines the benefits of cooled EGR with additional improvements resulting from in-cylinder fuel reformation. The fuel reformation takes place in the dedicated cylinder, which is also responsible for producing the diluents for the engine (EGR). The D-EGR system does present its own set of challenges. Because only one out of four cylinders is providing all of the dilution and reformate for the engine, there are three “missing” EGR pulses and problems with EGR distribution to all 4 cylinders exist. In testing, distribution problems were realized which led to poor engine operation. To address these spatial and temporal mixing challenges, a distribution mixer was developed and tested which improved cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variation of EGR rate through improved EGR distribution.
Technical Paper

Connected Commercial Vehicles

2016-09-27
2016-01-8009
While initial Connected Vehicle research in the United States was focusing almost exclusively on passenger vehicles, a program was envisioned that would enhance highway safety, mobility, and operational efficiencies through the application of the technology to commercial vehicles. This program was realized in 2009 by funding from the I-95 Corridor Coalition, led by the New York State Department of Transportation, and called the Commercial Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (CVII) program. The CVII program focuses on developing, testing and deploying Connected Vehicle technology for heavy vehicles. Since its inception, the CVII program has developed numerous Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure applications for trucks that leverage communication with roadside infrastructure and other light and heavy duty vehicles to meet the objectives of the program.
Journal Article

Automated Driving Impediments

2016-09-27
2016-01-8007
Since the turn of the millennium, automated vehicle technology has matured at an exponential rate, evolving from research largely funded and motivated by military and agricultural needs to a near-production market focused on everyday driving on public roads. Research and development has been conducted by a variety of entities ranging from universities to automotive manufacturers to technology firms demonstrating capabilities in both highway and urban environments. While this technology continues to show promise, corner cases, or situations outside the average driving environment, have emerged highlighting scenarios that impede the realization of full automation anywhere, anytime. This paper will review several of these corner cases and research deficiencies that need to be addressed for automated driving systems to be broadly deployed and trusted.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cold Start Technologies on a 3L Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0823
Increasingly stringent emissions regulations require that modern diesel aftertreatment systems must warm up and begin controlling emissions shortly after startup. While several new aftertreatment technologies have been introduced that focus on lowering the aftertreatment activation temperature, the engine system still needs to provide thermal energy to the exhaust for cold start. A study was conducted to evaluate several engine technologies that focus on improving the thermal energy that the engine system provides to the aftertreatment system while minimizing the impact on fuel economy and emissions. Studies were conducted on a modern common rail 3L diesel engine with a custom dual loop EGR system. The engine was calibrated for low engine-out NOx using various combustion strategies depending on the speed/load operating condition.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Hydrocarbon Measurement with FTIR and FID in a Dual Fuel Locomotive Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0978
Exhaust emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and methane were measured from a Tier 3 dual-fuel demonstration locomotive running diesel-natural gas blend. Measurements were performed with the typical flame ionization detector (FID) method in accordance with EPA CFR Title 40 Part 1065 and with an alternative Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy method. Measurements were performed with and without oxidation catalyst exhaust aftertreatment. FTIR may have potential for improved accuracy over the FID when NMHC is dominated by light hydrocarbons. In the dual fuel tests, the FTIR measurement was 1-4% higher than the FID measurement of. NMHC results between the two methods differed considerably, in some cases reporting concentrations as much as four times those of the FID. However, in comparing these data it is important to note that the FTIR method has several advantages over the FID method, so the differences do not necessarily represent error in the FTIR.
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Criteria Pollutant Emissions from D-EGR® Light Duty Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1006
In this study, the criteria pollutant emissions from a light duty vehicle equipped with Dedicated EGR® technology were compared with emissions from an identical production GDI vehicle without externally cooled EGR. In addition to the comparison of criteria pollutant mass emissions, an analysis of the gaseous and particulate chemistry was conducted to understand how the change in combustion system affects the optimal aftertreatment control system. Hydrocarbon emissions from the vehicle were analyzed usin g a variety of methods to quantify over 200 compounds ranging in HC chain length from C1 to C12. The particulate emissions were also characterized to quantify particulate mass and number. Gaseous and particulate emissions were sampled and analyzed from both vehicles operating on the FTP-75, HWFET, US06, and WLTP drive cycles at the engine outlet location.
Technical Paper

Trusting LTE Communications for Over-the-Air Updates in Automobiles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0067
Modern vehicular systems rely on millions of lines of code that must occasionally be updated to add new functions or to patch flaws to ensure safe and secure operation. Updates accomplished through a compromised cellular base station could lead to an update process that may be vulnerable to attack. We have been investigating techniques for determining whether an LTE base station (known as an eNodeB) appears to be suspicious, so that an update could be paused or terminated until a trusted eNodeB is available. We describe a detector we developed as part of our research that scans LTE signals for anomalies and provides an alert when an anomaly is found.
Journal Article

Understanding the Octane Appetite of Modern Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0834
Octane appetite of modern engines has changed as engine designs have evolved to meet performance, emissions, fuel economy and other demands. The octane appetite of seven modern vehicles was studied in accordance with the octane index equation OI=RON-KS, where K is an operating condition specific constant and S is the fuel sensitivity (RONMON). Engines with a displacement of 2.0L and below and different combinations of boosting, fuel injection, and compression ratios were tested using a decorrelated RONMON matrix of eight fuels. Power and acceleration performance were used to determine the K values for corresponding operating points. Previous studies have shown that vehicles manufactured up to 20 years ago mostly exhibited negative K values and the fuels with higher RON and higher sensitivity tended to perform better.
Technical Paper

Port Design for Charge Motion Improvement within the Cylinder

2016-04-05
2016-01-0600
The engine intake process governs many aspects of the flow within the cylinder. The inlet valve is the minimum area, so gas velocities at the valve are the highest velocities seen. Geometric configuration of the inlet ports and valves, and the opening schedule create organized large scale motions in the cylinder known as swirl and tumble. Good charge motion within the cylinder will produce high turbulence levels at the end of the compression stroke. As the turbulence resulting from the conversion energy of the inlet jet decays fast, the strategy is to encapsulate some of the inlet jet in the organized motions. In this work the baseline port of a 2.0 L gasoline engine was modified by inserting a tumble plate. The work was done in support of an experimental study for which a new single-cylinder research engine was set up to allow combustion system parameters to be varied in steps over an extensive range. Tumble flow was one such parameter.
Journal Article

Medium-Duty Vehicle Fuel Saving Technology Analysis to Support Phase 2 Regulations

2015-09-29
2015-01-2769
This paper presents the results of engine and vehicle simulation modeling for a wide variety of individual technologies and technology packages applied to two medium-duty vocational vehicles. Simulation modeling was first conducted on one diesel and two gasoline medium-duty engines. Engine technologies were then applied to the baseline engines. The resulting fuel consumption maps were run over a range of vehicle duty cycles and payloads in the vehicle simulation model. Results were reported for both individual engine technologies and combinations or packages of technologies. Two vehicles, a Kenworth T270 box delivery truck and a Ford F-650 tow truck were evaluated. Once the baseline vehicle models were developed, vehicle technologies were added. As with the medium-duty engines, vehicle simulation results were reported for both individual technologies and for combinations. Vehicle technologies were evaluated only with the baseline 2019 diesel medium-duty engine.
Journal Article

Heavy-Duty Vehicle Fuel Saving Technology Analysis to Support Phase 2 Regulations

2015-09-29
2015-01-2775
This paper presents the fuel consumption results of engine and vehicle simulation modeling for a wide variety of individual technologies and technology packages applied to a long haul heavy duty vehicle. Based on the simulation modeling, up to 11% in fuel savings is possible using commercially available and emerging technologies applied to a 15L DD15 engine alone. The predicted fuel savings are up to 17% in a Kenworth T700 tractor-trailer unit equipped with a range of vehicle technologies, but using the baseline DD15 diesel engine. A combination of the most aggressive engine and vehicle technologies can provide savings of up to 29%, averaged over a range of drive cycles. Over 30% fuel savings were found with the most aggressive combination on a simulated long haul duty cycle. Note that not all of these technologies may prove to be cost-effective. The fuel savings benefits for individual technologies vary widely depending on the drive cycles and payload.
X