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Technical Paper

Integrated Wheel Dynamometer Technology for Vehicle and Bench Testing

In recent years wheel dynamometer measuring systems,using strain gauge and quartz technologies, have been optimised and are mature now. For specific fields of application the use of sensors based on either of the two measuring technologies would be the technically optimal choice. For technical, practical and economic reasons often two systems in parallel couldn't be used and thus limitations needed to be accepted. In order to overcome these limitations Kistler integrated sensors with both measurement technologies into one product family. Using results from practical applications and investigations the paper describes the new potential to get better test results faster. Kistler continously works towards a better integration of engineering processes (numerical simulation, testing on benches and in the vehicle).
Technical Paper

Innovations in Piezoelectric Wheel Dynamometer Technology

Since decades KISTLER is contiuously innovating in the field of piezoelectric sensor technology. This paper describes major technological progresses in the field of rotating wheel dynamometers: the six-component Rotating Wheel Dynamometer RWD and the Rotating Wheel Torque Meter RWT. First the systems are explained in detail, then outstanding applications in vehicle development, tire power loss determination and tire deformation investigation are given. An outlook on upcoming innovations concludes the paper.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Wheel Load Measurements on Real Road Surfaces - What Accuracy to Expect?

In recent years we have seen drastic improvements of the accuracy of wheel force transducer (WFT) systems /1, 2 and 3/. These systems in most cases are calibrated just statically. What is the dynamic behaviour of the sensor? What can we expect towards the accuracy of the measured loads on real road surfaces as they are influenced by a number of parameters? In the present paper quantitative results are reported out of a broad investigation of the effects of the following parameters road surface, rim stiffness, tire air pressure, velocity and wet road conditions. The unique Wheel and Tire Testing Vehicle (“Universal Skid Resistance Measurement Device”) of Stuttgart University was used for the measurements on two highways. The WFT-signals are referenced to the multiaxial force sensing of this vehicle. These findings are compared to results derived from a rolling road flatbelt test stand reported in /6/.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different Designs of Wheel Force Transducers (Part II)

Wheel force transducers (WFT) play an increasing role in endurance evaluation of road vehicles, ride and handling optimization, tire development and vehicle dynamics. With paper 980262 part I of an investigation of seven WFT–systems was presented. After a general evaluation two systems were compared in more detail. From a more basic interest deeper consideration was given to Angle Error Correction and material selection. This paper reports on part II of the investigation. The general evaluation of present systems on the market is updated and refined including new systems and updated versions. Thus an unique and quick overview is provided mirroring the present status of WFT technology. Special attention is given to systems best suited for applications in tire development, for driving dynamics optimization, active safety and active suspension development as well as in the ride and handling area.
Technical Paper

Integrated Vehicle Weight Optimization and Endurance Validation Process Based on Wheel Forces

Vehicle weight optimization is a time and cost consuming step in vehicle development. Significant improvements of this iterative process are possible through integration of numerical and experimental simulation technologies as well as testing on the road. One of the key elements in that optimization is to use wheel forces instead of other physical quantities. This paper discribes essential elements of an integrated process and illustrates that with the experiences of Porsche AG, which in 1996 stepped forward to latest technology in this field by implementation of wheel force measurements into its product development and endurance evaluation process.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different Designs of Wheel Force Transducers

Wheel force transducers (WFT) play an increasing role in endurance evaluation of road vehicles, ride and handling optimization, tire development and vehicle dynamics. Seven WFT-systems, which split basically into three design categories: strain gaged beam and spoke, individual load cells and mechanically separated load components are looked at in this investigation. After a general evaluation the two systems which seem to be most promissing are compared in more detail: Angle error correction and material selection (Titanium alloy versus carbon fibre composite) appeared to be the most significant differences of these two systems. FE-temperature analysis shows that during downhill braking temperature limits of the carbon fibre material are reached or exceeded. As in addition manufacturing of the special wheels (also partly made of carbon fibre) is expensive and cannot be done by the customer, using light weight metals seems to be the better choice.