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Technical Paper

An investigation of the impact of axial force on friction stir-welded AA5086/AA6063 on microstructure and mechanical properties but joints

2020-09-25
2020-28-0396
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a process through which frictional heating and plastic deformation normally joined the work pieces at temperatures under the melting temperature of the materials to be united. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of axial force during welding on the mechanical properties of dissimilar aluminum alloys (AA5086 and AA6063 aluminum alloy) formed by friction stir welding process. Friction stir welding was performed using three different axial forces (Viz 5kN, 6kN and 7kN) on the dissimilar aluminum alloys and the impact of these on the mechanical performance of samples were investigated in contexts of tensile , bending and hardness testing. In addition microstructural behavior of welded samples also analyzed. The mechanical characteristics of the joints were strongly influenced by the axial force applied during the welding process, based on experimental results.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Built Orientation and Infill Density for 3D Printing on Mechanical and Tribological Properties

2020-09-25
2020-28-0411
the 3D Printing (3DP) technology due to its greatest strength, resistance to wear and corrosion to oxidising agents and has good temperature resistance with durable one. The present article describes the effect of print orientation and infill density of 3DP route on mechanical and tribological properties of PETG filament. The 3DP parameters like layer thickness, slicing, speed, feed are kept as constant and varying the print orientation (X,Y,Z) with infill density (50%,75%,100%) is done to check the nine combinations of mechanical and tribological properties like hardness, impact strength, ultimate tensile strength, flexural strength, fatigue strength, wear rate and coefficient of friction was observed. The results shows that the all the tested mechanical and tribological properties increases by around 30-60% when the orientation is in X direction and a infill density 75%.
Technical Paper

Unraveling the mechanical behavior of AA 7075 - WC nanocomposites developed through FSP route

2020-09-25
2020-28-0404
Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is a solid-state processing approach that alters and enhances the properties of the matrix material. The prime objective of this research work was zinc-based 7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy (AA) with reinforced by varying 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 wt.% Tungsten carbide (WC) nanoparticles by FSP route. During experimentation, the FSP processing parameters like tool speed, traverse speed, axial load, and tool were being kept constant with three passes of processing. The test samples were prepared and tested as per standard procedures like hardness, impact strength, ultimate tensile strength, and average values were recorded. Also, fracture surface morphology was studied. Among all the combinations of test samples at a 10 wt% addition of WC nanoparticles of FSP AA7075-T6 sample exhibited a higher value of 53 HV microhardness and 5.1 impact strength and 150 MPa in the UTS were obtained.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies on Conventional groove SMA and GMA welds of Dissimilar 304LN ASS and HSLA Steels.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0405
Dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), between austenitic stainless steel (ASS) and micro-alloyed high strength low alloy steel (HSLA), are used in high temperature applications in power stations and petrochemical plants. The gas metal arc welding (GMAW) has surpassed the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process due to its advantages of producing fast, long, clean continuous weld at any position [1-4]. A studies on mechanical and metallurgical properties of conventional V-groove SMAW and GMA Welding of dissimilar 20 mm thick 304LN ASS and micro alloyed HSLA steel plate were carried out by using austenitic E308L- 15 electrode with gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) root pass. The tensile (axial and all-weld) properties, hardness and microstructure of the weld and HAZ are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Enhancing the Mechanical and Metallurgical Behavior of Post-Processing on Friction Stir Processed AA8011 with NiTi-SMAs and Si3N4 Surface Hybrid Composites

2020-09-25
2020-28-0419
This limited research was extended to study the modification surface amendment of materials through Friction Stir Process (FSP) with nanoparticle addition followed by the post-processing method. In this paper, strengthened the surface and core properties of AA8011 by adding nanoparticles such as Nitinol Shape Memory Alloy (NiTi-SMAs) and Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) through FSP followed by three different way of post-processing techniques like case hardening, case harden with the shot peening and laser peening. During FSP the use of NiTi-SMAs and Si3N4 as reinforcement interlocked the grains in nanocomposites of the processed zone. In addition, Post-processing promises a performance enhancement of core and surface hardness, ultimate tensile strength, impact and homogenizing their microstructure which is observed through scanning electron microscopic observations.The study has revealed that the laser peening surface has preferably higher performance than other post-processing techniques.
Technical Paper

Study on the High Temperature Tensile Properties of Aerospace Grade Hastelloy X Joined by Pulsed Current Arc Welding

2020-09-25
2020-28-0421
The fabrication or repairing of aircraft components made of Hastelloy X to be resolved using arc welding technique. In this study, Hastelloy X was joint with ERNiCrCoMo-1 filler by pulsed current gas tungsten arc (PCGTA) welding. The high temperature tensile property of the weldment has been evaluated at three different temperatures such as 700 °C, 800 °C, and 900 °C. The tensile properties such as yield strength (291, 251 and 195 MPa), ultimate tensile strength (464, 387 and 231 MPa) and percentage of elongation or ductility (19, 16 and 11 %) follows the similar trend with temperature at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C respectively. It revealed the values of all the properties are decreased as the temperature increased. The lowest strength was evaluated for weldment at 900 °C. The high temperature tensile test also revealed that fracture of weldments for all three conditions are found at weld centre (WC).
Technical Paper

Influence of Copper foil Reinforcement on the Mechanical and Drilling Efficiency of Sisal/Flax epoxy Composite

2020-09-25
2020-28-0416
In this developing world the need of light weight and high strength materials are increasing in various industries. As a result of above the importance of natural fibre is also increasing to satisfy the industrial need. In manufacturing industries for the assembly of engineering components the drilling is one of the important operations. The main objective of this research is to determine the mechanical properties and drilling efficiency of natural fibre composite. Sisal/flax as a natural fibre, the copper foil of thickness 0.025mm as a structural reinforcement and Epoxy resin as a matrix were used for making composite. The hand layup technique was used for fabrication of composite.
Technical Paper

Nd: YAG Laser Welding of Stainless Steel 304: The effects of Al2O3 micro particles addition

2020-09-25
2020-28-0418
In the present work, fabrication of similar Stainless Steel (SS) 304 joints by Nd-YAG Laser Welding Process (LWP). A novel approach was attempted in this study, welding was performed on dual sides of the plate (top and bottom) for a better mixture of micro powder particles in the weld pool region and to achieve maximum depth of penetration, which is not easily possible in a single-sided (LWP). High depth of penetration during fabrication of joints, significantly improved the mixture ratio of molten steel with reinforced micro powder particles. Al2O3 micro powder particles were reinforced in the weld pool region through the drilling process with varying depth ratios, and a moderate gap was maintained between each hole. The effects of Al2O3 on the microstructure and mechanical properties were studied and elaborated in brief. Totally 12 samples were fabricated, here joining was performed by keeping the frequency as constant and varying laser power, travel speed for all the trials.
Technical Paper

MECHANICAL AND MICROSTRUCTURES INVESTIGATION OF STIR CASTED AA 8011 –GRAPHENE COMPOSITES

2020-09-25
2020-28-0427
This study compares with the microstructural and mechanical properties of AA8011 graphene (graphene) nano-wafer composites. Graphene nano-wafer content ranges from 0.5 to 2 wt. % in Matrix AA 8011. Composites were manufactured by agitation casting, and investigations revealed that AA 8011 -0.5 wt. Graphene composite had better mechanical properties than AA 8011– 1 wt. % Graphene, 1.5 weight % of graphene and 2 weight% of graphene composites for the tensile strength and hardness test. SEM and Fractography analysis and XRD analysis confirm that there is a uniform distribution of graphene in the basic matrix AA 8011 and prepared with low porosity, which leads to a substantial improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength and micro hardness of AA 8011 -0.5 wt. Graphene Composites compared to other composites prepared in different weight percentages.
Technical Paper

Effect of Shot Peening Exposure Time on Mechanical Behavior of Al 7075-T6 Alloy

2020-09-25
2020-28-0430
This investigation addresses the effect of exposure time applied through shot peening as one of the severe plastic deformation technique on mechanical behavior of Al 7075-T6 alloy. Shot peening induces hardened layer in the surface region due to work-hardening effect by shot peening. The specimen shot peened for 105 s (SP105) exhibited highest values of tensile strength (591 MPa), yield strength (550 MPa) and surface hardness (265 VHN) as compared with untreated specimen with 568 MPa, 504 MPa and 184 VHN respectively. The increment in tensile properties are due to rapid improvement in the surface work-hardening by virtue of peening treatment with 105 s duration. In contrast, the shot peened alloy exhibited lower percentage elongation and higher surface roughness as compared with untreated one. The surface morphology and roughness studies before and after the treatment analyzed by suitable characterization.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Hybrid Polyamide Composites for Replacement of Metallic Parts

2020-09-25
2020-28-0423
Over the past few decades, the world is looking for a better replacement option for metals. Polymers with reinforcements are finding their way deep inside in most of the engineering application because of its lightweight and superior properties. The aim of this study is to investigate hybrid polymer composite polyphthalamide (PPA) reinforced with glass fibre and Poly tetra fluro ethylene. The reinforcement was varied as 10, 20, 30wt% of Glass Fibre, while fixed quantity of Poly tetra fluro ethylene (PTFE) as 5wt % was taken for hybrid composites preparation. The virgin and hybrid composite specimen were prepared under optimal process parametric conditions through the use of injection moulding techniques and test samples were produced as per ASTM standards. The response of physical properties such as density and various Mechanical testing like Hardness, Tensile Strength, impact and flexural test were carried out and noted.
Technical Paper

The effect of TiB2 on mechanical and microstructural properties of AZ91 matrix composites manufactured by cold chamber die casting process

2020-09-25
2020-28-0425
In these work AZ91 magnesium matrix composites reinforced with two weight fractions (5 and 10 wt. %) of TiB2 particulates were fabricated by cold chamber die casting process technique. The microstructure, density, hardness, mechanical properties of the specimens was investigated. Microstructure studies showed that fairly uniform distribution of reinforcements was achieved up to the weight fraction studied. As compared to base alloy AZ91, the hardness and tensile strength considerably increased with increasing reinforcement content. The presence of TiB2 particles improved the hardness around 24.4 %, compressive strength around 67.2% and the yield strength around 20%. The enormous amount of increment in the compressive strength due to the dislocation density created by the difference in thermal properties of matrix and composites and also due to the micro-pores presence in the composite.
Technical Paper

Improved Calculation methodology for Design of Connecting rod considering Fatigue loads and stresses in IC Engine.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0335
In this work, Improved design and structural calculations of connecting rod of IC engine has been performed. From the functionality point of view, connecting rod must have the higher inertia at the lowest weight. The forces acting on connecting rod are: - Peak combustion pressure force, inertia force of reciprocating masses, Weight of Reciprocating parts and frictional forces due to cylinder wall thrust. It experiences complex loading of compression and tensile under cyclic process. Design calculations are analysed for the axial compressive/ tensile loads and considering the fatigue life of connecting rod. Calculations are based on Actual Endurance limit of connecting rod. To find out Actual Endurance limit, its working temperature factor, surface finish factor, Size factor, stress concentration & reliability factor are derived and considered for calculations. To develop failure criteria, stress patterns of fluctuating loads are properly identified.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Steering Knuckle for FSAE Vehicle

2020-09-25
2020-28-0506
The automobile industry is presently confronting to increase vehicle performance by reducing the weight of the various components .In consideration of weight ,knuckle one of the serious thing to look over it. Steering knuckle is a non standard component (non-catalog) hook up with the constraint wishbones, suspension, brake disc and wheel hub . It undergoes alternating loads subjected to different conditions. In this study we aims in reduction of weight in the knuckle with concession in the yield strength Thus we ate making as three different compact knuckle design . The compact knuckle provides desired direction to the vehicle and also reduces the unsprung mass .To make a compact knuckle enrich a ribs in less stress areas . Spheroidal graphite iron is a material used in commercial car has (yield strength 295mpa and its density 7.3 g/cc ).
Standard

Bolts, Screws and Studs, Nickel Alloy, UNS N07718 Work-Strengthened, Tensile Strength 220 ksi Procurement Specification

2020-08-03
CURRENT
AS5270A
This procurement specification covers bolts, screws, and studs made from a work-strengthened corrosion and heat resistant, age hardenable nickel base alloy of the type identified under the Unified Numbering System as UNS N07718. The following properties are covered: 220 ksi minimum ultimate tensile strength at room temperature 180 ksi minimum ultimate tensile strength at 900 °F 114 ksi tension to 11.4 ksi tension fatigue at room temperature
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