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Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

2020-10-30
2020-32-2313
The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Investigations on NOx and Smoke Emissions Reduction Potential through Diesel-Water Emulsion and Water Fumigation in a Small Bore Diesel Engine

2020-10-30
2020-32-2312
In the present work, a relative comparison of addition of water to diesel through emulsion and fumigation methods is explored for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions in a production small bore diesel engine. The water to diesel ratio was kept the same in both the methods at a lower concentration of 3% by mass to avoid any adverse effects on the engine system components. The experiments were conducted at a rated engine speed of 1500 rpm under varying load conditions. A stable water-diesel emulsion was prepared using a combination of equal proportions (1:1 by volume) of Span 80 and Tween 80. The mixture of Span 80 in diesel and Tween 80 in water was homogenized using an IKA Ultra Turrax homogenizer with tip stator diameter 18mm at 5000 rpm for 2 minutes. The water-in-diesel emulsions thus formulated were kinetically stable and appeared translucent. No phase separation was observed on storage for approximately 105 days.
Technical Paper

Enclosure-In-Chamber Setup to Achieve Near-Zero Background Concentrations for Brake Emissions Testing

2020-10-05
2020-01-1634
Measuring brake emission is still a challenging non-standardized task. Extensive research is ongoing. Updates of work in progress are presented at SAE Brake Colloquium and PMP meetings. However, open items include how to achieve lower background concentration and how to design the brake enclosure. A low background concentration is essential as brake events are short and some emit in the range of reported background levels. Hence these emissions are difficult to distinguished from the background level. Even more critical, a high background concentration can result in a wrong particle number emissions value, either overestimated, background counted as emissions, or underestimated, background level subtracted, and low emission events no longer detected and counted. However, reducing the background level to less than 100 #/cm³ appeared to be quite challenging.
Technical Paper

A Generic Testbody for Low-Frequency Aeroacoustic Buffeting

2020-09-30
2020-01-1515
Raising demands towards lightweight design paired with a loss of originally predominant engine noise pose significant challenges for NVH engineers in the automotive industry. From an aeroacoustic point of view, low frequency buffeting ranks among the most frequently encountered issues. The phenomenon typically arises due to structural transmission of aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations and/or, as indicated in this work, through rear vent excitation. A possible workflow to simulate structure-excited buffeting contains a strongly coupled vibro-acoustic model for structure and interior cavity excited by a spatial pressure distribution obtained from a CFD simulation. In the case of rear vent buffeting no validated workflow has been published yet. While approaches have been made to simulate the problem for a real-car geometry such attempts suffer from tremendous computation costs, meshing effort and lack of flexibility.
Technical Paper

NVH Comfort of Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles

2020-09-30
2020-01-1551
The most appreciated driving characteristics of electric vehicles are the quietness and spontaneous torque rise of the powertrain. The application of range extenders (REX) with internal combustion engines (ICEs) to increase the driving range is a favourable solution regarding costs and weight, especially in comparison with larger battery capacities. However, the NVH integration of a REX is challenging, if the generally silent driving characteristics of electric vehicles shall remain preserved. This paper analyses key NVH aspects for a REX design and integration to fulfil the high expectations regarding noise and vibration comfort in an electric vehicle environment. The ICE for a REX is typically dimensioned for lower power outputs, incorporating a low number of cylinder units, which is even more challenging concerning the NVH integration. The basic REX concept is evaluated by considering power and fuel efficiency demands in combination with an interior noise forecast.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Cooled Low Pressure EGR and Water Injection on Combustion of a Turbocharged GDI Engine

2020-09-27
2020-24-0003
This work focuses on the effects of cooled Low Pressure EGR and Water Injection observed by conducting experimental tests consisting mainly of Spark Advance sweeps at different cooled LP-EGR and WI rates. The implications on combustion and main engine performance indexes are then analysed and modelled with a control-oriented approach, showing that combustion duration and phase and exhaust gas temperature are the main affected parameters. Results show that cooled LP-EGR and WI have similar effects, being the associated combustion speed decrease the main cause of exhaust gas temperature reduction. Experimental data is used to identify control-oriented polynomial models able to capture the effects of LP-EGR and WI on both these aspects. The limitations of LP-EGR are also explored, identifying maximum compressor volumetric flow and combustion stability as the main ones.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study Assessing the Viability of Shifting the Location of Peak In-Cylinder Pressure in Motored Experiments

2020-09-27
2020-24-0009
Some hybrid powertrains utilize an engine to benefit from the power density of the liquid fuel while the electric machine; for transient needs, for very low loads and where legislation prohibits any gaseous and particulate emissions. Consequently, the operating drive cycle of an engine also shifted from its conventional, broad range of speed and load to a narrower operating range of high thermal efficiency. This requires a drastic departure from conventional engine architecture, meaning that analytical models used to predict the behaviour of the engines early in the design cycle are no longer always applicable. Friction models are an example of sub-models which struggle with previously unexplored engine architectures. The pressurized motored method has proven to be a simple experimental setup which allows a robust FMEP determination against which engine friction simulation can be fine-tuned.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of A Fighter Aircraft Cabin Temperature Control System Using Amesim

2020-09-25
2020-28-0497
Environmental Control System (ECS) of an aircraft is a complex system which operates classically in an air standard refrigeration cycle. ECS controls the temperature, pressure and flow of supply air to the cockpit, cabin or occupied compartments. The air cycle system of ECS takes engine bleed air as input. Parameters like bleed air pressure and temperature, mass flow, the external factors like ambient temperature, pressure, and aircraft attitude affect the performance of ECS to a large extent especially during transient. So, it is very important to consider the transient characteristics of these parameters in the design stage itself in order to ascertain the dynamic response of the system. This paper explains in detail the importance of transient input characteristics during the detailed design of ECS. A typical temperature control scheme for combat aircraft ECS has been studied and modeled in LMS AMESim.
Technical Paper

Design and Couple Field Analysis of Uncoated and Coated Aluminium Metal Matrix Hybrid Composite Piston

2020-09-25
2020-28-0391
Piston is the most imperative part of an automotive engine in which it exchanges drive due to expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft through the piston rod. During the combustion of fuel charge inside the ignition chamber, high pressure and temperature are developed and the piston is imperiled to high mechanical and thermal stresses. The main objective of the proposed work is to analyse the stress distributions and thermal behaviour of uncoated A356 - 5% SiC - 10% Fly ash HMMC piston crown and Plasma sprayed Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia(Y-PSZ) coated A356 - 5% SiC - 10% Fly ash HMMC piston crown. A356 - 5% SiC - 10% Fly ash HMMC were fabricated via squeeze casting to improve the performance of a petrol engine. A structural model of an HMMC piston crown was made using CREO software and structural and thermal analysis was done using ANSYS. Further coupled field analysis is done to find the stress and temperature distribution on the piston.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Bearing Oil Supply Concept of a High Power- Density Diesel Engine to Minimize Oil Pump Friction

2020-09-25
2020-28-0338
Reducing the mechanical friction of an internal combustion engine plays a major role in improving the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at the engine level. Hence, it is important to reduce the friction at every component and sub-system level. In the present work, the oil pump friction of a 1.5 litre 4-cylinder diesel engine is optimised by reducing the oil pump displacement volume by 20%. This could be achieved by adapting an optimised oil supply concept which could reduce the oil leakage through main bearings and connecting rod bearings. A 1-dimensional oil flow simulation was carried out to predict the oil flow distribution across the engine at difference speeds. The results indicate that the oil leakage through main bearings and connecting rod bearings contribute to ~25% of the total oil flow requirement of the engine. In a conventional oil supply concept, the big-end bearing of each connecting rod is connected to the adjacent main bearing through an internal oil hole.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Experimental Thermal Mapping and FEA Thermal Simulation for Cylinder Head for Diesel Engine Development.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0353
For upgrading/new engine development, the piston and cylinder head are the most exposed members due to amplified mechanical and thermal loadings. Mechanical loading is basically due to the combustion gas pressure in the combustion chamber and its scale can be judged in terms of peak cylinder pressure. Thermal loading is due to temperature by heat flux acting on the piston surface, cylinder liner and the cylinder head. The relative importance of the various loads applied on the head and cylinder block in operation are assessed and a method of predicting their influence on the structural integrity of the components described by doing actual test on engine test bench. So therefore, its very important to have thermal survey of the engine. The engine thermal survey test was primarily developed to measure the temperature in the head of the engine to determine if the temperatures that are measured are within the design guidelines for appropriate engine operation.
Technical Paper

Ergonomic study of occupant seating using near-vertical posture for shared mobility applications

2020-09-25
2020-28-0519
Transportation system is at the brink of revolution and many new ways of mobility are arising in the market to ease the pressure on the established transportation infrastructure. Many companies and government around the world are exploring innovative options in the space of shared mobility to reduce the overall carbon footprint. To expedite the adoption of shared mobility based travelling options in India, it is necessary to make such options comfortable and cost-effective. To make the mobility option cost-effective, it is important to comfortably allow as many passengers per vehicle foot-print as possible. This paper aims to evaluate a novel method of occupant seating to maximize the number of passages the vehicle cabin can accommodate. Since shared mobility options are used for a short duration of commute, the comfort of the seat can be compromised for increasing the no. of occupants. This paper studies the relation between occupant comfort and the inclination of seat cushion.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Contact Pressure Existance in Sealing Structure

2020-09-25
2020-28-0343
Sealing is one of the important components in automotive and aerospace industry. The primary function of lip seal is to protect contamination and retaining the lubricant. This investigation relates to study of contact pressure existence on dynamic sealing. Sealing for steering intermediate shaft requires sliding motion between shaft and seal as well as protection of lubricant from contamination and retention. Contact pressure analysis of Steering intermediate shaft with hyper elastic rubber seal is done at static as well as sliding condition using ABAQUS. Experiments were also conducted to check contact pressure between seal and shaft by using Fuji-pressure film sensor. The result from CAE analysis was compared with experimental data. This analysis of contact pressure helps to support enough interference between seal and shaft with satisfies the need of sealing as well as sliding in intermediate shaft.
Technical Paper

EGR Mixer Optimization for Equal EGR Distribution to each Cylinder using 1D-3D CFD Coupled Simulation

2020-09-25
2020-28-0390
Vehicles are main source of pollution contributor, producing substantial amounts of pollutants. Pollution causes the health problems, hence Emission legislations are becoming increasingly strict all over the world moving from Trem IIIA to Stage V for Off-highway vehicles. EGR has been successfully proved as a useful technology to reduce NOx by decreasing the oxygen concentration and the peak temperature of the combustion. Due to compact design and space restriction, the distance required for the homogeneous mixing of fresh air and EGR is not enough. Therefore the mixing of the EGR and distribution of the EGR over the cylinders is not equal.
Technical Paper

Improved Calculation methodology for Design of Connecting rod considering Fatigue loads and stresses in IC Engine.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0335
In this work, Improved design and structural calculations of connecting rod of IC engine has been performed. From the functionality point of view, connecting rod must have the higher inertia at the lowest weight. The forces acting on connecting rod are: - Peak combustion pressure force, inertia force of reciprocating masses, Weight of Reciprocating parts and frictional forces due to cylinder wall thrust. It experiences complex loading of compression and tensile under cyclic process. Design calculations are analysed for the axial compressive/ tensile loads and considering the fatigue life of connecting rod. Calculations are based on Actual Endurance limit of connecting rod. To find out Actual Endurance limit, its working temperature factor, surface finish factor, Size factor, stress concentration & reliability factor are derived and considered for calculations. To develop failure criteria, stress patterns of fluctuating loads are properly identified.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Effect of Synchronizer Strut Detent Groove Profile on Static and Dynamic Gear Shift Quality of a Manual Transmission

2020-09-25
2020-28-0319
Automotive manufacturers are constantly working towards enhancing the driving experience of the customers. In this context, improving the static and dynamic gear shift quality plays a major role in ensuring a pleasant and comfortable driving experience. Moreover, the gear shift quality of any manual transmission is mainly defined by the design of the synchronizer system. In the present work, the static and dynamic shift quality of a 300 Nm manual transmission is analyzed with different synchronizer sleeve strut detent profiles. The synchronizer sleeve strut detent groove profile play a vital role in defining the performance of the synchronizer system by generating the minimum required pre-synchronization force. This force is important to move the outer synchronizer ring (blocker ring) to the required index position and to wipe-out the oil from the conical friction surfaces to build rapid high cone torque.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Heat Transfer Rate to Coolant from Combustion Chamber of Liquid Cooled IC Engine

2020-09-25
2020-28-0366
Heat transfer analysis in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engine is crucial to design the combustion chamber. Manufactures will always look for the durability, better engine performance and also on the material cost for designing the combustion chamber. This will be achieved by designing the efficient combustion chamber effectively. The purpose of this paper is to determine the Adiabatic Flame Temperature using stoichiometric equations and find the gas temperatures at different points in the ideal diesel cycle. These values are used in the existed heat transfer coefficient equations and estimate the heat transfer to the coolant through the cylinder wall using one dimensional heat equation. This theoretical value of heat transfer rate is compared with the experimental heat transfer rate of the three cylinder engine. The average error percentage of the theoretical and experimental values is less than the 15 %.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Parameters on performance and emission of DI Diesel Engine Fueled by 1,4-Dioxane Emulsified Fuel

2020-09-25
2020-28-0518
The pattern of utilizing the water/diesel emulsion fuels in engines has been given great importance due to its eco-friendly nature and minimal exhaustion of petroleum reserves. This investigation displays the impact of 1,4-dioxane emulsified fuel on performance and emissions at various operating pressures. 1,4-dioxane emulsified fuel (DWA10) was prepared with 10% 1,4-dioxane, 10% water, 0.2% surfactant and 79.8% diesel. To estimate the engine performance and emissions, the engine was operated with 180 bar, 200 bar and 220 bar operating pressures and the output was equated with diesel fuel operating on normal pressure of 200 bar. BTE of 1, 4-dioxane emulsified fuel at 220 bar was higher when compared with diesel fuel. CO, HC and BSEC were lower at 220 bar when compare with diesel fuel. However, NOx was found to increase for the higher operating pressure.
Technical Paper

Design and development of Plastic cylinder head cover with Integrated CCV in place of Aluminum Cylinder head cover .

2020-09-25
2020-28-0468
In Current landscape, automotive makers are targeting light weighting and Cost reduction as key areas to improve Energy efficiency and Total cost of ownership respectively. One such area which is becoming increasing popular is use of Thermoplastic in various Engine application. In presented approach, Cylinder head cover for Light duty Diesel engine has been converted from Aluminum to Thermoplastic, additionally Close crankcase ventilation system is integrated in Cover. Further, a novel sealing system is designed to take care of sealing performance issues possibly caused by design of cover. Finally developed components were verified and validated at Vehicle as well as Test bed level for its Durability and reliability. Newly integrated CCV system has also verified for its function. At the end Test results were compared and further actions proposed.
Technical Paper

Processing of Glass Fibre Reinforced Composite LPG Cylinder through Filament Winding Technique and Characterization

2020-09-25
2020-28-0450
The present work focuses on the processing and characterization of LPG cylinder made up of glass fibre reinforced composite (GFRC) material. The commercial steel LPG cylinder is difficult to handle due to more weight and easily corroded with moisture environment. To overcome this problem, composite material which has high specific stiffness, high specific strength, less weight and high corrosion resistance to moisture is used to fabricate the LPG cylinder. In this investigation, the LPG cylinder with dimensions of commercial 5 kg Steel LPG cylinder is made by filament winding technique. While fabricating, the fibres are wounded on the plastic inner container which is used as gas-tight in-liner. The specimens are prepared from the fabricated composite LPG cylinder. The material properties of composite materials are evaluated by the tensile test, compression test, flexural test, density test and impact test.
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