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Technical Paper

Thermal Modeling of Engine Components for Temperature Prediction and Fluid Flow Regulation

2001-03-05
2001-01-1014
The operation of internal combustion engines depend on the successful management of the fuel, spark, and cooling processes to ensure acceptable performance, emission levels, and fuel economy. Two different thermal management systems exist for engines - air and liquid cooling. Smaller displacement utility and spark ignition aircraft engines typically feature air cooled systems which rely on forced convection over the exterior engine surfaces. In contrast, passenger/light-duty engines use a water-ethylene glycol mixture which circulates through the radiator, water pump, and heater core. The regulation of the overall engine temperature, based on the coolant's temperature, has been achieved with the thermostat valve and (electric) radiator fan. To provide insight into the thermal behavior of the cylinder-head assembly for enhanced cooling system operation, a dynamic model must exist.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variation of Losses in Intake Regions of IC Engines

1998-02-23
981025
Very large scale, 3D, viscous, turbulent flow simulations, involving 840,000 finite volume cells and the complete form of the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, were conducted to study the mechanisms responsible for total pressure losses in the entire intake system (inlet duct, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a straight-six diesel engine. A unique feature of this paper is the inclusion of physical mechanisms responsible for cylinder-to-cylinder variation of flows between different cylinders, namely, the end-cylinder (#1) and the middle cylinder (#3) that is in-line with the inlet duct. Present results are compared with cylinder #2 simulations documented in a recent paper by the Clemson group, Taylor, et al. (1997). A validated comprehensive computational methodology was used to generate grid independent and fully convergent results.
Technical Paper

IC Engine Intake Region Design Modifications for Loss Reduction Based on CFD Methods

1998-02-23
981026
Computational fluid dynamics methods are applied to the intake regions of a diesel engine in the design stage at Caterpillar. Using a complete, tested and validated computational methodology, fully viscous 3-D turbulent flow simulations are performed for three valve lifts, with the goal of identifying and understanding the physics underlying loss in the intake regions of IC engines. The results of these simulations lead to several design improvements in the intake region. These improvements are made to the computational domain, and flow simulations are again performed at three different valve lifts. Improvements in overall total pressure loss of between 5% and 33% are found in the computed results between the original and modified (improved) domains. Physical mechanisms responsible for these improvements are documented in detail.
Technical Paper

Double-Pass vs. Single-Pass Radiators for Automotive Application

1989-11-01
892466
Experimental evaluations were made of single- and double-pass heat exchangers for automotive application. The study was concerned primarily with the effect of the working parameters, air and water mass flow rates and the inlet water temperature, on the average and local heat transfer coefficients. An automotive radiator having two water-side passes was fabricated and tested. The experimental results were compared with those for a single-pass unit. The study showed that the overall coefficient of heat transfer of the single-pass radiator was higher than that of the double-pass radiator.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Automatic Transmission with Interlocking Dog Clutches: High-Fidelity Modeling, Simulation and Validation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1141
Fuel economy regulations have forced the automotive industry to implement transmissions with an increased number of gears and reduced parasitic losses. The objective of this research is to develop a high fidelity and a computationally efficient model of an automatic transmission, this model should be suitable for controller development purposes. The transmission under investigation features a combination of positive clutches (interlocking dog clutches) and conventional wet clutches. Simulation models for the torque converter, lock-up clutch, transmission gear train, interlocking dog clutches, wet clutches, hydraulic control valves and circuits were developed and integrated with a 1-D vehicle road load model. The integrated powertrain system model was calibrated using measurements from real-world driving conditions. Unknown model parameters, such as clutch pack clearances, compliances, hydraulic orifice diameters and clutch preloads were estimated and calibrated.
Technical Paper

Control Optimization of a Charge Sustaining Hybrid Powertrain for Motorsports

2018-04-03
2018-01-0416
The automotive industry is aggressively pursuing fuel efficiency improvements through hybridization of production vehicles, and there are an increasing number of racing series adopting similar architectures to maintain relevance with current passenger car trends. Hybrid powertrains offer both performance and fuel economy benefits in a motorsport setting, but they greatly increase control complexity and add additional degrees of freedom to the design optimization process. The increased complexity creates opportunity for performance gains, but simulation based tools are necessary since hybrid powertrain design and control strategies are closely coupled and their optimal interactions are not straightforward to predict. One optimization-related advantage that motorsports applications have over production vehicles is that the power demand of circuit racing has strong repeatability due to the nature of the track and the professional skill-level of the driver.
Technical Paper

Handling Deviation for Autonomous Vehicles after Learning from Small Dataset

2018-04-03
2018-01-1091
Learning only from a small set of examples remains a huge challenge in machine learning. Despite recent breakthroughs in the applications of neural networks, the applicability of these techniques has been limited by the requirement for large amounts of training data. What’s more, the standard supervised machine learning method does not provide a satisfactory solution for learning new concepts from little data. However, the ability to learn enough information from few samples has been demonstrated in humans. This suggests that humans may make use of prior knowledge of a previously learned model when learning new ones on a small amount of training examples. In the area of autonomous driving, the model learns to drive the vehicle with training data from humans, and most machine learning based control algorithms require training on very large datasets. Collecting and constructing training data set takes a huge amount of time and needs specific knowledge to gather relevant information.
Technical Paper

Pointing Gesture Based Point of Interest Identification in Vehicle Surroundings

2018-04-03
2018-01-1094
This article presents a pointing gesture-based point of interest computation method via pointing rays’ intersections for situated awareness interactions in vehicles. The proposed approach is compared with two alternative methods: (a) a point of interest identification method based on the intersection of the pointing ray with the point cloud (PoC) resulting from the vehicle sensors, and (b) the traditional ray-casting approach, where the point of interest is computed based on the first intersection of the pointing rays with locations stored in a 2D annotated map. Simulation results show that the presented method outperforms by 36.25% the traditional ray casting one. However, as it was expected, the sensor-based computation method is more accurate. The validation of our approach was conducted by experiments performed in a test track facility.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Scalable Powertrain, Modular Energy Storage and an Alternative Cooling System on a Student Concept Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1185
The Deep Orange program immerses automotive engineering students into the world of an OEM as part of their 2-year graduate education. In support of developing the program’s seventh vehicle concept, the students studied the sponsoring brand essence, conducted market research, and made a heuristic assessment of competitor vehicles. The upfront research lead to the definition of target customers and setting vehicle level targets that were broken down into requirements to develop various vehicle sub-systems. The powertrain team was challenged to develop a scalable propulsion concept enabled by a common vehicle architecture that allowed future customers to select (at the point of purchase) among various levels of electrification best suiting their needs and personal desires. Four different configurations were identified and developed: all-electric, two plug-in hybrid electric configurations, and an internal combustion engine only.
Technical Paper

Development of Endurance Testing Apparatus Simulating Wheel Dynamics and Environment on Lunar Terrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0765
This paper entails the design and development of a NASA testing system used to simulate wheel operation in a lunar environment under different loading conditions. The test system was developed to test the design of advanced nonpneumatic wheels to be used on the NASA All-Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE). The ATHLETE, allowing for easy maneuverability around the lunar surface, provides the capability for many research and exploration opportunities on the lunar surface that were not previously possible. Each leg, having six degrees of freedom, allows the ATHLETE to accomplish many tasks not available on other extra-terrestrial exploration platforms. The robotic vehicle is expected to last longer than previous lunar rovers.
Technical Paper

Computational Method to Examine Spoke Dynamics in a High Speed Rolling Wheel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0071
This paper describes a computational approach to investigating spoke vibrations in cast polyurethane spoked wheels during high-speed rolling. It focuses on four aspects: 1) Creating a two-dimensional finite element model of a cast polyurethane rolling wheel which is in contact with a rigid plane to observe the spoke vibrations. 2) Investigating the effect of rolling speed on the observed spoke vibrations. 3) Investigating the effect of spoke thickness on spoke vibration frequencies. 4) Creating a three-dimensional spoke model to investigate spoke vibrations which exhibit both symmetric and anti-symmetric out-of-plane modes.
Technical Paper

Wear Resistance of Lunar Wheel Treads Made of Polymeric Fabrics

2009-04-20
2009-01-0065
The purpose of this research is to characterize the wear resistance of wheel treads made of polymeric woven and non-woven fabrics. Experimental research is used to characterize two wear mechanisms: (1) external wear due to large sliding between the tread and rocks, and (2) external wear due to small sliding between the tread and abrasive sand. Experimental setups include an abrasion tester and a small-scale merry-go-round where the tread is attached to a deformable rolling wheel. The wear resistance is characterized using various measures including, quantitatively, by the number of cycles to failure, and qualitatively, by micro-visual inspection of the fibers’ surface. This paper describes the issues related to each experiment and discusses the results obtained with different polymeric materials, fabric densities and sizes. The predominant wear mechanism is identified and should then be used as one of the criteria for further design of the tread.
Technical Paper

Compliant Link Suspension

2009-04-20
2009-01-0225
This paper discusses a compliant link suspension concept developed for use on a high performance automobile. This suspension uses compliant or flexible members to integrate energy storage and kinematic guidance functions. The goal of the design was to achieve similar elasto-kinematic performance compared to a benchmark OEM suspension, while employing fewer components and having reduced mass and complexity, and potentially providing packaging advantages. The proposed suspension system replaces a control arm in the existing suspension with a ternary supported compliant link that stores energy in bending during suspension vertical motion. The design was refined iteratively by using a computational model to simulate the elasto-kinematic performance as the dimensions and attachment point locations of the compliant link were varied, until the predicted performance closely matched the performance of the benchmark suspension.
Technical Paper

Design of an Open-Loop Steering Robot Profile for Double Lane Change Maneuver Using Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0096
This paper presents a methodology for designing a simple open-loop steering robot profile to simulate a double lane change maneuver for track testing of a heavy tractor/trailer combination vehicle. For track testing of vehicles in a lane change type of maneuver, a human driver is typically used with a desired path defined with visual cues such as traffic cones. Such tests have been shown to result in poor test repeatability due to natural variation in driver steering behavior. While a steering robot may be used to overcome this repeatability issue, such a robot typically implements open-loop maneuvers and cannot be guaranteed to cause the vehicle to accurately follow a pre-determined trajectory. This paper presents a method using offline simulation to design an open-loop steering maneuver resulting in a realistic approximation of a double lane change maneuver.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of an Optical Soot Sensor for Modern Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1514
It has been extensively evidenced that modern diesel engines generate a considerable amount of soot nanoparticles. Existing soot sensors are not suitable for such nanoparticles. Current standard gravimetric techniques are extremely insensitive to fine soot particles. Soot diagnostics developed for research purposes, e.g., laser induced-incandescence, do not provide quantitative characterization, and expanded practical applications of these techniques are hardly conceivable. This paper addresses this emerging need for monitoring nano-sized soot emissions. Here, we investigated the use of polarization modulated scattering (PMS) for soot sensing in engine environments. The technique involves 1) measuring laser scattering by soot particles at multiple angles while varying the polarization states of the incident laser beam, 2) determining multiple elements of the Mueller matrix from the measured signals, and 3) inferring properties of the soot particles from these elements.
Technical Paper

A Morphological, Combinatory Tool for Design of Low-Gap Automotive Body Panels

2009-04-20
2009-01-0342
This paper proposes a conceptual design tool that could direct designers towards concepts that lead to reduced gaps on the exterior of an automobile. Apart from the manufacturing and assembly tolerance stack up, the design and integration method of the body panels in an automobile contribute to the gap. . A benchmark study suggested cursory concepts to avoid or minimize the gaps. The proposed design tool uses a modified morphological chart approach to populate a table with concepts obtained from the benchmark study and by other means. The design tool also incorporates decision alternatives and hence is different from a morphological chart. The design tool can be used to highlight the occurrence of a high level tolerance stack up chain on the structural/mounting members. Conceptual component architectures are arranged in such a fashion to facilitate combinations through visual means.
Technical Paper

Independent Torque Distribution Strategies for Vehicle Stability Control

2009-04-20
2009-01-0456
This paper proposes and compares torque distribution management strategies for vehicle stability control (VSC) of vehicles with independently driven wheels. For each strategy, the following feedback control variables are considered turn by turn: 1) yaw rate 2) lateral acceleration 3) both yaw rate and lateral acceleration. Computer simulation studies are conducted on the effects of road friction conditions, feedback controller gains, and a driver emulating speed controller. The simulation results indicated that all VSC torque management strategies are generally very effective in tracking the reference yaw rate and lateral acceleration of the vehicle on both dry and slippery surface conditions. Under the VSC strategies employed and the test conditions considered, the sideslip angle of the vehicle remained very small and always below the desired or target values.
Technical Paper

Design of a Scaled Off-Vehicle Wheel Testing Device for Textile Tread Wear

2009-04-20
2009-01-0562
This paper describes the development of test equipment for determining the wear viability of various lunar wheel tread materials with service lives of up to ten years and 10,000 km. The problem is defined, and concepts are proposed, evaluated, and selected. An abrasive turntable is chosen for simplicity and accuracy of modeling the original wheel configuration. Additionally, the limitations of the test are identified, such as the sensitivity to off-vertical loading, and future work is projected in order to more effectively continue testing. Finally, this paper presents the challenges of collaborative research effort between an undergraduate research team and industry, with government lab representatives as customers
Technical Paper

Bonding Strength Modeling of Polyurethane to Vulcanized Rubber

2009-04-20
2009-01-0605
Tires manufactured from polyurethane (PU) have been espoused recently for reduced hysteretic loss, but the material provides poor traction or poor wear resistance in the application, requiring inclusion of a traditional vulcanized rubber tread at the contact surface. The tread can be attached by adhesive methods after the PU body is cured, or the PU can be directly cured to reception sites on the rubber chain molecules unoccupied by crosslinked (vulcanizing) sulfur atoms. This paper provides a study of the two bonding options, both as-manufactured and after dynamic loading representative of tire performance in service. Models of each process are introduced, and an experimental comparison of the bonding strength between each method is made. Results are applied to tire fatigue simulation.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Safe Driving Program for Novice Operators

2013-04-08
2013-01-0441
A safe driver program has been established through a public-private partnership. This program targets novice drivers and uses a combination of classroom and in-vehicle training exercises to address critical driver errors known to lead to crashes. Students participate in four modules: braking to learn proper stopping technique, obstacle avoidance / reaction time to facilitate proper lane selection and collision avoidance, tailgating to learn about following distances, and loss of control to react appropriately when a vehicle is about to become laterally unstable. Knowledge pre and posttests are also administered at the start and end of the program. Students' in-vehicle driving performance are evaluated by instructors as well as recorded by onboard data acquisition units. The data has been evaluated with objective and subjective grading rubrics. The 70 participants in three classes used as a case study achieved an average skill score of 83.93/100.
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