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Technical Paper

Attempts for Reduction of Rear Window Buffeting Using CFD

2005-04-11
2005-01-0603
This paper summarizes the major activities of CFD study on rear window buffeting of production vehicles during the past two years at DaimlerChrysler. The focus of the paper is the attempt to find suitable solutions for buffeting suppression using a developed procedure of CFD simulation with commercial software plus FFT acoustic post-processing. The analysis procedure has been validated using three representative production vehicles and good correlation with wind tunnel tests has been attained which has gained the confidence in solving the buffeting problem. Several attempts have been proposed and tried to find solution for buffeting reduction. Some of them are promising, but feasibility and manufacturability still need discussion. In order to find suitable solution for buffeting reduction, more basic research is necessary, more ideas should be collected, and more joint efforts of CFD and testing are imperative.
Technical Paper

A CFD Validation Study for Automotive Aerodynamics

2000-03-06
2000-01-0129
A study was conducted using Ford's nine standard CFD calibration models as described in SAE paper 940323. The models are identical from the B-pillar forward but have different back end configurations. These models were created for the purpose of evaluating the effect of back end geometry variations on aerodynamic lift and drag. Detailed experimental data is available for each model in the form of surface pressure data, surface flow visualization, and wake flow field measurements in addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values. This data is extremely useful in analyzing the accuracy of the numerical simulations. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of a digital physics based commercial CFD code, PowerFLOW ® to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around the car-like benchmark shapes.
Technical Paper

Interactive Tools for Digital CAE Shape Optimization of Class A Surfaces: A Bridge Between Styling and Engineering

2005-04-11
2005-01-1902
A decade of industrial experience with Exa's CFD software, PowerFLOW, has matured the simulation software to the point where the geometric modeling process is now the bottleneck to efficiency and effectiveness. Simply put, the actual CAE simulation event is now fast enough and accurate enough to drive design intent; however, the geometric design process that supplies alternative models to the software is not fast enough to keep up with the critical path of the design cycle. If CAE tools in general are to play in important role in creating design intent rather than simply verifying completed design work, then the modeling process which drives them will have to improve. In the context of this paper, geometric design involves both Class A exteriors and under-hood geometries. Two pieces of software have been developed to help in this area: PowerWRAP and PowerCLAY.
Journal Article

Application of CFD to Predict Brake Disc Contamination in Wet Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1619
Brake disc materials are being utilised that have low noise/dust properties, but are sensitive to contamination by surface water. This drives large dust shields, making brake cooling increasingly difficult. However, brake cooling must be delivered without compromising aerodynamic drag and hence CO2 emissions targets. Given that front brake discs sit in a region of geometric, packaging and flow complexity optimization of their performance requires the analysis of thermal, aerodynamic and multi-phase flows. Some of the difficulties inherent in this task would be alleviated if the complete analysis could be performed in the same CAE environment: utilizing common models and the same solver technology. Hence the project described in this paper has sought to develop a CFD method that predicts the amount of contamination (water) that reaches the front brake discs, using a standard commercial code already exploited for both brake disc thermal and aerodynamics analysis.
Technical Paper

CFD Water Management Design for a Passenger Coach with Correlation

2016-09-27
2016-01-8155
Side window clarity and its effect on side mirror visibility plays a major role in driver comfort. Driving in inclement weather conditions such as rain can be stressful, and having optimal visibility under these conditions is ideal. However, extreme conditions can overwhelm exterior water management devices, resulting in rivulets of water flowing over the a-pillar and onto the vehicle’s side glass. Once on the side glass, these rivulets and the pooling of water they feed, can significantly impair the driver’s ability to see the side mirror and to see outwardly when in situations such as changing lanes. Designing exterior water management features of a vehicle is a challenging exercise, as traditionally, physical testing methods first require a full-scale vehicle for evaluations to be possible. Additionally, common water management devices such as grooves and channels often have undesirable aesthetic, drag, and wind noise implications.
Technical Paper

CFD Comparison with Wind-Tunnel for a Class 8 Tractor-Trailer

2016-09-27
2016-01-8140
Recent regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles have prompted government agencies to standardize procedures assessing the aerodynamic performance of Class 8 tractor-trailers. The coastdown test procedure is the primary reference method employed to assess vehicle drag currently, while other valid alternatives include constant speed testing, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, and wind tunnel testing. The main purpose of this paper is to compare CFD simulations with a corresponding 1/8th scale wind tunnel test. Additionally, this paper will highlight the impacts of wind tunnel testing on the total drag coefficient performance as compared to full scale open road analysis with and without real world, upstream turbulence wind conditions. All scale model testing and CFD simulations were performed on a class 8 tractor with a standard 53-foot dry-box trailer. The wind tunnel testing was performed in the Auto Research Center (ARC) wind tunnel.
Journal Article

Characterization of Aerodynamic Design Spaces for Adjustable Tractor Surfaces

2016-09-27
2016-01-8147
Trailer positioning plays a significant role in the overall aerodynamics of a tractor-trailer combination and varies widely depending on configuration and intended use. In order to minimize aerodynamic drag over a range of trailer positions, adjustable aerodynamic devices may be utilized. For maximum benefit, it is necessary to determine the optimal position of the aerodynamic device for each trailer position. This may be achieved by characterizing a two-dimensional design space consisting of trailer height and tractor-trailer gap length, with aerodynamic drag as the response. CFD simulations carried out using a Lattice-Boltzmann based method were coupled with modeFRONTIER for the creation of multiple Kriging Response Surfaces. Simulations were carried out in multiple phases, allowing for the generation of intermediate response surfaces to estimate predictive error and track response surface convergence.
Journal Article

CFD Correlation with Wind-Tunnel for Dry Van Trailer Aerodynamic Devices

2016-09-27
2016-01-8016
The primary purpose of this paper is to correlate the CFD simulations performed using PowerFLOW, a Lattice Boltzmann based method, and wind tunnel tests performed at a wind tunnel facility on 1/8th scaled tractor-trailer models. The correlations include results using an aerodynamic-type tractor paired with several trailer configurations, including a baseline trailer without any aerodynamic devices as well as combinations of trailer side skirts and a tractor-trailer gap flow management device. CFD simulations were performed in a low blockage open road environment at full scale Reynolds number to understand how the different test environments impact total aerodynamic drag values and performance deltas between trailer aerodynamic devices. There are very limited studies with the Class-8 sleeper tractor and 53ft long trailer comparing wind tunnel test and CFD simulation with and without trailer aerodynamic device. This paper is to fill this gap.
Technical Paper

Digital Aeroacoustics Design Method of Climate Systems for Improved Cabin Comfort

2017-06-05
2017-01-1787
Over the past decades, interior noise from wind noise or engine noise have been significantly reduced by leveraging improvements of both the overall vehicle design and of sound package. Consequently, noise sources originating from HVAC systems (Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning), fans or exhaust systems are becoming more relevant for perceived quality and passenger comfort. This study focuses on HVAC systems and discusses a Flow-Induced Noise Detection Contributions (FIND Contributions) numerical method enabling the identification of the flow-induced noise sources inside and around HVAC systems. This methodology is based on the post-processing of unsteady flow results obtained using Lattice Boltzmann based Method (LBM) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations combined with LBM-simulated Acoustic Transfer Functions (ATF) between the position of the sources inside the system and the passenger’s ears.
Journal Article

Flow Noise Predictions for Single Cylinder Engine-Mounted Muffler Using a Lattice Boltzmann Based Method

2017-06-05
2017-01-1797
Exhaust systems including mufflers are commonly mounted on engines to reduce the firing cycle noise originating from the combustion process. However, mufflers also produce flow-induced self-noise, originating from the complex flow path throughout the muffler. As an engine prototype is not available in the early stages of a development program, it is challenging to assess the acoustic performance of the full system when only experiment is available. It is also difficult to pinpoint the design features of a muffler generating noise, as a portion of the noise is generated internally. Numerical approaches are a possible alternative. However, capturing non-linear dissipation mechanisms and thermal fluctuations of exhaust flows is challenging, while necessary to accurately predict flow noise.
Journal Article

Exhaust and Muffler Aeroacoustics Predictions using Lattice Boltzmann Method

2015-06-15
2015-01-2314
Exhaust and muffler noise is a challenging problem in the transport industry. While the main purpose of the system is to reduce the intensity of the acoustic pulses originating from the engine exhaust valves, the back pressure induced by these systems must be kept to a minimum to guarantee maximum performance of the engine. Emitted noise levels have to ensure comfort of the passengers and must respect community noise regulations. In addition, the exhaust noise plays an important role in the brand image of vehicles, especially with sports car where it must be tuned to be “musical”. However, to achieve such performances, muffler and exhaust designs have become quite complex, often leading to the rise of undesired self-induced noise. Traditional purely acoustic solvers, like Boundary Element Methods (BEM), have been applied quite successfully to achieve the required acoustic tuning.
Journal Article

Assessment of Broadband Noise Generated by a Vehicle Sunroof at Different Flow Conditions using a Digital Wind Tunnel

2015-06-15
2015-01-2321
For the automotive industry, the quality and level of the wind noise contribution has a growing importance and therefore should be addressed as early as possible in the development process. Each component of the vehicle is designed to meet its individual noise target to ensure the wind noise passenger comfort level inside the vehicle is met. Sunroof broadband noise is generated by the turbulent flow developed over the roof opening. A strong shear layer and vortices impacting on the trailing edge of the sunroof are typical mechanisms related to the noise production. Sunroof designs are tested to meet broadband noise targets. Experimentally testing designs and making changes to meet these design targets typically involves high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions and potentially late design changes.
Journal Article

Flow-Induced Noise Optimization of SUV HVAC System using a Lattice Boltzmann Method

2015-06-15
2015-01-2323
For the automotive industry, acoustic comfort is of increasing importance. The market and customer expectation make the HVAC system noise quality a question to be addressed as early as possible in the vehicle development process. On one hand, the so-called traditional sources of annoyance such as engine, road-tires contact, exhaust systems and wind-noise have been significantly reduced for most traditional combustion engine vehicles. On the other hand, considered in the past as secondary noise sources, HVAC systems become the main sources for hybrid and electric and Stop-start vehicles. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of a CFD/CAA approach based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to predict HVAC system noise including real and complex ducts, registers, mixing unit and blower geometries.
Journal Article

From Exterior Wind Noise Loads to Interior Cabin Noise: A Validation Study of a Generic Automotive Vehicle

2015-06-15
2015-01-2328
The object of the validation study presented in this paper is a generic vehicle, the so-called SAE body, developed by a consortium of German car manufacturers (Audi, Daimler, Porsche, Volkswagen). Many experiments have been performed by the abovementioned consortium on this object in the past to investigate its behavior when exposed to fluid flow. Some of these experiments were used to validate the simulation results discussed in the present paper. It is demonstrated that the simulation of the exterior flow is able to represent the transient hydrodynamic structures and at the same time both the generation of the acoustic sources and the propagation of the acoustic waves. Performing wave number filtering allows to identify the acoustic phenomena and separate them from the hydrodynamic effects. In a next step, the noise transferred to the interior of the cabin through the glass panel was calculated, using a Statistical Energy Analysis approach.
Technical Paper

The Lattice-Boltzmann Method: An Alternative to LES for Complex Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Simulations in the Aerospace Industry

2015-09-15
2015-01-2575
An overview of the theory and applications of the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM) is presented in this paper. LBM has gained a reputation over the past decade as a viable alternative to traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based methods for the solution of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications in the aerospace and automotive industries. The theoretical background of the method is presented and the key differentiators to traditional RANS methods are summarized. We then look at current and potential future applications of CFD in the aerospace industry and identify a number of areas where the limitations of RANS tools, in particular with regard to unsteady flows and the handling of complex geometries, prevent a deeper penetration of CFD into product development processes in the aerospace industry.
Journal Article

A Computational Approach to Assess Buffeting and Broadband Noise Generated by a Vehicle Sunroof

2015-04-14
2015-01-1532
Car manufacturers put large efforts into reducing wind noise to improve the comfort level of their cars. Each component of the vehicle is designed to meet its individual noise target to ensure the wind noise passenger comfort level inside the vehicle is met. Sunroof designs are tested to meet low-frequency buffeting (also known as boom) targets and broadband noise targets for the fully open sunroof with deflector and for the sunroof in vent position. Experimentally testing designs and making changes to meet these design targets typically involves high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the use of a reliable numerical prediction capability early in the vehicle design process.
Technical Paper

Advances in Modelling A-Pillar Water Overflow

2015-04-14
2015-01-1549
Driving when it is raining can be a stressful experience. Having a clear unobstructed view of the vehicles and road around you under these conditions is especially important. Heavy rain conditions can however overwhelm water management devices resulting in water rivulets flowing over the vehicle's side glass. These rivulets can significantly impair the driver's ability to see the door mirror, and laterally onto junctions. Designing water management features for vehicles is a challenging venture as testing is not normally possible until late in the design phase. Additionally traditional water management features such as grooves and channels have both undesirable design and wind noise implications. Having the ability to detect water management issues such as A-pillar overflow earlier in the design cycle is desirable to minimize the negative impact of water management features. Numerical simulation of windscreen water management is desirable for this reason.
Technical Paper

Application of Real-World Wind Conditions for Assessing Aerodynamic Drag for On-Road Range Prediction

2015-04-14
2015-01-1551
Aerodynamic evaluation of vehicles using static yaw angle changes in wind tunnel testing and numerical simulation has been used as standard practice for evaluating vehicle performance under a range of wind conditions. However, this approach does not consider dynamic wind effects coming from changing wind conditions, passing other vehicles and roadside obstacles, and transient non-uniform wind conditions coming from environmental turbulence. In previous work by the authors, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation methodology for considering dynamic wind conditions and on-road turbulence was demonstrated, showing the important effects of the wind conditions on the vehicle aerodynamics. The technique allows the vehicle to be tested under a range of transient gust conditions, also accounting for wind turbulence coming from upstream vehicles and natural environmental wind fluctuations.
Journal Article

Comparison of Computational Simulation of Automotive Spinning Wheel Flow Field with Full Width Moving Belt Wind Tunnel Results

2015-04-14
2015-01-1556
One of the remaining challenges in the simulation of the aerodynamics of ground vehicles is the modeling of the airflows around the spinning tires and wheels of the vehicle. As in most advances in the development of simulation capabilities, it is the lack of appropriately detailed and accurate experimental data with which to correlate that holds back the advance of the technology. The flow around the wheels and tires and their interfaces with the vehicle body and the ground is a critical area for the development of automobiles and trucks, not just for aerodynamic forces and moments, and their result on fuel economy and vehicle handling and performance, but also for the airflows and pressures that affect brake cooling, engine cooling airflows, water spray management etc.
Journal Article

A Computational Approach to Evaluate the Automotive Windscreen Wiper Placement Options Early in the Design Process

2013-05-13
2013-01-1933
For most car manufacturers, wind noise from the greenhouse region has become the dominant high frequency noise contributor at highway speeds. Addressing this wind noise issue using experimental procedures involves high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the use of a reliable numerical prediction capability early in the vehicle design process. Previously, a computational approach that couples an unsteady computational fluid dynamics solver (based on a Lattice Boltzmann method) to a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) solver had been validated for predicting the noise contribution from the side mirrors. This paper presents the use of this computational approach to predict the vehicle interior noise from the windshield wipers, so that different wiper placement options can be evaluated early in the design process before the surface is frozen.
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