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Technical Paper

Development of Urea-SCR System for Light-Duty Diesel Passenger Car

Urea-SCR system consisted of combined deNOx catalysts with wide range of temperature window, injector, sensor and injection controller. Synthetic gas activity test and NOx conversion efficiency test on the engine bench were carried out to evaluate and improve the performance of this system. To better suit the application of the urea-SCR system without engine modification, temperature of catalyst and engine RPM were used as input data to control amounts of urea aqueous solution that reacts with NOx. We concentrated on designing types of deNOx catalysts and controlling amounts of urea solution under different driving conditions to achieve higher NOx reduction and wider temperature window. Designed urea-SCR system showed substantial NOx reduction performance and relatively wide temperature window under different driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Composite Body Panels for a Lightweight Vehicle

Recently weight reduction is increasingly needed in automotive industry to improve fuel efficiency and to meet a CO2 emission requirement. In this paper, we prepared composite body panels for the lightweight vehicle based on a small passenger car. Fender, roof, door, side outer panel, and tailgate are made from hand layup using a glass/carbon hybrid reinforcement. Hood is made from low pressure sheet molding compound (SMC) to investigate feasibility of mass production. Both hand layup and low pressure SMC materials are newly developed and their physical properties are examined. CAE simulation was done for strength analysis and optimization of thickness for the body panels.
Technical Paper

Experimental Body Panel Contribution Analysis for Road Induced Interior Noise of a Passenger Car

This paper describes more in detail the methodology, the measurements and the results of the ASQ method. The Airborne Sound Quantification method aims at identifying the acoustical contribution of the different body panels surrounding a cavity. The contribution of different body panels is the product of the acoustical strength (or volume velocity) of each panel with the corresponding acoustic transfer function between the panel and the interior microphone position. These volume velocities are the product of the corresponding normal velocity and the surface. The normal velocity has been measured by means of accelerometers attached to the different subpanels. In the next step, the acoustical FRF's are measured in an indirect way using the reciprocity principle. This means that the pressure response at all the subpanels is measured when the acoustical excitation takes place at the target interior noise microphone position. A high quality low frequency sound source has been used.
Technical Paper

The Opening Mechanism Analysis on Hood, Tail Gate, and Trunk Lid by Mathematical Modeling

The theory and the computer software to analyze the behaviour of moving mechanism(Hood, Tail Gate and Trunk Lid) equiped with the gas lifters or the torsion bars has been developed to figure out what will be the dynamic behaviour of moving mechanism at the design stage. The developed computer software gives the approximated calculation of load-angle characteristics, the velocity, the acceleration and the total opening time so that the designer makes the optimum decision on the location and the strength of panel to which the gas lifters or the torsion bars are mounted.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Failure and Reinforcing Method of Spot Welded Area at the Stage of Vehicle Development

Vehicle body structures are formed by thousands of spot welds, and fatigue failure of vehicle structures occur near the spot welds after driving a long way at a durability test road. It is necessary to know accurately the reason of the fatigue failure of the spot weld in the developing stage in order to reinforce it. Many investigations have been done regarding the strength of spot welded joints, contributing to understand its fatigue strength. In the developing process, a fatigue failed spot welded area can be repaired by CO2 welding or another method to continue the test. To know the effect of reinforcing these welds, several methods of welding were analyzed and compared to spot welding. With the results of this test, the appropriate repair method can be used instead of spot welding during the development of a new car and the best design guide can be given for the strength.
Technical Paper

Design of A Light Weight Suspension Component Using CAE

In this paper, a design procedure for the optimized light weight front cross member, which is a sub frame of the car chassis, without sacrificing basic functional requirements is presented. As the first step, optimal structural integrity was calculated and extracted using a CAE technique with the available volume constraint of the package layout. Quantitative design loads for the cross member was achieved by measurement. Dynamic load analysis using ADAMS was also performed to determine the loads. Later, these calculated loads were applied to the FEM stress analysis of the cross member. Furthermore, durability analysis was also performed using load profile database measured from ‘Hyundai Motor Co. Proving Ground’. Four constant amplitude durability tests and two static tests were performed on the cross member prototypes to confirm design reliability.
Technical Paper

Research on Stick & Sprag-Slip Phenomenon of Door Waist Belts

The squeak noise generated during the moving of the door glass has a influence on the performance of vehicles felt by the consumer. In order to improve the noise, it is necessary to understand the principle of a friction vibration. In this paper, it is confirmed that the principle on the waist belt is most closely related to stick-slip and sprag-slip among various vibration characteristics. Stick-slip is expressed by energy accumulation and divergence due to difference in static and dynamic friction coefficient. Sprag-slip define instability of geometric structure due to angle of lips on the belt. In this paper, the physical model and the energy equation are established for the above two phenomena. Stick-slip can be solved by decreasing the difference of the static and dynamic friction coefficient. Sprag-slip is caused by the ratio of compressive and shear stiffness of the lips. The belt uses flocking to ensure durability, not coating.
Technical Paper

Invisible PAB Door Development Using Two-shot Molding

Invisible Passenger-side Airbag (IPAB) door system must be designed with a weakened area such that the airbag will break through the Instrument Panel (IP) in the intended manner, with no flying debris at any temperature. At the same time, there must be no cracking or sharp edges at the head impact test (ECE 21.01). Needless to say, Head impact test must keep pace with the deployment test. In this paper, we suggested soft airbag door system that is integrally molded with a hard instrument panel by using Two-shot molding. First of all, we set up the design parameters of IPAB door for the optimal deployment and head impact performance by CAE analysis. And then we optimized the open-close time at each gate of the mold so that the soft and hard material could be integrally molded with the intended boundary. We could make the boundary of two materials more constant by controlling the open-close time of each gate with resin temperature sensor.
Technical Paper

An Improved Methodology for Calculation of the Inertial Resistance of Automotive Latching Systems

This paper outlines an improved methodology to perform calculations to verify the compliance of automotive door latch systems to minimum legal requirements as well as to perform additional due diligence calculations necessary to comprehend special cases such as roll over crashes and locally high inertial loadings. This methodology builds on the calculation method recommended by SAE J839 and provides a robust and clear approach for application of this method to cable release systems, which were not prevalent at the time J839 was originally drafted. This method is useful in and of itself but its utility is further increased by the application of the method to a Computer Aided Design (CAD) template (in this case for Catia V5), that allows some automation of the calculation process for a given latch type. This will result in a savings of time, fewer errors and allows for an iterative concurrent analysis during the design process.
Technical Paper

A Case Study: Application of Analytical and Numerical Techniques to Squeak and Rattle Analysis of a Door Assembly

Squeak and rattle (S&R) problems in body structure and trim parts have become serious issues for automakers because of their influence on the initial quality perception of consumers. In this study, various CAE and experimental methods developed by Hyundai Motors for squeak and rattle analysis of door systems are reported. Friction-induced vibration and noise generation mechanisms of a door system are studied by an intelligent combination of experimental and numerical methods. It is shown that the effect of degradation of plastics used in door trims can be estimated by a numerical model using the properties obtained experimentally. Effects of changes in material properties such as Young's modulus and loss factor due to the material degradation as well as statistical variations are predicted for several door system configurations. As a new concept, the rattle and squeak index is proposed, which can be used to guide the design.
Technical Paper

Two-Step Hood Opening System Development for Easier Hood Opening Operation

Recently, the demand for improving the merchantability of hood open system has been increasing. A novel concept hood open system was proposed by Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) in 2012, which was based on a two-step open latch mechanism. The new hood opening mechanism satisfies Safety laws and improves merchantability.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Body Structure for Road Noise Performance

It is common knowledge that body structure is an important factor of road noise performance. Thus, a high stiffness of body system is required, and determining their optimized stiffness and structure is necessary. Therefore, a method for improving body stiffness and validating the relationship between stiffness and road noise through CAE and experimental trials was tested. Furthermore, a guideline for optimizing body structure for road noise performance was suggested.
Technical Paper

The Study of the Parameter of Roof Rack & Cross Bar for the Reduction of Wind Noise

An increasing number of cars which are being used to foster leisure and a convenient life for consumers are being outfitted with roof racks and/or cross bars. This trend of installing roof racks is partly for the function of carrying objects on the roof of the vehicle and partly as a way to affect the style and exterior look of the vehicle. Therefore, the application of roof racks and cross bars is becoming increasingly important in the automotive industry. Because of the expanding application of roof racks on vehicles, the challenge of reducing wind noise caused by exposed cross bars becomes the main issue in this field. For solving this problem, the cross bar shape is designed and evaluated in the development stage, and if there is a problem, it is re-designed and re-evaluated many times. This repetitive corrective action is called “trial and error”.
Technical Paper

Low-pressure molding compound hood panel for a passenger car

Low-pressure molding compound (LPMC) is a new kind of composite material which can be used for automotive body panels. LPMC has similar mechanical properties compared to conventional sheet molding compound (SMC) but excellent moldability due to the different thickening system. In this paper, we prepared LPMC hood prototype for a passenger car using a low-cost tooling. Inner panel and outer panel were made of general-density- and low-density-grade LPMC, respectively, in order to maximize weight reduction maintaining surface quality. Physical properties containing tensile strength, flexural modulus, notched Izod impact strength of those samples were investigated. In addition, CAE simulation was also done for strength analysis of the hood assembly.
Technical Paper

Invisible Advanced Passenger-Side Airbag Door Design for Optimal Deployment and Head Impact Performance

Hard panel types of invisible passenger-side airbag (IPAB) door system must be designed with a weakened area such that the airbag will deploy through the Instrument Panel (IP) in the intended manner, with no flying debris at any required operating temperature. At the same time, there must be no cracking or sharp edges in the head impact test (ECE 21.01). If the advanced-airbag with the big difference between high and low deployment pressure ranges are applied to hard panel types of IPAB door system, it becomes more difficult to optimize the tearseam strength for satisfying deployment and head impact performance simultaneously. We introduced the ‘Operating Window’ idea from quality engineering to design the hard panel types of IPAB door applied to the advanced-airbag for optimal deployment and head impact performance. To accurately predict impact performance, it is important to characterize the strain rate.
Technical Paper

An Application of Acoustic Metamaterial for Reducing Noise Transfer through Car Body Panels

This paper presents the design of an additional structure based on acoustic metamaterial (AMM) for the reduction of vibro-acoustic transfer function of a car body panel. As vehicles are lighter and those engine forces are bigger recently, it has become more difficult to reduce the vibration and noise transfer through body panels by using just conventional NVH countermeasures. In this research, a new approach based on AMM is tried to reduce the vibration and noise transfer of a firewall panel. First, a unit cell structure based on the locally resonant metamaterial is devised and the unit cell’s design variables are studied to increase the wave attenuation in the stop band of a dispersion curve, where the Floquet-Bloch theorem is used to estimate the dispersion curve of a two-dimensional periodic structure. Also, the vibration transfer and the vibro-acoustic transfer are predicted in a FE model of meta-plate which is composed of a periodic system of the devised unit cell.
Technical Paper

Development of Roof Crush Analysis Technique Using Simple Model with Plastic Hinge Concept

A computational technique for predicting roof crush resistance in the early design stage of vehicle development is presented in this paper. This technique developed a simple nonlinear finite element beam model with several nonlinear spring elements which represent plastic hinge behaviors after bending collapse. In general, these plastic hinge behaviors are apt to occur al each weak area of vehicle body structure. By idealizing actual sections as equivalent simple sections, maximum bending moments are calculated for all weak areas. Predicted results of roof crush resistance arc correlated well with test results.
Technical Paper

Seat Common Frame Design Optimization

Due to technological evolutions and social demands, motor vehicles are requested to be enhanced in terms of occupant safety and comfort. As a result, many countries are reinforcing crash regulations and new car assessment programs. Automotive seats are essential parts for providing passenger safety and comfort and have become most important. Many automotive companies concentrate on optimization of the seat structure. This paper presents an overview of the recent evolution of the seat structures and gives a development procedure covering seat frame design, optimization and validation. Through the study, a competitive frame design is drawn as a case result and a design guideline and a standard development procedure is established
Technical Paper

Development of the Wireless Power Transfer Technology for a Sliding Door

The sliding door’s movement is 3-dimensional unlike the conventional door. So the electric power and signal are exchanged via the long ‘Power Cable’. It has a quite complex structure in order to be suitable to connect the vehicle’s body and the sliding door even during it’s moving. As the result, it is more expensive than conventional door’s one and the quality could not be guaranteed easily. In this paper, I have developed new technology which could transfer electric power by ‘wireless transfer’ in order to resolve the problem from using ‘Power cable’. I would propose the proper structure to transfer the electric power at any position of the sliding door without any physical connection. To transfer the electric power which drives the window regulator and the actuators in door, I have applied the ‘inductive coupling’ system.