Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Simple Bluff Body Using Base Bleed

2003-03-03
2003-01-0995
Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a simple bluff body model, representing a car like shape, to investigate drag reduction opportunities from injecting low velocity air into the base region. This flow is known as base bleed. Most tests have been carried out using a square back shape. The effects of flow rate, porosity and porosity distribution over the base area have been investigated. In all cases drag is reduced with increasing bleed rate, but the optimum porosity is a function of bleed rate. A significant part of the drag reduction occurs without the bleed flow and arises from the presence of a cavity in the model. The effects of cavity size are examined for different base configurations. Some factors affecting implementation are considered.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emission Evaluation of a Small Diesel Engine Fuelled with Coconut Oil Methyl Esters

1998-02-23
981156
Renewable sources of energy need to be developed to fulfill future energy demands in areas such as the Maldives where traditional sources of raw materials are limited or non-existent. This paper explores the use of an alternative fuel derived from coconut oil that can be produced in the Maldives and can be used in place of diesel fuel. The main advantage of this particular fuel is that it is a highly saturated oil with a calorific value close to standard diesel fuel. The viscosity of the crude coconut oil is much higher than standard diesel fuel. To reduce the viscosity and to make the oil more suitable for conventional diesel engines methyl esters were produced using the transesterification process (1). The engine performed well on the coconut oil methyl esters although there was a small reduction in power consistent with the lower calorific value of the alternative fuel. Comparative performance data together with the emission levels for the two fuels are presented.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Air Flow Around an Inlet Valve Using a Pitot Probe

1998-02-23
980142
This paper describes a detailed study into the use of a pitot probe to measure air flow around an inlet valve under steady state conditions. The study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of the method for locating areas of a port and valve which may be contributing to a poor overall discharge coefficient. This method would provide a simple and cheap experimental tool for use throughout the industry. The method involves mounting a miniature internal chamfer pitot tube on a slider attached to the base of the valve. The probe can traverse the appropriate area by rotating the valve and moving it along the slide. Changing the probe allows measurements in different planes, allowing the whole region around the valve to be surveyed. The cylinder head complete with instrumentation is mounted on a steady flow rig. The paper presents the results obtained at different valve lifts on a production cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Benefits of Stochastic Optimisation with Grid Price Prediction for Electric Vehicle Charging

2017-03-28
2017-01-1701
The goal of grid friendly charging is to avoid putting additional load on the electricity grid when it is heavily loaded already, and to reduce the cost of charging to the consumer. In a smart metering system, Day Ahead tariff (DA) prices are announced in advance for the next day. This information can be used for a simple optimization control, to select to charge at cheapest times. However, the balance of supply and demand is not fully known in advance and the Real-Time Prices (RTP) are therefore likely to be different at times. There is always a risk of a sudden price change, hence adding a stochastic element to the optimization in turn requiring dynamic control to achieve optimal time selection. A stochastic dynamic program (SDP) controller which takes this problem into account has been made and proven by simulation in a previous paper.
Technical Paper

The Position Control of a Gasoline Engine during Shutdown

2017-03-28
2017-01-1630
Since the first stop-start system introduced in 1983, more and more vehicles have been equipped with this kind of automatic engine control system. Recently, it was found that there is strong correlation between engine resting position and the subsequent engine start time. The utilization of the synchronization time working from a required engine stop position prior the engine start request was shown to reduce start times. Hence the position control of an engine during shutdown becomes more significant. A naturally aspirated engine was modelled using the GT-Suite modelling environment to facilitate the development of position controllers using Simulink ®. The use of respectively the throttle and a belt mounted motor generator to provide a control input was considered. Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID), sliding mode and deadbeat control strategies were each used in this study.
Technical Paper

A Low Order Model of SCR-in-DPF Systems with Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

2018-04-03
2018-01-0953
This paper presents a method to achieve a low order system model of the urea-based SCR catalyst coated filter (SCR-in-DPF or SCRF or SDPF), while preserving a high degree of fidelity. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), also known as principal component analysis (PCA), or Karhunen-Loéve decomposition (KLD), is a statistical method which achieves model order reduction by extracting the dominant characteristic modes of the system and devises a low-dimensional approximation on that basis. The motivation for using the POD approach is that the low-order model directly derives from the high-fidelity model (or experimental data) thereby retains the physics of the system. POD, with Galerkin projection, is applied to the 1D + 1D SCR-in-DPF model using ammonia surface coverage and wall temperature as the dominant system states to achieve model order reduction.
Technical Paper

The Development of Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Generators for Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0788
With the continuing improvements to thermoelectric (TE) materials and systems, their potential for both energy recovery and thermal management is increasingly apparent. Recent developments in materials and notably Skutterudites have allowed materials to be matched much more closely to the working temperatures of a light duty power-train. The choice of TE materials remains a substantial question in the design of a thermoelectric generator (TEG). While the quest for improvements in materials performance continues, the work reported in this paper is characterized by the decision to focus on the refinement of one class of TE materials: Skutterudites. In parallel, the engineering work on the integration of the TE materials into a heat exchanger could continue and be focused on the properties of this class of material. Skutterudites offer the combination of a high working temperature and a competitive electrical output (defined by ZT, the figure of merit).
Technical Paper

Review of Selection Criteria for Sensor and Actuator Configurations Suitable for Internal Combustion Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0758
This literature review considers the problem of finding a suitable configuration of sensors and actuators for the control of an internal combustion engine. It takes a look at the methods, algorithms, processes, metrics, applications, research groups and patents relevant for this topic. Several formal metric have been proposed, but practical use remains limited. Maximal information criteria are theoretically optimal for selecting sensors, but hard to apply to a system as complex and nonlinear as an engine. Thus, we reviewed methods applied to neighboring fields including nonlinear systems and non-minimal phase systems. Furthermore, the closed loop nature of control means that information is not the only consideration, and speed, stability and robustness have to be considered. The optimal use of sensor information also requires the use of models, observers, state estimators or virtual sensors, and practical acceptance of these remains limited.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of Asymmetric Side Tapering in Constant Cross Wind Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0718
Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) often have blunt rear end geometries for design and practicality, which is not typically aerodynamic. Drag can be reduced with a number of passive and active methods, which are generally prioritised at zero yaw, which is not entirely representative of the “on road” environment. As such, to combine a visually square geometry (at rest) with optimal drag reductions at non-zero yaw, an adaptive system that applies vertical side edge tapers independently is tested statically. A parametric study has been undertaken in Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale Windsor Model. The aerodynamic effect of implementing asymmetric side tapering has been assessed for a range of yaw angles (0°, ±2.5°, ±5° and ±10°) on the force and moment coefficients.
Technical Paper

A Computational and Experimental Investigation into the Effects of Debris on an Inverted Double Wing in Ground Effect

2018-04-03
2018-01-0726
Cars in several motor sports series, such as Formula 1, make use of multi-element front wings to provide downforce. These wings also provide onset flows to other surfaces that generate downforce. These elements are highly loaded to maximise their performance and are generally operating close to stall. Rubber debris, often known as marbles, created from the high slip experienced by the soft compound tyres can become lodged in the multiple elements of a front wing. This will lead to a reduction in the effectiveness of the wing over the course of a race. This work will study the effect of such debris, both experimentally and numerically, on an inverted double element wing in ground effect at representative Reynolds numbers. The wing was mounted at two different ride heights above a fixed false-floor in the Loughborough University wind tunnel and the effect of debris blockage modelled by closing sections of the gap between elements with tape.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Novel Method for Low-Temperature Ammonia Production Using DEF for Mobile Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0333
The worldwide introduction of new emission standards and new, more encompassing, legislating cycles have led to a need to increase both a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system’s capacity and conversion efficiency. To this end, it is important for an SCR system to operate to the extremes of its temperature range which in many systems is currently limited by the temperature at which diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) can easily decompose without the formation of deposits. This paper analyses a new system for low-temperature ammonia provision to the SCR reaction. Ammonia Creation and Conversion Technology (ACCT) uses pressure controlled thermal decomposition of DEF followed by re-formation to form a fluid with greater volatility and the same ammonia density as DEF conforming to ISO 22241. A dosing strategy can then be employed where any combination of DEF or ACCT solution can be used to provide ammonia as a reductant over the whole activity temperature range of a catalyst.
Technical Paper

GPS Based Energy Management Control for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1226
In 2012 MAHLE Powertrain developed a range-extended electric vehicle (REEV) demonstrator, based on a series hybrid configuration, and uses a battery to store electrical energy from the grid. Once the battery state of charge (SOC) is depleted a gasoline engine (range extender) is activated to provide the energy required to propel the vehicle. As part of the continuing development of this vehicle, MAHLE Powertrain has developed control software which can intelligently manage the use of the battery energy through the combined use of GPS and road topographical data. Advanced knowledge of the route prior to the start of a journey enables the software to calculate the SOC throughout the journey and pre-determine the optimum operating strategy for the range extender to enable best charging efficiency and minimize NVH. The software can also operate without a pre-determined route being selected.
Technical Paper

Microprocessor Controlled Fuel Injection for Automotive Diesel Engines

1983-02-01
830576
An electronically controlled fuel system has been developed which enables the injection timing and fuel delivery to be adjusted from engine cycle to cycle using a small micro-computer and a solenoid operated injector. The injector uses a powerful solenoid to control the needle lift of a standard injector and employs pressure time metering to regulate the fuel delivery. The microcomputer is used to determine the required timing pulses which are used to control the current in the solenoid. The maximum delivery of the injector is 60mm3/injection and the system has been successfully tested on an 1800 cc IDI four cylinder engine fitted with Pintaux fuel injectors.
Technical Paper

Drive Rattle Elastodynamic Response of Manual Automotive Transmissions

2011-05-17
2011-01-1586
Modern automotive industry is driven by improved fuel efficiency, whilst simultaneously increasing output power and reducing size/weight of vehicle components. This trend has the drawback of inducing various Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) concerns in the drivetrain, since fairly low energy excitation often suffices to excite natural modes of thin walled structures, such as the transmission bell housing. Transmission rattle is one of the many undesired NVH issues, originating from irregularities in engine torque output. The crankshaft speed fluctuations are transferred through the transmission input shaft. Transmission compactness also allows repetitive interaction of conjugate loose gear pairs. The engine fluctuations disturb the otherwise unintended, but orderly meshing of these loose gears. This often leads to radiation of a characteristic air-borne noise from the impact sites.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Fitted Piston Compression Ring: Modal Behaviour and Frictional Assessment

2011-05-17
2011-01-1535
Piston compression rings are thin, incomplete circular structures which are subject to complex motions during a typical 4-stroke internal combustion engine cycle. Ring dynamics comprises its inertial motion relative to the piston, within the confine of its seating groove. There are also elastodynamic modes, such as the ring in-plane motions. A number of modes can be excited, dependent on the net applied force. The latter includes the ring tension and cylinder pressure loading, both of which act outwards on the ring and conform it to the cylinder bore. There is also the radial inward force as the result of ring-bore conjunctional pressure (i.e. contact force). Under transient conditions, the inward and outward forces do not equilibrate, resulting in the small inertial radial motion of the ring.
Technical Paper

Low Power Autoselective Regeneration of Monolithic Wall Flow Diesel Particulate Filters

2009-06-15
2009-01-1927
This paper presents research into a novel autoselective electric discharge method for regenerating monolithic wall flow diesel particulate filters using low power over the entire range of temperatures and oxygen concentrations experienced within the exhaust systems of modern diesel engines. The ability to regenerate the filter independently of exhaust gas temperature and composition significantly reduces system complexity compared to other systems. In addition, the system does not require catalyst loading and uses only mass- produced electronic and electrical components, thus reducing the cost of the after-treatment package. Purpose built exhaust gas simulation test rigs were used to evaluate, develop and optimise the autoselective regeneration system. On-engine testing demonstrated the performance of the autoselective regeneration process under real engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Prediction of NOx Emissions of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with a NLARX Model

2009-11-02
2009-01-2796
This work describes the application of Non-Linear Autoregressive Models with Exogenous Inputs (NLARX) in order to predict the NOx emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines. Two experiments are presented: 1.) a Non-Road-Transient-Cycle (NRTC) 2.) a composition of different engine operation modes and different engine calibrations. Data sets are pre-processed by normalization and re-arranged into training and validation sets. The chosen model is taken from the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox using the algorithms provided. It is teacher forced trained and then validated. Training results show recognizable performance. However, the validation shows the potential of the chosen method.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Free Stream Turbulence on A-pillar Airflow

2009-04-20
2009-01-0003
Various studies have shown that the level of wind noise experienced inside cars on the road in unsteady conditions can be substantially different from that measured in wind tunnel tests conducted using a low turbulence facility. In this paper a simple geometric body representing the cabin of a passenger car has been used to investigate the effects of free stream turbulence, (FST), on the A-pillar vortex flowfield and the side glass pressure distribution. Beneath the A-pillar vortex, both mean and dynamic pressures are increased by FST. The unsteady pressure can be associated with wind noise and the flow visualization shows the peak unsteadiness is related to the separation of the secondary vortex.
Technical Paper

Failure Analysis of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

2008-04-14
2008-01-0634
A qualitative FMEA study of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) technology is established and presented in the current work through a literature survey of mechanisms that govern performance degradation and failure. The literature findings are translated into Fault Tree (FT) diagrams that depict how basic events can develop into performance degradation or failure in the context of the following top events; (1) activation losses; (2) mass transportation losses; (3) Ohmic losses; (4) efficiency losses and (5) catastrophic cell failure. Twenty-two identified faults and forty-seven frequent causes are translated into fifty-two basic events and a system of FTs with twenty-one reoccurring dominant mechanisms. The four most dominant mechanisms discussed that currently curtail sustained fuel cell performance relate to membrane durability, liquid water formation, flow-field design, and manufacturing practices.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone Kinetic Model of Controlled Auto Ignition Combustion

2009-04-20
2009-01-0673
A multi-zone Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) model for simulating the combustion and emissions has been developed and reported in this paper. The model takes into account the effects of the boundary layer, crevice volume, and blowby. In order to investigate the influences of in-cylinder inhomogeneity, the main cylinder chamber has been divided into multiple core zones with varying temperature and composition. Mass and energy transfer between neighbouring zones were modeled. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism was implemented in each zone to simulate the CAI combustion chemistry and emission formation. An in-house code, the LUCKS (Loughborough University Chemical Kinetics Simulation), was employed to solve the coupled differential equations of the system. The model was validated against experimental results at various Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (IEGR) levels and was then used to analyze the thermal and chemical effect of the IEGR on the CAI combustion.
X