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Technical Paper

Benefits of Stochastic Optimisation with Grid Price Prediction for Electric Vehicle Charging

2017-03-28
2017-01-1701
The goal of grid friendly charging is to avoid putting additional load on the electricity grid when it is heavily loaded already, and to reduce the cost of charging to the consumer. In a smart metering system, Day Ahead tariff (DA) prices are announced in advance for the next day. This information can be used for a simple optimization control, to select to charge at cheapest times. However, the balance of supply and demand is not fully known in advance and the Real-Time Prices (RTP) are therefore likely to be different at times. There is always a risk of a sudden price change, hence adding a stochastic element to the optimization in turn requiring dynamic control to achieve optimal time selection. A stochastic dynamic program (SDP) controller which takes this problem into account has been made and proven by simulation in a previous paper.
Technical Paper

Review of Selection Criteria for Sensor and Actuator Configurations Suitable for Internal Combustion Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0758
This literature review considers the problem of finding a suitable configuration of sensors and actuators for the control of an internal combustion engine. It takes a look at the methods, algorithms, processes, metrics, applications, research groups and patents relevant for this topic. Several formal metric have been proposed, but practical use remains limited. Maximal information criteria are theoretically optimal for selecting sensors, but hard to apply to a system as complex and nonlinear as an engine. Thus, we reviewed methods applied to neighboring fields including nonlinear systems and non-minimal phase systems. Furthermore, the closed loop nature of control means that information is not the only consideration, and speed, stability and robustness have to be considered. The optimal use of sensor information also requires the use of models, observers, state estimators or virtual sensors, and practical acceptance of these remains limited.
Technical Paper

Automatic PI Controller Calibration Optimization using Model-Based Calibration Approach

2015-09-01
2015-01-1989
Model-based calibration (MBC) is a systematic method to calibrate an engine control unit (ECU) system. Due to the working principle of MBC, it is only being used for steady-state systems (time independent models). This limits the use of MBC; because an ECU contains statistical and dynamical systems. Due to the limitations of MBC, dynamical systems require manual tuning which may be time-consuming. With the increasing popularity in hybrid and electrical vehicle systems, most of them rely on dynamical systems. Therefore, MBC is about to be superseded by manual parameterization methods. Remarkably, MBC is not limited to the steady state systems. It can be achieved by separating the time factor of a system and extracting the statistical data from a time series measurement. Typically, MBC model is conceived as the representation of a system plant (i.e.: air path, fuel path, mean value engine model). As a matter of fact, MBC model is not limited to identification of system plant.
Technical Paper

Optimal Control Inputs for Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-1221
Hybrid electric vehicles offer significant fuel economy benefits, because battery and fuel can be used as complementing energy sources. This paper presents the use of dynamic programming to find the optimal blend of power sources, leading to the lowest fuel consumption and the lowest level of harmful emissions. It is found that the optimal engine behavior differs substantially to an on-line adaptive control system previously designed for the Lotus Evora 414E. When analyzing the trade-off between emission and fuel consumption, CO and HC emissions show a traditional Pareto curve, whereas NOx emissions show a near linear relationship with a high penalty. These global optimization results are not directly applicable for online control, but they can guide the design of a more efficient hybrid control system.
Technical Paper

Using a Statistical Machine Learning Tool for Diesel Engine Air Path Calibration

2014-09-30
2014-01-2391
A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Modelling Techniques for Thermoelectric Generator

2017-03-28
2017-01-0144
The application of state-of-art thermoelectric generator (TEG) in automotive engine has potential to reduce more than 2% fuel consumption and hence the CO2 emissions. This figure is expected to be increased to 5%~10% in the near future when new thermoelectric material with higher properties is fabricated. However, in order to maximize the TEG output power, there are a few issues need to be considered in the design stage such as the number of modules, the connection of modules, the geometry of the thermoelectric module, the DC-DC converter circuit, the geometry of the heat exchanger especially the hot side heat exchanger etc. These issues can only be investigated via a proper TEG model. The authors introduced four ways of TEG modelling which in the increasing complexity order are MATLB function based model, MATLAB Simscape based Simulink model, GT-power TEG model and CFD STAR-CCM+ model. Both Simscape model and GT-Power model have intrinsic dynamic model performance.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Thermoelectric Generator in Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0189
This paper reports on an investigation into the potential for a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to improve the fuel economy of a mild hybrid vehicle. A simulation model of a parallel hybrid vehicle equipped with a TEG in the exhaust system is presented. This model is made up by three sub-models: a parallel hybrid vehicle model, an exhaust model and a TEG model. The model is based on a quasi-static approach, which runs a fast and simple estimation of the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The model is validated against both experimental and published data. Using this model, the annual fuel saving, CO2 reduction and net present value (NPV) of the TEG’s life time fuel saving are all investigated. The model is also used as a flexible tool for analysis of the sensitivity of vehicle fuel consumption to the TEG design parameters. The analysis results give an effective basis for optimization of the TEG design.
Technical Paper

Towards Optimal Performance of a Thermoelectric Generator for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0050
Thermoelectric generator has very quickly become a hot research topic in the last five years because its broad application area and very attractive features such as no moving parts, low maintenance, variety of thermoelectric materials that total together cover a wide temperature range. The biggest disadvantage of the thermoelectric generator is its low conversion efficiency. So that when design and manufacture a thermoelectric generator for exhaust waste heat recovery from an automotive engine, the benefit of fuel consumption from applying a thermoelectric generator would be very sensitive to the weight, the dimensions, the cost and the practical conversion efficiency. Additionally, the exhaust gas conditions vary with the change of engine operating point. This creates a big challenge for the design of the hot side heat exchanger in terms of optimizing the electrical output of the thermoelectric generator during an engine transient cycle.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Control Design of a SOFC-IC Engine Hybrid System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0082
This paper presents a control system design strategy for a novel fuel cell - internal combustion engine hybrid power system. Dynamic control oriented models of the system components are developed. The transient behavior of the system components is investigated in order to determine control parameters and set-points. The analysis presented here is the first step towards development of a controller for this complex system. The results indicate various possibilities for control design and development. A control strategy is discussed to achieve system performance optimization.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Wake Structure of Square Back Vehicles and the Effect of Structure Modification on Resultant Vehicle Forces

2011-06-09
2011-37-0015
A large contribution to the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle (30%(1) or more depending on vehicle shape) arises from the low base pressure in the wake region, especially on square-back configurations. A degree of base pressure recovery can be achieved through careful shape optimization, but the flow structures and mechanisms within the wake that cause these base pressure changes are not well understood. A more complete understanding of these mechanisms may provide opportunities for further drag reductions from both passive shape changes and in the future through the use of active flow control technologies. In this work surprisingly large changes in drag and lift coefficients of a square-back style vehicle have been measured as a result of physically small passive modifications. Tests were performed at quarter scale using a simplified vehicle model (Windsor Model) and at full scale using an MPV. The full scale vehicle was tested with and without a flat floor.
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