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Technical Paper

More Efficient Combustion in Small Open Chamber Diesel Engines

Until quite recently, it appeared that there was an effective lower limit on bore size in open-chamber diesel engines. This paper presents a technique for improving combustion in the small open-chamber diesel engine. Recent work at MIT on a 2-1/2 in bore, short-stroke diesel engine has demonstrated that good efficiency can be obtained through a combination of a large-hole nozzle and the use of air swirl to prevent overpenetration. There is some indication that good efficiency can be obtained over a wider operating range than standard diesel practice. A method of design analysis for this type of engine is presented, along with techniques for estimating the swirl and nozzle design parameters.
Technical Paper

A Performance Model for the Texaco Controlled Combustion, Stratified Charge Engine

A model has been developed to predict the performance of the Texaco Controlled Combustion, Stratified Charge Engine starting from engine geometry, fuel characteristics and the operating conditions. This performance model divides the engine cycle into the following phases: Intake, Compression, Rapid Combustion, Mixing-Dominated Expansion, Heat-Transfer Dominated Expansion and Exhaust. During the rapid combustion phase, the rate of heat release is assumed to be controlled by the rate of fuel injection and the air-to-fuel ratio. The burning rate in the mixing controlled stage appears to be dominated by the rate of entrainment of the surrounding gas by the plume of burning products and this rate is assumed to be controlled by the turbulent eddy entrainment velocity. A plume geometry model has been developed to obtain the surface area of the plume for entrainment during the mixing dominated phase.
Technical Paper

Knock in Spark Ignition Engines

The knocking characteristics of several fuels are studied using a single cylinder test engine with variations in key engine operating parameters. Compression ratio, spark advance, fuel equivalence ratio, exhaust gas recirculation, engine speed, charge inlet pressure and charge inlet temperature were varied to yield a range of engine cylinder pressure-temperature histories as the base for this study. The fuels studied include three reference fuels containing isooctane and heptane with isooctane volume percents of 80, 90 and 100. Two wide boiling range gasolines were also studied. A number of empirical relationships for autoignition times of isooctane and heptane blends are employed in conjunction with the experimentally obtained pressure-temperature histories to predict onset of knock. The accuracies of the predictions with respect to the experimentally determined knock points are discussed.