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Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model

An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5% scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from α = -5 to 85 deg. and β = -45 to 45 deg. at a Reynolds number of 0.24x10⁶ and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5% scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5% scale GTM.
Technical Paper

In-flight Icing Hazard Verification with NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System for Development of a NEXRAD Icing Hazard Level Algorithm

From November 2010 until May of 2011, NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System was positioned at Platteville, Colorado between the National Science Foundation's S-Pol radar and Colorado State University's CHILL radar (collectively known as FRONT, or ‘Front Range Observational Network Testbed’). This location was also underneath the flight-path of aircraft arriving and departing from Denver's International Airport, which allowed for comparison to pilot reports of in-flight icing. This work outlines how the NASA Icing Remote Sensing System's derived liquid water content and in-flight icing hazard profiles can be used to provide in-flight icing verification and validation during icing and non-icing scenarios with the purpose of comparing these times to profiles of polarized moment data from the two nearby research radars.
Technical Paper

A Step Towards CO2-Neutral Aviation

An approximation method for evaluation of the caloric equations used in combustion chemistry simulations is described. The method is applied to generate the equations of specific heat, static enthalpy, and Gibb's free energy for fuel mixtures of interest to gas turbine engine manufacturers. Liquid-phase fuel properties are also derived. The fuels include JP-8, synthetic fuel, and two fuel blends consisting of a mixture of JP-8 and synthetic fuel. The complete set of fuel property equations for both phases are implemented into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver database, and multi-phase, reacting flow simulations of a well-tested liquid-fueled combustor are performed. The simulations are a first step in understanding combustion system performance and operational issues when using alternate fuels, at practical engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Durable Coating Technology for Lunar Dust Protection and Mitigation

Special coatings are being developed and tested to contend with the effects of dust on the lunar surface. These coatings will have wide applicability ranging from prevention of dust buildup on solar arrays and radiator surfaces to protection of EVA space suit fabrics and visors. They will be required to be durable and functional based on application. We have started preparing abrasion-resistant transparent conductive coatings ∼40 nm thick were formed by co-deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and titanium (Ti) on room-temperature glass and polycarbonate substrates using two RF magnetron sputtering sources. By adjusting Ti content, we obtained sheet resistivities in the range 104-1010 ohms/square. We have also started conducting a series of environmental tests that simulate the exposure of coated samples to dust under relevant conditions, beginning with abrasion tests using regolith simulant materials.
Technical Paper

Results and Analysis from Reduced Gravity Experiments of the Flexible Membrane Commode Apparatus

Two separate experimental rigs used in tests on NASA and Zero-G Corporation aircrafts flying low-gravity trajectories, and in the NASA 2.2 Second Drop Tower have been developed to test the functioning of the Flexible Membrane Commode (FMC) concept under reduced gravity conditions. The first rig incorporates the flexible, optically opaque membrane bag and the second rig incorporates a transparent chamber with a funnel assembly for evacuation that approximates the size of the membrane bag. Different waste dispensers have been used including a caulking gun and flexible hose assembly, and an injection syringe. Waste separation mechanisms include a pair of wire cutters, an iris mechanism, as well as discrete slug injection. The experimental work is described in a companion paper. This paper focuses on the obtained results and analysis of the data.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Concentric Disk inside the WFRD Evaporator for the VPCAR Water Recovery System

We consider the heat transfer characteristics of an ideal concentric disk used in the Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk (WFRD) evaporator for the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) water recovery system. A mathematical model is derived to predict the radial temperature distribution and its average over the surface of the disk as a function of system parameters. The model shows self-similarity of the temperature distribution and the existence of a dimensionless parameter S (ratio of heat flux to convection) that can be used as a criterion to optimize the thermal characteristics of the disk in order to approach uniform surface temperature. Comparison of the model to experimental data using global (infrared imager) and local (resistive temperature devices) measurements shows that agreement with the model depends on the ambient condition denoted by the local heat transfer coefficient.
Technical Paper

Testing of an R134a Spray Evaporative Heat Sink

The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing a spacecraft open loop spray evaporative heat sink for use in pressure environments near sea-level, where evaporative cooling of water is not effective. The working fluid is R134a, a common refrigerant used in household appliances, considered safe and non-toxic for humans. The concept uses an open loop spray of R134a impinging on a heated flat plate, through which a closed loop of hot coolant flows, having acquired the heat from spacecraft electronics boxes, the cabin heat exchanger, and other heat sources. The latent heat of evaporation cools the outside of the hot plate, and through heat conduction, reduces the temperature of the coolant. The testing at NASA Glenn has used an electrically heated cylindrical copper target to simulate the hot plate. This paper will discuss the R134a feed system, the test matrix, and test results.
Technical Paper

Innovative Multi-Environment, Multimode Thermal Control System

Innovative multi-environment multimode thermal management architecture has been described that is capable of meeting widely varying thermal control requirements of various exploration mission scenarios currently under consideration. The proposed system is capable of operating in a single-phase or two-phase mode rejecting heat to the colder environment, operating in a two-phase mode with heat pump for rejecting heat to a warm environment, as well as using evaporative phase-change cooling for the mission phases where the radiator is incapable of rejecting the required heat. A single fluid loop can be used internal and external to the spacecraft for the acquisition, transport and rejection of heat by the selection of a working fluid that meets NASA safety requirements. Such a system may not be optimal for each individual mode of operation but its ability to function in multiple modes may permit global optimization of the thermal control system.
Technical Paper

Weathering of Thermal Control Coatings

Spacecraft radiators reject heat to their surroundings. Radiators can be deployable or mounted on the body of the spacecraft. NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle is to use body mounted radiators. Coatings play an important role in heat rejection. The coatings provide the radiator surface with the desired optical properties of low solar absorptance and high infrared emittance. These specialized surfaces are applied to the radiator panel in a number of ways, including conventional spraying, plasma spraying, or as an appliqué. Not specifically designed for a weathering environment, little is known about the durability of conventional paints, coatings, and appliqués upon exposure to weathering and subsequent exposure to solar wind and ultraviolet radiation exposure. In addition to maintaining their desired optical properties, the coatings must also continue to adhere to the underlying radiator panel.
Technical Paper

The CEV Smart Buyer Team Effort: A Summary of the Crew Module & Service Module Thermal Design Architecture

The NASA-wide CEV Smart Buyer Team (SBT) was assembled in January 2006 and was tasked with the development of a NASA in-house design for the CEV Crew Module (CM), Service Module (SM), and Launch Abort System (LAS). This effort drew upon over 250 engineers from all of the 10 NASA Centers. In 6 weeks, this in-house design was developed. The Thermal Systems Team was responsible for the definition of the active and passive design architecture. The SBT effort for Thermal Systems can be best characterized as a design architecting activity. Proof-of-concepts were assessed through system-level trade studies and analyses using simplified modeling. This nimble design approach permitted definition of a point design and assessing its design robustness in a timely fashion. This paper will describe the architecting process and present trade studies and proposed thermal designs
Technical Paper

Radiation in Space and its Control of Equilibrium Temperatures in the Solar System

The problem of determining equilibrium temperatures for re-radiating surfaces in space vacuum was analyzed and the resulting mathematical relationships were incorporated in a code to determine space sink temperatures in the solar system. A brief treatment of planetary atmospheres is also included. Temperature values obtained with the code are in good agreement with available spacecraft telemetry and meteorological measurements for Venus and Earth. The code has been used in the design of space power system radiators for future interplanetary missions.
Technical Paper

Simulation Model Development for Icing Effects Flight Training

A high-fidelity simulation model for icing effects flight training was developed from wind tunnel data for the DeHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft. First, a flight model of the un-iced airplane was developed and then modifications were generated to model the icing conditions. The models were validated against data records from the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research flight test program with only minimal refinements being required. The goals of this program were to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a simulator for training pilots to recognize and recover from icing situations and to establish a process for modeling icing effects to be used for future training devices.
Technical Paper

An Aerodynamic Simulation Process for Iced Lifting Surfaces and Associated Issues

This paper discusses technologies and software tools that are being implemented in a software toolkit currently under development at NASA Glenn Research Center. Its purpose is to help study the effects of icing on airfoil performance and assist with the aerodynamic simulation process which consists of characterization and modeling of ice geometry, application of block topology and grid generation, and flow simulation. Tools and technologies for each task have been carefully chosen based on their contribution to the overall process. For the geometry characterization and modeling, we have chosen an interactive rather than automatic process in order to handle numerous ice shapes. An Appendix presents features of a software toolkit developed to support the interactive process. Approaches taken for the generation of block topology and grids, and flow simulation, though not yet implemented in the software, are discussed with reasons for why particular methods are chosen.
Technical Paper

DC Bus Regulation with a Flywheel Energy Storage System

This paper describes the DC bus regulation control algorithm for the NASA flywheel energy storage system during charge, charge reduction and discharge modes of operation. The algorithm was experimentally verified in [1] and this paper presents the necessary models for simulation. Detailed block diagrams of the controller algorithm are given. It is shown that the flywheel system and the controller can be modeled in three levels of detail depending on the type of analysis required. The three models are explained and then compared using simulation results.
Technical Paper

Collection Efficiency and Ice Accretion Characteristics of Two Full Scale And One 1/4 Scale Business Jet Horizontal Tails

Collection efficiency and ice accretion calculations have been made for a series of business jet horizontal tail configurations using a three-dimensional panel code, an adaptive grid code, and the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion code. The horizontal tail models included two full scale wing tips and a 25% scale model. Flow solutions for the horizontal tails were generated using the PMARC panel code. Grids used in the ice accretion calculations were generated using the adaptive grid code ICEGRID. The LEWICE3D grid based ice accretion program was used to calculate impingement efficiency and ice shapes. Ice shapes typifying rime and mixed icing conditions were generated for a 30 minute hold condition. All calculations were performed on an SGI Octane computer. The results have been compared to experimental flow and impingement data.
Technical Paper

Optical Evaluation of a Refractive Secondary Concentrator

Refractive secondary concentrators are being considered for solar thermal applications because of their ability to achieve maximum efficiency through the use of total internal reflection for the concentration and distribution of solar energy. A prototype refractive secondary concentrator was built based on ray tracing analysis to demonstrate this collection and distribution concept. The design included a conical secondary concentrator and a faceted extractor. The objective of this effort was to functionally evaluate the performance of the refractive secondary concentrator/extractor prototype and to compare the results with modeling. Most of the light was found to exit the refractive secondary concentrator through the extractor. In addition, the degree of attenuation encountered by the light as it passed through the refractive secondary concentrator was of interest.
Technical Paper

A Modular, Peak Power Tracking Solar Array Regulator

Two high voltage, Series Connected Boost Regulators (SCBR) were developed to demonstrate the benefits of the SCBR topology for low Earth orbit communication satellites. The resulting breadboards had a power density of 1,200 W/kg and a measured efficiency of 95-99%. Several peak power tracking methods and algorithms were implemented to demonstrate the ability of the SCBR to peak power track a solar array. The peak power tracker derived maximum power at all times and reduced the number of sunlight battery discharges necessary. The breadboards also demonstrated several modularity techniques, which will allow a common SCBR module to be used in several applications. The breadboards were tested in an end-to-end high voltage test facility using high fidelity solar array simulators, an actual NiH2 battery, and simulated constant power loads. Design details and test results are presented.
Journal Article

Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Altitude Investigation

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test using an obsolete Allied Signal ALF502-R5 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article used was the exact engine that experienced a loss of power event after the ingestion of ice crystals while operating at high altitude during a 1997 Honeywell flight test campaign investigating the turbofan engine ice crystal icing phenomena. The test plan included test points conducted at the known flight test campaign field event pressure altitude and at various pressure altitudes ranging from low to high throughout the engine operating envelope. The test article experienced a loss of power event at each of the altitudes tested.
Technical Paper

Predicted Ice Shape Formations on a Boundary Layer Ingesting Engine Inlet

Computational ice shapes were generated on the boundary layer ingesting engine nacelle of the D8 Double Bubble aircraft. The computations were generated using LEWICE3D, a well-known CFD icing post processor. A 50-bin global drop diameter discretization was used to capture the collection efficiency due to the direct impingement of water onto the engine nacelle. These discrete results were superposed in a weighted fashion to generate six drop size distributions that span the Appendix C and O regimes. Due to the presence of upstream geometries, i.e. the fuselage nose, the trajectories of the water drops are highly complex. Since the ice shapes are significantly correlated with the collection efficiency, the upstream fuselage nose has a significant impact on the ice accretion on the engine nacelle. These complex trajectories are caused by the ballistic nature of the particles and are thus exacerbated as particle size increases.
Technical Paper

Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results. The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.