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Technical Paper

Potentiality of the Modification of Engine Combustion Rate for NOx Formation Control in the Premixed SI Engine

In order to study the potentiality of the modification of the combustion rate for NOx formation control in the spark ignition (SI) engine, the authors first developed a new mathematical model by assuming the stepped gas temperature gradient in the cylinder. The predicted results from this new mathematical model show good coincidence with the experimental data. Second, the authors discuss the effects of the modification of the combustion rate on NOx formation using the new mathematical model. It was concluded that NOx formation in the premixed SI engine would be essentially determined by the specific fuel consumption only, regardless of any modification of the engine combustion rate.
Technical Paper

Nissan Oil Econometer Permits the Measurement of Engine Oil Consumption

A technique has been developed which permits the determination of engine oil consumption on an instantaneous basis. The procedure uses the sulfur in the oil as a tracer. The concentration of sulfur compounds in the exhaust gas is determined using a Flame Photometric Detector (FPD). Special modifications of the FPD reduce the interference of other gases and improve the accuracy of the instrument. Although the unit is operationally simple, its abilities to measure continuously and respond quickly allow it to surpass conventional methods for measurement of oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Effects of intake-Valve Closing Timing on Spark-Ignition Engine Combustion

In spark-ignition engine pumping loss increases and fuel economy decreases during partial load operation. Methods to reduce this pumping loss by controlling the intake-valve closing timing are currently under study. The authors, also, have confirmed that pumping loss can be reduced by controlling the amount of intake air-fuel mixture through making changes in the in Cake-valve closing timing. However, when pumping loss was reduced by controlling intake-valve closing timing, an improvement in fuel economy equivalent to the reduction in pumping loss was not obtained. In this study, it was found that the major contributing factor to this phenomenon was the deterioration of the combustion, namely, increase in combustion duration and in combustion fluctuation.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Piston and Piston Ring Assembly Friction Force

A new method for measuring friction has been developed in order to analyze piston and piston ring assembly friction force during engine operation. While this method does not require extensive modification to the piston or cylinder, two extra compression and expansion strokes each are added at the end of the conventional four-stroke cycle. In these measuring strokes, the gas pressure and temperature are maintained at firing levels, and friction force characteristics of the piston and piston ring assembly are measured continuously while the burned gas is compressed and expanded.
Technical Paper

Total Gas/Effective Fuel Ratio Predicts Coast Surge in Emission-Control Vehicles

In the course of developing a low-emission manual transmission vehicle, coast surge in the fore-and-aft direction resulting from the installation of certain emission-control devices was sometimes experienced immediately after the initiation of vehicle deceleration. Our investigation revealed that this vehicle surge was caused by combustion irregularities in a sequence of combustion-misfire-intense combustion events occurring every several cycles. A new combustibility standard. Gt/Feff, defined as the ratio of total cylinder mixture weight Gt to effective fuel weight Feff, was found to predict combustibility and irregular combustion over the entire mixture range. As a result, driveability during deceleration was improved by modifying key emission-control components.