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Boosted HCCI Combustion Using Low-Octane Gasoline with Fully Premixed and Partially Stratified Charges

2012-06-18
High-load HCCI combustion has recently been demonstrated with conventional gasoline using intake pressure boosting. The key is to control the high combustion heat release rates (HRR) by using combustion timing retard and mixture stratification. However, at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions, these techniques did not work well due to the low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions. This work studies a low-octane distillate fuel with similar volatility to gasoline, termed Hydrobate, for its potential in HCCI engine combustion at naturally aspirated and low-range boosted conditions. The HCCI combustion with fully premixed and partially stratified charges was examined at intake pressures (Pin) from 100 to 180 kPa and constant intake temperature (60�C) and engine speed (1200 rpm).
Technical Paper

Piston Wetting in an Optical DISI Engine: Fuel Films, Pool Fires, and Soot Generation

2001-03-05
2001-01-1203
Piston-wetting effects are investigated in an optical direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. Fuel spray impingement on the piston leads to the formation of fuel films, which are visualized with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging technique. Oxygen quenching is found to reduce the fluorescence yield from liquid gasoline. Fuel films that exist during combustion of the premixed charge ignite to create piston-top pool fires. These fires are characterized using direct flame imaging. Soot produced by the pool fires is imaged using laser elastic scattering and is found to persist throughout the exhaust stroke, implying that piston-top pool fires are a likely source of engine-out particulate emissions for DISI engines.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gas Density and the Number of Injector Holes on the Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2001-03-05
2001-01-0532
The effect of ambient gas density and the number of injector holes on the characteristics of airflow surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The positive normal velocities across the control surface of single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in velocities tangential to the control surface near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas is accelerated by spray wall impingement.
Technical Paper

Flame Lift-Off on Direct-Injection Diesel Sprays Under Quiescent Conditions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0530
Ambient gas temperature and density, injection pressure, and orifice diameter effects on the flame lift-off length on a direct-injection (DI) diesel spray under quiescent conditions were experimentally investigated. The impacts of the observed lift-off length variations on air entrainment upstream of the lift-off location, soot formation, and the relationship between fuel vaporization and combustion were also examined. The research was conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel using a common-rail fuel injector and a Phillips research grade #2 diesel fuel. The lift-off length measurements show that lift-off length decreases with increasing ambient gas temperature or density, and increases with increasing injection pressure or orifice diameter. The sensitivity of lift-off length to a change in either temperature or density was non-linear, with the sensitivity to either parameter decreasing as it increased.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Fueled Engines in Hybrid Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-0546
This paper describes the motivation for developing hydrogen-fueled engines for use in hybrid electric vehicles of the future. The ultimate motivation for using hydrogen as an energy carrier is carbon management. However, air quality concerns also provide motivation for developing hydrogen-fueled vehicles. For this reason, we discuss the position of the hydrogen-powered hybrid vehicle within the California Air Resources Board requirement for Zero Emission Vehicles. We describe the expected performance of an electrical generation system powered by a four-stroke, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine for a hydrogen-powered hybrid vehicle. The data show that the engine-out emissions of NOx will allow the vehicle to operate below the Super Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standard set by the California Air Resources Board. The engine can run on either hydrogen or blends of hydrogen and natural gas. The engine can be optimized for maximum efficiency with low emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Micro-Diesel Injector Nozzles via MEMS Technology and Effects on Spray Characteristics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0528
Micro-machined planar orifice nozzles have been developed and used with commercially produced diesel injection systems. Such a system may have the capability to improve the spray characteristics in DI diesel engines. The availability of a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) processing sequence supported the construction of micro-planar orifice nozzles, and micro-systems technology was also employed in our macro-instrumentation. To demonstrate this process, fourteen MEMS nozzles were fabricated with deep X-ray lithography and electroplating technology. The circular orifice diameters were varied from 40 to 260 microns and the number of orifices varied from one to 169. Three plates with non-circular orifices were also fabricated to examine the effect of orifice shape on spray characteristics. These nozzles were then attached to commercial injectors and the associated injection systems were used for the spray experiments.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Vaporizing Continuous Multi-Component Fuel Sprays in a Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1231
Vaporization models for continuous multi-component liquid sprays and liquid wall films are presented using a continuous thermodynamics formulation. The models were implemented in the KIVA3V-Release 2.0 code. The models are first applied to clarify the characteristics of vaporizing continuous multi-component liquid wall films and liquid drops, and then applied to numerically analyze a practical continuous multi-component fuel - gasoline behavior in a 4-valve port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engine under warm conditions. Corresponding computations with single-component fuels are also performed and presented for comparison purposes. As compared to the results of its single-component counterpart, the vaporizing continuous multi-component fuel drop displays a larger vaporization rate initially and a smaller vaporization rate as it becomes more and more dominated by heavy species.
Technical Paper

Extinction Measurements of In-Cylinder Soot Deposition in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1296
The combustion process in diesel engines deposits soot on the in-cylinder surfaces. Previous works have suggested that these soot deposits eventually break off during cylinder blow-down and the exhaust stroke and contribute significantly to exhaust soot emissions. In order to better understand this potential pathway to soot emissions, the authors recently investigated combusting fuel-jet/wall interactions in a diesel engine. This work, published as a companion paper, showed how soot escaped from the combusting fuel jet and was brought in close proximity to the wall so that it could become a deposit. The current study extends this earlier work with laser-extinction measurements of the soot-deposition rate in the same single-cylinder, heavy-duty DI diesel engine. Measurements were made by passing the beam of a CW-diode laser through a window in the piston bowl rim that was in-line with one of the fuel jets.
Technical Paper

Diffusion-Flame / Wall Interactions in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1295
Over the past decade, laser diagnostics have improved our understanding of many aspects of diesel combustion. However, interactions between the combusting fuel jet and the piston-bowl wall are not well understood. In heavy-duty diesel engines, with typical fuels, these interactions occur with the combusting vapor-phase region of the jet, which consists of a central region containing soot and other products of rich-premixed combustion, surrounded by a diffusion flame. Since previous work has shown that the OH radical is a good marker of the diffusion flame, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of OH was applied to an investigation of the diffusion flame during wall interaction. In addition, simultaneous OH PLIF and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) soot imaging was applied to investigate the likelihood for soot deposition on the bowl wall.
Technical Paper

Effects of Alternative Fuels and Intake Port Geometry on HSDI Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0647
This research explored methods to reduce regulated emissions in a small-bore, direct-injection diesel engine. Swirl was used to influence mixing of the spray plumes, and alternative fuels were used to study the effects of oxygenated and water microemulsion diesel fuels on emissions. Air/fuel mixing enhancement was achieved in the running engine by blocking off a percentage of one of the two intake ports. The swirl was characterized at steady-state conditions with a flowbench and swirl meter. Swirl ratios of 1.85, 2.70, and 3.29 were studied in the engine tests at full load with engine speeds of 1303, 1757, and 1906 rev/min. Increased swirl was shown to have negative effects on emissions due to plume-to-plume interactions. Blends of No. 2 diesel and biodiesel were used to investigate the presence of oxygen in the fuel and its effects on regulated emissions. Pure No. 2 diesel fuel, a 15% and a 30% biodiesel blend (by weight) were used.
Technical Paper

Update on Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

2001-05-14
2001-01-2060
The objectives of this paper are to describe the research efforts in diesel engine combustion at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to provide recent experimental results. We have four diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative fuels, and a homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) engine. Recent experimental results of diesel combustion research will be discussed and a description will be given of our HCCI experimental program and of our HCCI modeling work.
Technical Paper

Glow Plug Assisted Ignition and Combustion of Methanol in an Optical DI Diesel Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2004
An experimental study of the glow-plug-assisted ignition and combustion of pure methanol (M100) was conducted using a modern-technology, 4-stroke, heavy-duty DI diesel engine that has been modified to provide extensive optical access into the combustion chamber. For comparison purposes, results also are presented for a two-component paraffinic diesel reference fuel with a cetane number of 45 (CN45). A 1200-rpm, moderate-load operating condition was studied. Images of direct luminosity from the combustion chamber are used along with thermodynamic analyses of cylinder pressure data to identify differences between the ignition and combustion characteristics of the two fuels. The M100 data show significant departures from the traditional diesel combustion features exhibited by CN45. Whereas CN45 readily autoignites at the conditions studied, M100 does not. The glow-plug-assisted ignition of M100 was found to be strongly dependent on glow plug (GP) temperature and proximity to a fuel jet.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1004
Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
Technical Paper

A Sequential Fluid-Mechanic Chemical-Kinetic Model of Propane HCCI Combustion

2001-03-05
2001-01-1027
We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. This methodology combines a detailed fluid mechanics code with a detailed chemical kinetics code. Instead of directly linking the two codes, which would require an extremely long computational time, the methodology consists of first running the fluid mechanics code to obtain temperature profiles as a function of time. These temperature profiles are then used as input to a multi-zone chemical kinetics code. The advantage of this procedure is that a small number of zones (10) is enough to obtain accurate results. This procedure achieves the benefits of linking the fluid mechanics and the chemical kinetics codes with a great reduction in the computational effort, to a level that can be handled with current computers.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on Detailed Chemical Composition and Particulate Size Distributions of Diesel Exhaust

2003-05-19
2003-01-1794
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of fuel injection timing on detailed chemical composition and size distributions of diesel particulate matter (PM) and regulated gaseous emissions in a modern heavy-duty D.I. diesel engine. These measurements were made for two different diesel fuels: No. 2 diesel (Fuel A) and ultra low sulfur diesel (Fuel B). A single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injection system was used in the experiments. PM measurements were made with an enhanced full-dilution tunnel system at the Engine Research Center (ERC) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison) [1, 2]. The engine was run under 2 selected modes (25% and 75% loads at 1200 rpm) of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 8-mode test cycle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Composition on Combustion and Detailed Chemical/Physical Characteristics of Diesel Exhaust

2003-05-19
2003-01-1899
An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of fuel composition on combustion, gaseous emissions, and detailed chemical composition and size distributions of diesel particulate matter (PM) in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine with the use of the enhanced full-dilution tunnel system of the Engine Research Center (ERC) of the UW-Madison. Detailed description of this system can be found in our previous reports [1,2]. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injection system. The operating conditions of the engine followed the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 8-mode test cycle. The fuels used in the current study include baseline No. 2 diesel (Fuel A: sulfur content = 352 ppm), ultra low sulfur diesel (Fuel B: sulfur content = 14 ppm), and Fisher-Tropsch (F-T) diesel (sulfur content = 0 ppm).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1072
Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Aluminum Intensive Vehicle

2000-03-06
2000-01-0593
The University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureCar Team has designed and built a lightweight, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric vehicle for entry into the 1999 FutureCar Challenge. The base vehicle is a 1994 Mercury Sable Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV), nicknamed the “Aluminum Cow,” weighing 1275 kg. The vehicle utilizes a high efficiency, Ford 1.8 liter, turbo-charged, direct-injection compression ignition engine. The goal is to achieve a combined FTP cycle fuel economy of 23.9 km/L (56 mpg) with California ULEV emissions levels while maintaining the full passenger/cargo room, appearance, and feel of a full-size car. Strategies to reduce the overall vehicle weight are discussed in detail. Dynamometer and experimental testing is used to verify performance gains.
Technical Paper

Potato Tuber Formation and Metabolism in the Spaceflight Environment

1996-07-01
961393
Five potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaf cuttings were flown on STS-73 in late October, 1995 as part of the 16-day USML-2 mission. Pre-flight studies were conducted to study tuber growth, determine carbohydrate concentrations and examine the developing starch grains within the tuber. In these tests, tubers attained a fresh weight of 1.4 g tuber-1 after 13 days. Tuber fresh mass was significantly correlated to tuber diameter. Greater than 60% of the tuber dry mass was starch and the starch grains varied in size from 2 to 40 mm in the long axis. For the flight experiment, cuttings were obtained from seven-week-old Norland potato plants, kept at 5°C for 12 hours then planted into arcillite in the ASTROCULTURE™ flight hardware. The flight package was loaded on-board the orbiter 22 hours prior to launch.
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