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Technical Paper

Matching Optimum for Low HC and CO Emissions at Warm-up Phase in an LPG EFI Small SI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3897
Based on a 125cm3 single cylinder SI engine, the designated idle speed was controlled by adjusting of cycle ignition advance angle. By analyzing the effects of different idle speed and throttle open position on three way catalyst (TWC) light-off time and conversion efficiency of HC and CO emissions, combined with the corresponding total HC and CO emissions level, the optimum idle speed and throttle open position at engine's warm-up phase were found by the matching optimum. The present method for engine control strategy is helpful to optimize the warm-up phase emission levels in SI engine with LPG fuel.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Preparation of Diesel Fuel by Spray Impingement onto a Hot Surface at Intake Manifold

2006-10-16
2006-01-3322
A segment of steel tube with the inner diameter of 60 mm and length of 100 mm was fixed between the intake manifold and cylinder head in a direct injection natural aspirated diesel engine. The surface of the tube could be heated to be above 400 °C by the heater enwrapped outside within several minutes under the power less than 600 W. The tip of an injector traditionally used for in-cylinder diesel direct injection was extended to the axis of the tube. The diesel sprays could impinge onto the hot inner surface of the tube and atomize quickly if the temperature of the tube was high enough. Then the fuel-air mixture would be sucked into the cylinder, and HCCI combustion could be fulfilled. The vaporization ratio of the impinged diesel sprays was estimated by fuel consumption, intake air flux and excess air coefficient (λ) calculated from the volumetric concentration of O2, CO2 and CO emissions. The NOx emission was always very low.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions during Start up at Higher Cranking Speed in a PFI Engine for HEV Application

2008-10-06
2008-01-2420
The transient characteristics of combustion and emissions during the engine start up at different higher cranking speeds for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications were presented in this paper. Cycle-by-cycle analysis was done for each start up case. Intake air mass during the first several cycles decrease as the engine was cranked at higher speed. Ignition timing is delayed with higher cranking speed, which leads to an increase of exhaust temperature. For various start up cases, similar quantity of fuel is injected at the first cycle, but the ignition timing is significantly delayed to meet the acceleration requirement when cranking speed enhanced. Because of the deterioration of intake charge, the air-fuel mixture is over-enriched in the first several cycles for the cases at higher cranking speed. With cranking speed is increased, the in-cylinder residual gas fraction rises, which leads to poor combustion and decrease of mass fraction of burned fuel.
Journal Article

Estimation on the Location of Peak Pressure at Quick Start of HEV Engine Employing Ion Sensing Technology

2008-06-23
2008-01-1566
In this paper an estimation method on location of peak pressure (LPP) employing flame ionization measurement, with the spark plug as a sensor, was discussed to achieve combustion parameters estimation at quick start of HEV engines. Through the cycle-based ion signal analysis, the location of peak pressure can be extracted in individual cylinder for the optimization of engine quick start control of HEV engine. A series of quick start processes with different cranking speed and engine coolant temperature are tested for establishing the relationship between the ion signals and the combustion parameters. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is used in this study for estimating these two combustion parameters. The experiment results show that the location of peak pressure can be well established by this method.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Ethanol Fuel (E100) in a Small SI Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3262
An air-cooled, four-stroke, 125 cc electronic gasoline fuel injection SI engine for motorcycles is altered to burn ethanol fuel. The effects of nozzle orifice size, fuel injection duration, spark timing and the excess air/ fuel ratio on engine power output, fuel and energy consumptions and engine exhaust emission levels are studied on an engine test bed. The results show that the maximum engine power output is increased by 5.4% and the maximum torque output is increased by 1.9% with the ethanol fuel in comparison with the baseline. At full load and 7000 r/min, HC emission is decreased by 38% and CO emission is decreased 46% on average over the whole engine speed range. However, NOx levels are increased to meet the maximum power output. The experiments of the spark timing show that the levels of HC and NOx emission are decreased markedly by the delay of spark timing.
Technical Paper

Distortion Mapping Correction of In-Cylinder Flow Field Measurements through Optical Liner Using Gaussian Optics Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0615
Combustion efficiency of internal combustion engine is closely influenced by the air flow pattern in the engine cylinder. Some researchers use high-speed particle image velocimetry to visualize and measure the temporally and spatially resolved in-cylinder velocity flow fields in the optically assessable engine. However, the transparent cylindrical liner makes it difficult to accurately determine the particle displacements inside the cylinder due to the optically distorted path of scattering light from seeding particles through the curved liner. To correct for the distortion-induced error in the seeding particle positions through the optical liner, the distortion mapping function is modeled using the Gaussian optics theory. Two artificial flow patterns with 5 by 5 vectors were made to illustrate the mapping correction. Distortion-induced error of velocity vectors was precisely mapped in six different planes inside the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Tolerance Optimization Considering Friction Loss for Internal Combustion Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0250
Manufacturing of the internal combustion engines (ICEs) has very critical requirements on the precision and tolerance of engine parts in order to guarantee the engine performance. As a typical complex nonlinear system, small changes in dimensions of ICE components may have great impact on the performance and cost of the manufacturing of ICES. In this regard, it is still necessary to discuss the optimization of the tolerance and manufacturing precision of the critical components of ICEs even though the tolerance optimization in general has been reported in the literature. A systematic process for determining optimal tolerances will overcome the disadvantages of the traditional experience-based tolerance design and therefore improve the system performance.
Technical Paper

Study on the Optimal Control Strategy of Transient Process for Diesel Engine with Sequential Turbocharging System

2016-10-17
2016-01-2157
Three-phase sequential turbocharging system with two unequal-size turbochargers is developed to improve fuel economy performance and reduce emission of the automotive diesel engine, which satisfies wide range of intake flow demand. However, it results in complicated transient control strategies under frequently changing operating conditions. The present work aims to optimize the control scheme of boost system and fuel injection and evaluate their contributions to the improvement of transient performance. A mean value model for diesel engine was built up in SIMULINK environment and verified by experiment for transient study. Then a mathematical model of optimization issue was established. Strategies of control valves and fuel injection for typical acceleration and loading processes are obtained by coupled calculating of the simulation model and optimization algorithm.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Temperature and Soot (KL) Distributions in Spray Flames of Diesel-Butanol Blends by Two-Color Method Using High-Speed RGB Video Camera

2016-10-17
2016-01-2190
Taking advantages of high speed RGB video cameras, the two-color method can be implemented with a relatively simple setup to obtain the temporal development of the two dimensional temperature and soot (KL) distributions in a reacting diesel jet. However, several issues such as the selection of the two wavelengths, the role of bandpass filters, and the proper optical settings, etc. should be known to obtain a reliable measurement. This paper, at first, discusses about the uncertainties in the measurement of temperature and KL distributions in the diesel flame by the two-color method using the high speed RGB video camera. Since n-butanol, as an alternative renewable fuel, has the potential application in diesel engines, the characteristic of spray combustion of diesel-butanol blends under the diesel-like ambient conditions in a pre-burning constant-volume combustion chamber is studied.
Technical Paper

Study of Flash Boiling Spray Combustion in a Spark Ignition Direct Injection Optical Engine Using Digital Image Processing Diagnostics

2019-04-02
2019-01-0252
Flash boiling spray has been proven to be a useful method in providing finer fuel droplet and stronger evaporation in favor of creating a homogeneous fuel-air mixture. Combustion characteristics of flash boiling spray are thus valuable to be investigated systematically for aiding the development of efficient internal combustion system. An experimental study of flash boiling spray combustion in a SIDI optical engine under early injection has been conducted. The fuel, Iso-octane, was used across all tests. Three fuel spray conditions experimented in the study: normal liquid, transitional flash boiling and flare flash boiling sprays, within each case that Pa/Ps ratio was set in (>1), (0.3~1), and (<0.3) respectively. A small quartz insert on the piston enables optical access for observing combustion process; non-intrusive measurements on flame radicals has been carried out using a high-speed color camera.
Technical Paper

A Study of Energy Enhanced Multi-Spark Discharge Ignition in a Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber

2019-04-02
2019-01-0728
Multi-spark discharge (MSD) ignition is widely used in high-speed internal combustion engines such as racing cars, motorcycles and outboard motors in attempts to achieve multiple sparks during each ignition. In contrast to transistor coil ignition (TCI) system, MSD system can be greatly shortened the charging time in a very short time. However, when the engine speed becomes higher, the ignition will be faster, electrical energy stored in the ignition system will certainly become less, especially for MSD system. Once the energy released into the spark plug gap can’t be guaranteed sufficiently, ignition will become more difficult, and it will get worse in some harsh environment such as strong turbulence or lean fuel conditions. With these circumstances, the risks of misfire and partial combustion will increase, which can deteriorate the power outputs and exhaust emissions of internal combustion engine.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Effects of Coolant Temperature on Particle Emissions from a Dual Injection Gasoline Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0051
Euro VI emission standards have set a very strict limitation on particulate matter emissions of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine. It is difficult for GDI engine to meet the Euro VI PN regulation (6×1011#/km) without a series of complicated after-treatment devices such as Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF). Previous research shows that GDI vehicles under cold start condition account for more than 50% of both particle number and mass emissions during the entire NEDC driving cycle. Dual Injection Gasoline engine is based on the GDI engine by adding a set of port fuel injection system. The good mixing characteristics of the port fuel injection system can help to reduce the particulate matter emissions of the GDI engine during the cold start condition.
Technical Paper

Application of the Newly Developed KLSA Model into Optimizing the Compression Ratio of a Turbocharged SI Engine with Cooled EGR

2018-10-30
2018-32-0037
Owing to the stochastic nature of engine knock, determination of the knock limited spark angle (KLSA) is difficult in engine cycle simulation. Therefore, the state-of-the-art knock modeling is mostly limited to either merely predicting knock onset (i.e. auto-ignition of end gas) or combining a simple unburned mass fraction (UMF) model representative of knock intensity (KI). In this study, a newly developed KLSA model, which takes both predictions of knock onset and intensity into account, is firstly introduced. Multiple variables including the excess air ratio, EGR ratio, cylinder pressure and the end gas temperature are included in the knock onset model. Based on the auto-ignition theory of hot spots in end gas, both the energy density and heat release rate in hot spots are taken into consideration in the KI model.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Thermal Efficiency Improvement of a Highly Boosted, High Compression Ratio, Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine with LIVC and EIVC at Partial and Full Loads

2015-09-01
2015-01-1882
The improvement mechanism of fuel consumption at partial and full loads of a boosted direction-injection gasoline engine with the elevated geometrical compression ratio and Miller cycle by either early or late intake valve closing (EIVC or LIVC) are analyzed based on the first law of thermodynamics and one dimensional engine simulation. An increase in geometric compression ratio increases the theoretical thermal efficiency for all the operating loads, but deteriorates the fuel economy at full loads, owing primarily to the full-load knock limit. Use of Miller cycle improves the fuel economy for both the partial and full load operations by reducing the pumping loss and optimizing the combustion phasing, respectively. A comparison between EIVC and LIVC on the influencing factors on the thermal efficiency at the partial load shows that EIVC leads to higher mechanical efficiency and less heat transfer loss than LIVC, and hence its efficiency improvement is superior over LIVC.
Technical Paper

Experimental Research on Mixture Distribution of Diesel Premixed Low-Temperature Combustion

2015-09-01
2015-01-1839
The diesel premixed low-temperature combustion mode avoids the generation of thick mixture and the high temperature region in which a great amount of NOx and PM generates. It makes a significant reduction in the emissions of both NOx and PM available at the same time. However, with the quantity of pre-injection increases and the injection time advances, the emission of HC increases significantly, which causes a decrease in the combustion efficiency. Studies have shown that the flame quench caused by too thick or too lean mixture and the oil film on the chamber is the main source for the emission of HC. As a result, understanding the mechanism of atomization and evaporation of the fuel and the formation of the mixture makes significant sense. This paper focuses on the mixture formation process. And the methods of testing the distribution of the mixture, the influential factors and control methods are studied.
Technical Paper

Suitability Study of n-Butanol for Enabling PCCI and HCCI and RCCI Combustion on a High Compression-ratio Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1816
This work investigates the suitability of n-butanol for enabling PCCI, HCCI, and RCCI combustion modes to achieve clean and efficient combustion on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) diesel engine. Systematic engine tests are conducted at low and medium engine loads (6∼8 bar IMEP) and at a medium engine speed of 1500 rpm. Test results indicate that n-butanol is more suitable than diesel to enable PCCI and HCCI combustion with the same engine hardware. However, the combustion phasing control for n-butanol is demanding due to the high combustion sensitivity to variations in engine operating conditions where engine safety concerns (e.g. excessive pressure rise rates) potentially arise. While EGR is the primary measure to control the combustion phasing of n-butanol HCCI, the timing control of n-butanol direct injection in PCCI provides an additional leverage to properly phase the n-butanol combustion.
Technical Paper

Effect of High Frequency Acoustic Field on Atomization Behavior of Ethanol and Kerosene

2017-10-08
2017-01-2318
Combustion instability often occurs inside the combustion chamber of aero engine. Fuel atomization and evaporation, one of the controlling processes of combustion rate, is an important mechanism of the combustion instability. To tackle combustion instability, it challenges a deep understanding of the underlying mechanism of fuel atomization and evaporation. In this paper, acoustic field was established to simulate the pressure oscillation. Transient spray images of ethanol and kerosene were recorded using high-speed camera. The obtained images were processed by MATLAB to extract and analyze the related data. Spatial fuel atomization characteristics was analytically examined by multi-threshold image method to analyze the effect of the high frequency acoustic field on the fuel break-up and disintegration. The results show that the half spray cone angle on the side with speaker is suppressed by the presence of the imposed acoustic field compared with the case without speaker.
Technical Paper

A New Rotating Wedge Clutch Actuation System

2017-10-08
2017-01-2441
Rotating clutches play an important role in automatic transmissions (AT), dual-clutch transmissions (DCT) and hybrid transmissions. It is very important to continually improve the transmission systems in the areas such as simplifying actuator designs, reducing cost and increasing controllability. A new concept of electrical motor driven actuation using a wedge mechanism, a wedge clutch, demonstrates potential benefits. This wedge clutch has the characteristics of good mechanical advantage, self-reinforcement, and faster and more precise controllability using electrical motor. In this paper, a new rotating wedge clutch is proposed. It presents a challenge since the motor actuator has to be stationary while the clutch piston is rotating. A new mechanism to connect the motor to the wedge piston, including dual-plane bearings and two mechanical ramp linkages, is studied. The design and verification of the physical structure of the actuator are discussed in detail in the paper.
Technical Paper

Tumble Vortex Characterization by Complex Moments

2018-04-03
2018-01-0207
Rotating flow inside an internal combustion engine cylinder is deliberately engineered for improved fuel-air mixing and combustion. The details of the rotating flow structure vary temporally over an engine cycle as well as cyclically at the same engine phase. Algorithms in the literature to identify these structural details of the rotating flow invariably focus on locating its center and, on occasion, measuring its rotational strength and spatial extent. In this paper, these flow structure parameters are evaluated by means of complex moments, which have been adapted from image (scalar field) recognition applications to two-dimensional flow pattern (vector field) analysis. Several additional detailed characteristics of the rotating flow pattern - the type and extent of its deviation from the ideal circular pattern, its rotational and reflectional symmetry (if exists), and thus its orientation - are also shown to be related to the first few low-order complex moments of the flow pattern.
Technical Paper

Effects of Spark Timing with Other Engine Operating Parameters on the Particulate Emissions of a Dualinjection Gasoline Engine During Warm-up Conditions

2019-12-19
2019-01-2214
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has been a mainstream technology due to its higher thermal efficiency and better power output. However, with increasingly stringent emission regulations introduced (EURO VI PN limits: 6 x l011#/km), high particulate matter (PM) emission of GDI engine has been a serious problem that limits its further development. Previous studies have found that cold-start and warm-up operation conditions play the dominant role in engine-out particulate emissions. In this paper, emission characteristics during the cold-start were first studied by controlling the coolant temperature. A Cambustion DMS500 fast particle spectrometer was employed to analyze the PM emissions. In order to reduce the engine-out emissions of cold-start, a dual injection system which combines port-fuel-injection (PFI) and direct-injection (DI) was applied in a four-cylinder gasoline engine.
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