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Overview of Southwest Research Institute Activities in Engine Technology R&D

2012-05-10
The worldwide drive to improved energy efficiency for engine systems is being supported by several engine R&D programs at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). This research includes large programs in major-market engine categories, such as heavy-duty, non-road, and light-duty; and includes diesel, gasoline, and alternative fuel aspects. This presentation describes several key diesel engine programs being pursued under the SwRI Clean High Efficiency Diesel Engine consortium (CHEDE-VI), whose goal is to demonstrate future diesel technology exceeding 50% brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, SwRI?s High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engines consortium (HEDGE-II), is reviewed, where advanced technology for ultra-high efficiency gasoline engines is being demonstrated. The HEDGE-II program is built upon dilute gasoline engine research, where brake thermal efficiencies in excess of 42% are being obtained for engines applicable to the light-duty market. Presenter Charles E.
Technical Paper

Emissions Reduction Performance of a Bimetallic Platinum/Cerium Fuel Borne Catalyst with Several Diesel Particulate Filters on Different Sulfur Fuels

2001-03-05
2001-01-0904
Results of engine bench tests on a 1998 heavy-duty diesel engine have confirmed the emissions reduction performance of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered platinum/cerium bimetallic fuel borne catalyst (FBC) used with several different catalyzed and uncatalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPF's). Performance was evaluated on both a 450ppm sulfur fuel (No.2 D) and a CARB 50ppm low sulfur diesel (LSD) fuel. Particulate emissions of less than 0.02g/bhp-hr were achieved on several combinations of FBC and uncatalyzed filters on 450ppm sulfur fuel while levels of 0.01g/bhp-hr were achieved for both catalyzed and uncatalyzed filters using the FBC with the low sulfur CARB fuel. Eight-mode steady state testing of one filter and FBC combination with engine timing changes produced a 20% nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction with particulates (PM) maintained at 0.01g/bhp-hr and no increase in measured fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Particle Size Distribution and Mass Emissions from a Mining Diesel Engine Equipped with a Dry System Technologies Emission Control System

2003-05-19
2003-01-1893
Particle size distribution, number, and mass emissions from the exhaust of a 92 kW 1999 Isuzu 6BG1 nonroad naturally aspirated diesel engine were measured. The engine exhaust was equipped with a Dry System Technologies® (DST) auxiliary emission control device that included an oxidation catalyst, a heat exchanger, and a disposable paper particulate filter. Particle measurement was taken during the ISO 8178 8-mode test for engine out and engine with the DST using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) in parallel to the standard filter method (SFM), specified in 40 CFR, Part 89. The DST efficiency of removing particles was about 99.9 percent based on particle number, 99.99 percent based on particle mass derived from number and size. However, the efficiency based on mass derived from the SFM was much lower on the order of 90 to 93 percent.
Technical Paper

Observation of Transient Oil Consumption with In-Cylinder Variables

1996-10-01
961910
Only a limited understanding of the oil consumption mechanism appears to exist, especially oil consumption under transient engine operating conditions. This is probably due to the difficulty in engine instrumentation for measuring not only oil consumption, but also for measuring the associated in-cylinder variables. Because of this difficulty, a relatively large number of experiments and tests are often necessary for the development of each engine design in order to achieve the target oil consumption that meets the requirements for particulate emissions standards, oil economy, and engine reliability and durability. Increased understanding and logical approaches are believed to be necessary in developing the oil-consumption reduction technology that effectively and efficiently accomplishes the tasks of low oil-consumption engine development.
Technical Paper

Lean Limit and Performance Improvements for a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

1996-10-01
961939
Development of a heavy-duty natural gas engine to improve its lean operating characteristics is detailed in this paper. Testing to determine the lean misfire limit is described, as well as investigations into the cause of lean misfire in this engine. Details of engine modifications to improve the lean misfire limit are also included. The development process resulted in a significant improvement in the lean performance of the engine (i.e., an extended lean misfire limit, better combustion stability, and lower hydrocarbon emissions).
Technical Paper

Development and Application of Advanced Control Techniques to Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engines

1996-10-01
961984
Advancements in natural gas engine control technology can result in natural gas engines which are more efficient, powerful, responsive, and durable than those currently available. The vast majority of hardware required to make these advancements exists or can be modified for application on natural gas engines. Given this, an investigation to develop and incorporate advanced natural gas engine control technology was completed. Advanced control techniques for equivalence ratio control, knock detection and control, misfire detection and control, and turbocharger transient surge supression are detailed in this paper. Control strategies were developed and applied to a heavy-duty on-highway natural gas engine using a personal computer-based prototyping control system. The engine control system advancements resulted in a natural gas engine with increased efficiency, power density, and response, along with reduced emissions over the current state-of-the-art in natural gas engines.
Technical Paper

U.S. Army Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Emissions Using JP-8 Fuels with Varying Sulfur Content

1996-10-01
961981
Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 weight percent (wt%) was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994 EPA certification low-sulfur diesel fuel (sulfur level equal to 0.035 wt%) in the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 1991 prototype Series 60 diesel engine and in the General Motors (GM) 6.2L diesel engine. Comparisons were made using the hot-start transient portion of the heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedure. Results from the Army study show that the gaseous emissions for the DDC Series 60 engine using kerosene-based JP-8 fuel are equivalent to values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA certification diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Contamination Sensitivity of Automotive Components

1997-02-24
970552
System contamination caused by contaminates or small particles built-in, self-generated, or inhaled from environment presents severe problems. The problems include but are not limited to the malfunctioning of valves, pumps, seals and injectors or lock-up of these components; increased wear of bearings, piston rings, and other friction components; and degradated machine performance. In general, system contamination changes a deterministic system into a stochastic system and shortens machinery service life. In this paper, these contamination problems are discussed in categories and associated analysis, testing and computer modeling methodologies are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Control and Cylinder-Event-Based Logic for an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle

1997-02-24
970531
Improvements in several areas are required to convert current technology light-duty vehicles into low-emissions vehicles suitable for meeting California's Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards. This paper discusses one of those areas, the engine and aftertreatment control system algorithms. The approach was to use model-based air and fuel flow calculations to maintain accurate air-fuel ratio control, and to interface the aftertreatment requirements with engine air-fuel ratio control during the cold- and hot-start parts of the cycle. This approach was applied to a 1993 Ford Taurus operating on Ed85 (85% denatured alcohol, 15% gasoline).
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) - Part II

1997-05-01
971636
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.). This R&D has resulted in a diesel fuel Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) that permits rapid and precise determination of the ignition quality of middle distillate and alternative fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. A preliminary investigation, reported in SAE paper 961182, has shown that the IQT results are highly correlated to the ASTM D-613 cetane number (CN). The objective of this paper is to report on efforts to further refine the original CN model and report on improvements to the IQT fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Performance of Different Cell Structure Converters A Total Systems Perspective

1998-10-19
982634
The objective of this effort was to develop an understanding of how different converter substrate cell structures impact tailpipe emissions and pressure drop from a total systems perspective. The cell structures studied were the following: The catalyst technologies utilized were a new technology palladium only catalyst in combination with a palladium/rhodium catalyst. A 4.0-liter, 1997 Jeep Cherokee with a modified calibration was chosen as the test platform for performing the FTP test. The experimental design focused on quantifying emissions performance as a function of converter volume for the different cell structures. The results from this study demonstrate that the 93 square cell/cm2 structure has superior performance versus the 62 square cell/cm2 structure and the 46 triangle cell/cm2 structure when the converter volumes were relatively small. However, as converter volume increases the emissions differences diminish.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Small Engine Equipped with an Electromagnetic Valve Actuation System

1998-08-11
981908
An electromagnetic valve actuation (EVA) system was developed and applied to a Kohler Command Series engine. Engine development and testing was conducted for the purpose of evaluating the performance of the EVA-equipped engine, running on natural gas, in an engine-test laboratory environment. As part of this effort, a personal computer-based engine control system, which managed the fueling, ignition, throttling, and intake/exhaust valve control functions, was developed. The evaluation included an investigation into increasing engine power output and full load efficiency, as well as increased part load efficiency. Techniques including optimized valve events as a function of operating condition, and throttleless operation using early and late intake valve closing are presented. Engine simulation results are compared with actual engine data and presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Modeling NOx Emissions from Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

1998-05-04
981389
A zero-dimensional cycle simulation model coupled with a chemical equilibrium model and a two-zone combustion model has been extended to predict nitric oxide formation and emissions from spark-ignited, lean-burn natural gas engines. It is demonstrated that using the extended Zeldovich mechanism alone, the NOx emissions from an 8.1-liter, 6-cylinder, natural gas engine were significantly under predicted. However, by combining the predicted NOx formation from both the extended Zeldovich thermal NO and the Fenimore prompt NO mechanisms, the NOx emissions were predicted with fair accuracy over a range of engine powers and lean-burn equivalence ratios. The effect of injection timing on NOx emissions was under predicted. Humidity effects on NOx formation were slightly under predicted in another engine, a 6.8-liter, 6-cylinder, natural gas engine. Engine power was well predicted in both engines, which is a prerequisite to accurate NOx predictions.
Technical Paper

A Study of Engine Sensitivity to Spark Plug Rim-Fire

1998-05-04
981453
A recent study of engine sensitivity revealed that spark plugs used in conventional spark-ignited gasoline-fueled engines do not always fire in the intended fashion. Rather than firing to the ground strap during each ignition event, the arc frequently travels to the “rim” or “shell” of the spark plug. This behavior is termed rim-fire and although observed by other researchers in industry, its effects on engine performance are not widely reported. This paper addresses some of the quantitative effects of rim-fire on engine performance. Combustion data were recorded for various repeat conditions on a Ford 1.8L Zetec engine. The first set of engine tests used four, new, conventional, automotive spark plugs. The second set of engine tests used four modified spark plugs that induced 100% rim-fire when the ground strap was permanently removed. The study focused on part- and full-load engine performance, EGR tolerance, and step-transient characteristics.
Technical Paper

Lower Explosion Limits and Compositions of Middle Distillate Fuel Vapors

1998-10-19
982485
Lower explosion limits (LEL) and the chemical compositions of JP-8, Jet A and JP-5 fuel vapors were determined in a sealed combustion vessel equipped with a spark igniter, a gas-sampling probe, and sensors to measure pressure rise and fuel temperature. Ignition was detected by pressure rise in the vessel. Pressure rises up to 60 psig were observed near the flash points of the test fuels. The fuel vapors in the vessel ignited from as much as 11°F below flash-point measurements. Detailed hydrocarbon speciation of the fuel vapors was performed using high-resolution gas chromatography. Over 300 hydrocarbons were detected in the vapors phase. The average molecular weight, hydrogen to carbon ratio, and LEL of the fuel vapors were determined from the concentration measurements. The jet fuel vapors had molecular weights ranging from 114 to 132, hydrogen to carbon ratios of approximately 1.93, and LELs comparable to pure hydrocarbons of similar molecular weight.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Minimally Processed Methanol in a Diesel Engine Without Ignition Assist

1994-03-01
940326
Mixtures of methanol, water and heavier alcohols, simulating “raw’ methanol at various levels of processing, were tested in a constant volume combustion apparatus (CVCA) and in a single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine. The ignition characteristics determined in the CVCA indicated that the heavier alcohols have beneficial effects on the auto-ignition quality of the fuels, as compared to pure methanol. Water, at up up to 10 percent by volume, has little effect on the ignition quality. In all cases, however, the cetane numbers of the alcohol mixtures were very low. The same fuels were tested in a single cylinder engine, set-up in a configuration similar to current two-valve DI engines, except that the compression ratio was increased to 19:1. Pure methanol and five different blends of alcohols and water were tested in the engine at five different speed-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation Measurements

1995-02-01
950069
A technique was demonstrated that can quantify the state of mixture preparation during the critical periods of ignition and very early flame development in a “production” spark-ignited engine. To determine the degree of stratification and vaporization two fast-response hydrocarbon (HC) probes were placed in a specially adapted spark plug. Data from the HC analyzer was correlated with cylinder pressure data to relate changes in mixture preparation to classic engine measures, such as indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Effects of Cetane Number, Aromatics, and Oxygenates on Emissions From a 1994 Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine With Exhaust Catalyst

1995-02-01
950250
A Coordinating Research Council sponsored test program was conducted to determine the effects of diesel fuel properties on emissions from two heavy-duty diesel engines designed to meet EPA emission requirements for 1994. Results for a prototype 1994 DDC Series 60 were reported in SAE Paper 941020. This paper reports the results from a prototype 1994 Navistar DTA-466 engine equipped with an exhaust catalyst. A set of ten fuels having specific variations in cetane number, aromatics, and oxygen were used to study effects of these fuel properties on emissions. Using glycol diether compounds as an oxygenated additive, selected diesel fuels were treated to obtain 2 and 4 mass percent oxygen. Cetane number was increased for selected fuels using a cetane improver. Emissions were measured during transient FTP operation of the Navistar engine tuned for a nominal 5 g/hp-hr NOx, then repeated using a 4 g/hp-hr NOx calibration.
Technical Paper

A Heavy-Fueled Engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

1995-02-01
950773
The growing usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for aerial surveillance and reconnaissance in military applications calls for lightweight, reliable powerplants that burn heavy distillate fuels. While mass-produced engines exist that provide adequate power-to-weight ratio in the low power class needed for UAVs, they all use a spark-ignited combustion system that requires high octane fuels. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has embarked upon an internal research effort to design and demonstrate an engine that will meet the requirements of high power density, power output compatible with small unmanned aircraft, heavy-fuel combustion, reliable, durable construction, and producible design. This effort has culminated in the successful construction and operation of a demonstrator engine.
Technical Paper

The Challenges of Developing an Energy, Emissions, and Fuel Economy Test Procedure for Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Transit Vehicles

1995-11-01
952610
Over twenty prototype hybrid buses and other commercial vehicles are currently being completed and deployed. These vehicles are primarily “series” hybrid vehicles which use electric motors for primary traction while internal combustion engines, or high-speed turbine engines connected to generators, supply some portion of the electric propulsion and battery recharge energy. Hybrid-electric vehicles have an electric energy storage system on board that influences the operation of the heat engine. The storage system design and level affect the vehicle emissions, electricity consumption, and fuel economy. Existing heavy-duty emissions test procedures require that the engine be tested over a transient cycle before it can be used in vehicles (over 26,000 lbs GVW). This paper describes current test procedures for assessing engine and vehicle emissions, and proposes techniques for evaluating engines used with hybrid-electric vehicle propulsion systems.
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